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The role of internal self-determination in peace building and poverty in South Sudan

©2021 Forschungsarbeit 18 Seiten

Zusammenfassung

Self-determination is a democratic political process in which citizens of a country determine their preferred form of statehood and government for their nation. The right to self-determination is a legal and political right for all people. Self-determination became prominent internationally during and after the First World War. It was also at the Centre of the international political agenda during the decolonisation period. From 1945 onwards, self-determination became an international principle after several international conventions defined the term and its use as a legal justification for creating new states in territories previously under colonial rule. The definition and implementation transformed the concept into a universally-recognised practice. Territories under colonial rule used this concept to seek independence, which led to the creation of more than eighty new states. The struggle of South Sudan for self-determination has a history longer than any other struggle in Africa. The struggle has roots in Sudan's pre-colonial, colonial, and post-colonial political events. Despite these roots, South Sudan sought secession due to fear of Northern domination and internal colonisation in post-independence Sudan and exclusion of Southerners from crucial constitutional discussions on Sudan's future based on the argument that the southerners did not have organised political parties. In seeking peace, South Sudan voted in the 2011 referendum to support internal self-determination by seceding from Sudan. Internal self-determination makes peacebuilding initiatives legitimate and sustainable. However, South Sudan experienced incidences of conflict after seceding from the North. The proposed research aims to determine the role that self-determination plays in peacebuilding initiatives and poverty in South Sudan.

Leseprobe

Table of Contents

Introduction

Literature Review
Overview
The historical context of internal self-determination
The peace process in South Sudan
Applying internal self-determination to peacebuilding initiatives
Roles of the international community
Conclusion

Methodology
Research question
Type of data to use
Methods
How the data and methodology will address the research question

Conclusion

References

Introduction

Self-determination is a democratic political process in which citizens of a country determine their preferred form of statehood and government for their nation. The right to self-determination is a legal and political right for all people. Self-determination became prominent internationally during and after the First World War. It was also at the Centre of the international political agenda during the decolonisation period. From 1945 onwards, self-determination became an international principle after several international conventions defined the term and its use as a legal justification for creating new states in territories previously under colonial rule (Kaya, 2020). The definition and implementation transformed the concept into a universally-recognised practice. Territories under colonial rule used this concept to seek independence, which led to the creation of more than eighty new states. The struggle of South Sudan for self-determination has a history longer than any other struggle in Africa. The struggle has roots in Sudan's pre-colonial, colonial, and post-colonial political events. Despite these roots, South Sudan sought secession due to fear of Northern domination and internal colonisation in post-independence Sudan and exclusion of Southerners from crucial constitutional discussions on Sudan's future based on the argument that the southerners did not have organised political parties (Troco, 2018). In seeking peace, South Sudan voted in the 2011 referendum to support internal self-determination by seceding from Sudan. Internal self-determination makes peacebuilding initiatives legitimate and sustainable. However, South Sudan experienced incidences of conflict after seceding from the North. The proposed research aims to determine the role that self-determination plays in peacebuilding initiatives and poverty in South Sudan.

Literature Review

Overview

Internal self-determination offers a legitimate framework upon which the UN provides sustainability and legitimacy to peacebuilding initiatives. The right to internal self-determination also offers clarity to the post-conflict reconstruction actors and the extent to which these actors should be involved in the peacebuilding practices. The concept of internal self-determination has become a commonly quoted model in peacebuilding literature (Demir, 2017). However, only a few studies have analyzed the role played by internal self-determination in peacebuilding and poverty for nations experiencing conflicts. Engaging local actors in peacebuilding processes is supported to varying extents by different scholars. The concept of self-determination provides a legal basis for understanding the relationship that exists between it and peacebuilding (Cornell, 2006). This section covers an in-depth literature review on the role of internal self-determination in peacebuilding using a case study of South Sudan.

The historical context of internal self-determination

From the 1970s, self-determination began to take shape in terms of historical myths, language, and unique culture of origin. This is what could be described as the right to internal self-determination, which is associated with the application and spirit of international human rights law on a continuous basis. This is different from the right to external self-determination, which relates to decolonisation. Demir (2017, p.22) describes internal self-determination as the first resort. According to the sovereignty and territorial integrity principles, the application of external self-determination is viewed as the last resort. This is the approach adopted by the UN (Ylonen, 2013). There are two aspects associated with internal self-determination, namely, economic and political. The political component of internal self-determination is anchored on the Friendly Relations Declaration (Laki, 1996). According to this declaration, states are viewed as governments that represent all people in the territory at stake. The right to internal self-determination mostly began shaping up after the decolonisation of the majority of African states. This could be described as the third phase of self-termination. It combined aspects of the first and second self-determination phases as it involved a group within a heterogeneous territory searching for self-rule (Olusola, 2013).

Moreover, internal self-determination focused on allegations of maltreatment and poverty or marginalisation of certain groups within countries. However, claims around the uniqueness of certain groups' cultural origin as the cause to seek internal self-determination could not guarantee this right. For this reason, nations and community groups began combining the concept of poverty or marginalisation as a form of colonisation by a state and cultural uniqueness to seek internal self-determination (Saeed, 2013). Consequently, internal self-determination presented a challenge to most regions across the world, especially African states, as it appeared to contradict the tenet of territorial integrity as outlined under the 1964 Organization of Africa (OAU) Cairo Resolution (Saeed, 2013). However, various states have challenged the Cairo resolution, including South Sudan and Eritrea, which unprecedentedly broke this principle. This led to internal self-determination from Sudan and Ethiopia, respectively.

The peace process in South Sudan

The conflict in South Sudan traces its origins to the colonial past. The conflict seeds were sown by Turko-Egyptian and Anglo-Egyptian rules that administered the North and South separately, resulting in several years of civil war between North and South Sudan (Birhanu & Ahadu, 2019). The conflict was between the Northern Government based in Khartoum and the Sudan People's Liberation Movement (SPLM) of the South.

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Details

Seiten
18
Jahr
2021
ISBN (PDF)
9783346734563
ISBN (Paperback)
9783346734570
Sprache
Englisch
Institution / Hochschule
Flinders University
Erscheinungsdatum
2022 (September)
Note
A
Schlagworte
The role of internalself-determination in peace building and poverty in South Sudan: Literature
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Titel: The role of internal self-determination in peace building and poverty in South Sudan