Low cost housing. Why do we need low cost houses, and how are they built?
LOW cost housing: innovations in construction
It is of the utmost significance to possess a home of one's own. Over the course of many years, the housing market has been subject to ongoing transformation 1. In addition, some improvements have been made. There are several housing developments currently under construction in a variety of nations across the, however it is unclear whether or not these initiatives will meet the requirements of low-income households 2. There will almost certainly be a number of home construction projects in the near future, but relatively few of them will be beneficial 3. Therefore, dwellings for a reasonable price are a pressing social need. Buildings that are accessible to individuals with lower incomes can be made more affordably through the construction of low-cost homes with the use of low-cost building materials 4. The utilisation of effective planning and project management, the utilisation of low-cost materials, economical construction technologies, and the utilisation of alternative construction methods that are available are all ways to accomplish the goal of low-cost housing 5. The profit that may be made by utilising such approaches can bring down the overall cost of construction, thereby making affordable housing available to more people 7. The use of alternative building materials that are available at a low cost helps to prevent an increase in construction costs that would otherwise be caused by the use of rare building materials, which would otherwise drive up the total cost of the project 8.
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Figure 1 Aspects of Low Cost Housing 1
Laurie Baker was a multi-award winning British-born Indian architect who lived from 1917 until her death in 2007. He was well-known for his groundbreaking work in energy-efficient and cost-effective design, as well as for the many ideas he contributed to the field of affordable housing 9.
Low-Cost Housing is a new era that focuses on efficient budgeting and the application of techniques that help in reducing the cost of construction through the use of locally available materials along with improved skills and technology 10. This new era is ushering in a new era that is characterised by an emphasis on Low-Cost Housing. This is achieved without reducing the structure's strength, performance, or lifespan in any way 11. If a household is able to purchase or rent a house for an amount that does not exceed a maximum of thirty percent of its annual income, then the housing unit in question can be regarded as affordable for the household. This applies to households with low and moderate incomes 12.
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Figure 2 Low Cost Housing 5
Only twenty percent of the population in emerging countries like India has high incomes, which means that only twenty percent of the population can afford regular housing units. In countries still on the path to economic growth, the segments of the population that have the lowest incomes are typically unable to enter the housing market 13. The idea of housing that is both affordable and functional is one that is relative and has more to do with financial planning. It makes an effort to reduce construction costs through enhanced management, the appropriate use of local resources, skills, and technology, but this is not done at the expense of the performance of the structure or its lifespan 14. It is important to emphasise that low-cost housing options are not synonymous with homes that are built using inexpensive building materials that are of inferior quality. A low cost house has the same foundation, structure, and strength as any other building when it comes to the design and construction of the house 15.
2. WHY DO WE NEED LOW COST HOUSES?
The following are key factors to consider 16:
- Growing population day by day
- Housing available on a low-income scale for BPL residents
- We require a solution that can be implemented quickly.
- Simple to put together.
- It is capable of meeting the requirements of traditional homes.
In the not too distant future, it is the goal of our nation to ensure that every person has a home in which he or she can raise a family, and in order to meet this requirement, we unquestionably require some immediate plans 17. The availability of housing that is both affordable and of sufficient quality becomes an issue of critical importance in developing countries because the majority of the population in these countries cannot afford houses at the current market price 18. This makes the availability of housing an issue of critical importance. As a consequence of this, it is now more the government's responsibility to meet the growing demand for affordable housing 19. Increased access to quality housing at prices that are affordable can have a number of positive effects on the economy, including increased tax generation, the creation of jobs, opportunities for economic development, increased job retention and productivity, and the ability to address inequality, to name just a few of these potential outcomes 20.
NECESSITY OF LOW COST HOUSES
1. To provide emergency housing to those who have lost their homes as a result of natural disasters such as floods, earthquakes, and so on, as well as to refugees 21.
2. to encourage a diverse offering of housing that caters to people with varying levels of financial means 22.
3. to improve housing options so as to cater to the various requirements of the community in order to foster community wellness 23.
4. to encourage housing that is both adaptable and accessible, so that it can meet the ever-evolving requirements of residents 24.
3. THE TRADITIONAL CONSTRUCTION METHODS
In this particular case study, we employ the more conventional approaches to building. The following is a rundown of the specific processes involved in each stage of the case study 25:
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Figure 3 Processes in building construction 11
1. The foundation is the lowest part of the structure and is provided so that loads can be distributed to the soil that is around it. This provides a base for the superstructure, which is the higher part of the structure. The process begins with excavation work, then continues with earth work in which available earth is filled in, and finally concludes with watering and compacting a layer that is 6 inches thick 26.
2. On top of the soil that has been excavated, a level surface can be produced by using plain cement concrete. This is accomplished with the use of the cement concrete. It is common practise to use a volumetric concrete mix proportion of 1:4:8 (cement: sand: aggregate) when constructing masonry foundations and column footings. In addition to that, a layer that is approximately 12 centimetres thick is applied. On top of the soil layers that have been excavated, the final touches of plain cement concrete are added, and the mixture is done by hand 27.
3. Masonry made of size stone is used for the foundation of the outer walls, and masonry made of burnt brick has a layer that is 9 inches thick for the main walls and a layer that is 4.5 inches thick for all of the internal walls. Both types of masonry are used in the construction of the walls. Bricks manufactured with a table mould of superior quality were used in the construction of the building 28.
4. Beam and slab made of reinforced cement concrete The conventional method for casting a reinforced cement concrete slab involves first making shuttering, then providing reinforcement, and finally concretizing the slab. Beam and slab made of reinforced cement concrete The use of formwork constructed of high-quality steel or plywood is required, and this formwork must include suitable cover blocks that are positioned between the bars. The aggregate has a size of three-quarters of an inch, and the sand that was used was clean as well. After it has been poured, the concrete is subsequently consolidated in the appropriate manner 29.
5. Plaster is applied to the walls of the structure, both on the inside and the outside. It is also applied to the ceiling. Prior to the application of the plaster, the joints are raked, and proper curing is maintained and monitored 30.
6. A concrete mixture with the proportions 1:4:8 is used to fill the ground appropriately and compact it in order to achieve the desired flooring (cement: sand: aggregate) 31.
7. In the plumbing, only high-quality materials are used, and before being put into service, each component must first pass a hydraulic test to be considered fit for use 32.
8. Painting and finishing: First, putty and primer are applied to the surface, and then ready-made paint is used to paint it. This is done in order to get the surface ready for painting 33.
4. LOW COST CONSTRUCTION TECHNOLOGIES
In addition to lowering construction costs by reducing the quantity of building materials used through improved and innovative techniques, it has been discovered that cost-effective and alternative construction technologies can also reduce the quantity of building materials required 34. These technologies can play a significant role in providing better housing methods and protecting the environment. It is essential to note that cost-effective building technologies do not compromise the safety and security of the structures they are used to construct, and for the most part, they adhere to the various building codes that are currently in effect 36.
The following is a rundown of the particular procedures that were utilised during each phase of the case study:
1. Arch foundations are utilised in the construction of buildings in which the walls are supported by masonry materials such as brick or stone. Arch foundations are also utilised in the construction of bridges 37.
2. During the process of constructing the foundation, buttresses can be built into the four corners of the structure using readily available materials such as brick or concrete blocks to provide resistance to the lateral forces that will be exerted on the structure 38.
3. This particular case study, Walling, makes use of a piece of technology that is known as rat trap bond. In contrast to the English Bond and the Flemish Bond, this method of laying bricks is referred to as the Flemish Bond. It is possible that less mortar will be required overall if there are fewer joints in the overall design 39. Because there is no need to plaster the exterior face of the wall, the wall is typically quite appealing to the eye, and the air gaps that are created within the wall contribute to the thermal comfort of the home 40. The temperature inside the house is typically at least 5 degrees lower than the temperature that is prevailing outside, but in the winter, the situation is reversed, and the temperature outside the house is typically at least 5 degrees higher than the temperature that is prevailing inside the house 41.
4. A filler slab roofing system is used, which is based on the principle that for roofs which are simply supported, the upper part of the slab is subjected to compressive forces and the lower part of the slab experiences tensile forces. This principle is used to explain why the upper part of the slab is subjected to compressive forces and the lower part of the slab is subjected to tensile forces 42. This is because the roof provides support for the upper portion of the slab, whereas the roof does not provide support for the lower portion of the slab. While concrete is excellent at withstanding the compressive forces that are applied to it, steel is used to bear loads that are caused by tensile forces 43. Steel is also used to bear loads that are caused by shear forces. Because of this, the portion of the slab that has a low tensile strength does not require any concrete, other than that which serves to hold the steel reinforcements together. This means that the portion of the slab that has a low tensile strength does not require any concrete 44.
5. Terracotta is sometimes used instead of tiles made of terracotta or colour oxides when the latter are used to construct flooring; however, terracotta can also be used. Bedding is typically made from bricks that have been dismantled and broken into smaller pieces 45. The preferences of the customer, in addition to other considerations such as the dimensions and shape of the tiles that are employed, are taken into account in the creation of the many distinct patterns and designs that can be implemented 46.
6. Plastering can be avoided on the walls, which reduces the necessity for frequent expenditures on finishes and also reduces the costs associated with its maintenance. Brick walls never lose their colour or finish if they are properly maintained and protected against the elements 47.
7. Considering that the frames of doors and windows account for almost half of the cost of the timber used, avoiding the use of frames can significantly reduce the cost of the timber used. This is due to the fact that frames are what hold the doors and windows in place 48. In order to make doors, door planks are first screwed together with strap iron hinges, and the resulting assembly is then able to be carried by a "holdfast" that is carried into the wall. It is possible to construct a door that is not only uncomplicated but also cost-effective by making use of battens that are either horizontal or diagonal in orientation to hold vertical planks together 49. The simplest form of a frameless window consists of a vertical plank that is approximately 9 inches wide and is set into two holes, one at the top and one at the bottom. This form of the window is called a sash. Because of this, a straightforward pivotal window is produced. Wide-span windows can either have rows of pivoting planks or a partial frame that is attached to the wall for support. Both of these options are common 50.
5. FUTURE SCOPE
In the not too distant future, the utilisation of housing materials that are not only reasonably priced but also aesthetically pleasing, environmentally responsible, and durable will be an essential component of any high-performance building. Steel, stone, brick, and cement are some of the more conventional building materials that are seeing increased demand as a result of the recent boom in the construction industry 51. Other materials, such as wood and plastic, are also seeing increased demand. As time goes on, there is a steady increase in the number of people looking for building materials, which drives up the price of those materials. As a result of this increase in demand, there is a shortage of building materials. Not only are the materials used in the construction of affordable housing less expensive, but they also contribute to the longevity of the structure. Therefore, it is beneficial for human beings to have housing that does not cost an excessive amount of money 52.
Because more thermal power plants are going to be commissioned by this year 2015 and onwards to meet the large demand for power and produce Fly ash and Blast furnce slag in more quantity as a by product, these methodologies with new alternative materials can be implemented in the near future. This is due to the fact that there are plans to construct additional thermal power plants. It is necessary to take the necessary steps in order to establish brick manufacturing units in order to produce fly ash based bricks using waste from plant operations. In order to accomplish this, it is necessary to take the necessary steps 53.
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