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New Developments in the Plant Protein Market for Pig Feeding

Studienarbeit 2010 58 Seiten




Directory of Tables

Directory of Figures

Directory of Abbreviations

1. Introduction

2. Pig feeding and the importance of protein for the result and profit in husbandry

3. Soybeans - Main supplier of protein in feed rations
3.1 Characterisation
3.2 Development on the feeding stuff market

4. Alternative protein plants
4.1 Coarse colza meal
4.1.1 Characterisation
4.1.2 Development on the feeding stuff market
4.2 Grain legumes: Field beans
4.2.1 Characterisation
4.2.2 Development on the feeding stuff market
4.3 Grain legumes: Lupines
4.3.1 Characterisation
4.3.2 Development on the feeding stuff market

5. Analysis
5.1 Feed value
5.1.1 Coarse colza meal
5.1.2 Field beans
5.1.3 Lupines
5.2 Application in feed mixes
5.2.1 Coarse colza meal
5.2.2 Field beans
5.2.3 Lupines
5.3 Comparison of costs
5.3.1 Coarse colza meal
5.3.2 Field beans
5.3.3 Lupines
5.4 Conclusion

6. Summary




Directory of Tables

Table 1: Feed mixes with soy grist for pig fattening

Table 2: Feed mixes with coarse colza meal for pig fattening

Table 3: Feed mixes with field beans for pig fattening

Table 4: Feed mixes with lupines for pig fattening

Directory of Figures

Figure 1: Cost distribution in pig fattening

Figure 2: Amount of essential amino acids in Ikilogramme of feeding stuff

Figure 3: Worldwide soy cultivation area

Figure 4: Development of soy grist prices at CBOT

Figure 5: Development of the usage of coarse colza meal in Germany

Figure 6: Development of the field bean production in Germany

Figure 7: Lupine cultivation area in Germany

Figure 8: Comparison of amino acids in 1 kilogramme of feeding stuff

Figure 9: Development of prices for soybeans at CBOT

Directory of Abbreviations

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

1. Introduction

The need for qualitative protein sources has steadily increased, beginning from the second half of the past century. Not only husbandry business and the food industry, but also biofuel-production depends more and more on certain protein plants, which are often very important suppliers of essential amino acids. In contrast to the increasing industrialisation and the develop­ment of the world population, protein plants turn out to be a vital base. Espe­cially rising incomes in developing countries cause a higher demand for pro­tein, as the economic growth will change eating habits. At this stage, wor­sened by the financial crisis, embargoes and a drop of protein plant produc­tion, there is a lack of high-quality protein. This affects highly the European region, which depends on imports from abroad. The current market situation, which is strained by high prices, as well as bans on soybean imports, puts pressure on oil mills and husbandry business. For that reason, alternative protein plants are claimed to substitute the most significant protein supplier: soy.

This term paper deals with the question New Developments in the Plant Pro­tein Market for pig feeding and has the aim to clarify the situation on the pro­tein market as soon as the development of protein crop cultivation. An impor­tant ingredient, beside the description of current trends in protein crop cultiva­tion and developments on the market at the beginning of this work, is an analysis of usage of certain alternative protein crops in pig feeding, concern­ing quality of protein and costs for feeding. The results of this analysis, ac­companied by the current development of alternative protein plants on the (inter-) national market, will be enhanced in an all embracing conclusion at the end, which allows precise and practical forecasts for the near future.

2. Pig feeding and the importance of protein for the result and profit in husbandry

With a view to the rapidly rising world population, which has increased from six billion to over eight billion in just 30 years, it can be expected that the amount of pork will rise in a similar way to ensure the demand of edibles. The mass of pork has tripled in the last 30 years, so that the output of worldwide meat processing is now over 100 million tons. Especially China is going to be an important producer, while the accession rate in the expansion of pork pro­duction in Europe and the USA is not so heavy. Today, China produces al­most 50% of the world’s pork. This shows that the centre of pig production has already switched to Asia. In considering of the development of feeding stuff, primarily protein will play an important role on the world market (Rhed- er 2010 page 124).

Companion animals like pigs depend on essential amino acids from plants. On the one hand these amino acids are vitally important for enzyme-, anti­body-, and hormone production, on the other hand they influence the growth of meat and consequently the live weight gain, the pork quality and the conti­nuance of pig fattening. The meat growing mainly depends on the feed intake of proteins. As cereal crops like barley or wheat are not very good sources of proteins, concerning quality and amount of protein, pig keepers are forced to use protein plants like soybeans to fulfill the biological valence[1]. For feed mixes in pig feeding it is important to maintain a certain sequence of lysine[2], methionine/cysteine[3], threonine[4] and tryptophan[5] to improve the above- mentioned performance of the animals and to prevent fatty degeneration of future carcass. This can be seen as an ideal composition of protein.

However, many crops show different praecaecal[6] digestibility of the certain amino acids. This is important to know, to adapt the amount of components in feed rations. An ideal composition of the above-mentioned single amino acids is aspired, which is in general for fattening pigs at 1:0.6:0.6:0.2 and should be adjusted to the energy content of the feed (Clausen 1959 cited in Jahn 2009).

With regard to figure 1, which is derived from the average costs in fattening from the business year 2008/2009 by Asse and Zacharias 2009, 37% of the total direct costs in the fattening, beside costs for piglets, vet, water/energy, feeding (30-40kg) and other, are costs for feeding from a live-weight of 40 to 115kg. Costs for feeding are on average at 46.50 Euro per fattening pig in this period, provided that costs for growth contribute 0.62 Euro per kilo­gramme (Knees and Mueller 2009 page 41 to 42).

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Source: Asse and Zacharias 2009

Figure1: Cost distribution in pig fattening

A big share of these costs is caused by the dedication of soybeans in rations, which cover more than 80% of the protein demand. Compared with wheat or barley, the price of soy is tripled. Additional, alternative suppliers of protein are in demand all over the world to reduce the high share of soy in feed mix­es (17-22%) and to adapt the feeding costs to the current revenues in pig fattening. This is very important to remain competitive on the international pork market (Stalljohann 2010).

This short introduction in pig feeding shows the importance of protein and makes clear, that it has a great effect in biological performance and also in success in pig fattening. The current situation on the protein market as well as the steadily rising soy prices of the last 30 years give a real impression about the importance of proteins in the agricultural sector.

3. Soybeans - Main supplier of protein in feed rations

3.1 Characterisation

The soybean originally comes from Asia, or more precisely from China, where it has been cultivated for over 5000 years. In botanical terms, the soy­bean is an annual Legume (Fabaceae)[7]. With the help of plant breeding, it is now an important protein crop which is scientifically known as: Glycine Max. Based on the outer appearance, the soybean is a bushy plant with un­branched stalks, which usually has a size of one metre. It produces yellow or brown haired husks, which are two to five centimetres long and contain five round seeds. Another important feature is the fact, that the beans have fully trained taproots with a length of more than 1.50 metres. The secondary roots offer enough space for a symbiotic relationship with the bacterium Rhizo- bium[8], enabling a fixation of a lot of atmospheric nitrogen for protein bonds. Because of that fact, Chinese farmers primarily used soybeans to add nitro­gen into the soil and to improve the crop rotation.

As soybeans depend on warm, mild climate with optimum growing conditions of 20°C to 30°C, they are predominantly cultivated on the American and Asian continent. According to the chemical composition of the seeds, which depends on sorts, the beans contain over 40% protein, 35% carbohydrates, 20% fat, mainly linolenic acid[9], and 5% ash. Besides these main nutrients, the beans incorporate a high level of important essential amino acids like ly­sine, methionine/cysteine, threonine and trypthophan, as well as necessary vitamins and a lot of metabolic energy, which are useful and important in hu­man and animal diet (Information Biowissenschaften 2008a).

Generally, the beans will be crushed for the extraction of the oil. On the one hand it boosts the character of a protein-supplier, on the other hand the soy­bean oil is an important additive in pig feeding, which supplies a lot of meta­bolic energy and which will also be used for biofuel-production. After crush­ing, the so called soy grist is usually heat-treated with hot steam (700-800°C) in certain toasting establishments.

This method has been found successful to reduce herbal substances like antinutritive ingredients[10] and to remove the extractor. Furthermore, it im­proves the biological valence, because the availability of several amino acids is higher by 30% after toasting.

The protein and energy content of soy grist range from 44-48% protein and 14-16 MJMEs on the current market. Important to know is the fact, that be­cause of the high shares of lysine, methionine/cysteine, threonine and trypto­phan, as they are presented in figure 2 in comparison to those of wheat, soy grist is helpful to appreciate the usual feed mixes with grain only, which show big deficits in the accommodation of essential amino acids (Granz et al. 2005 page 250 to 253).

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Source: Schone and Weist 2008 page five

Figure 2: Amount of essential amino acids in Ikilogramme of feeding stuff

3.2 Development on the feeding stuff market

With the increasing intensity in agriculture, mainly in husbandry, refiners like pig keepers depend on cheap and high-quality animal feed, with constant nutritional value. While at the beginning of the 20th century mainly the USA and China used soybeans as ingredient in feed rations for the expanding husbandry, the interest in this protein plant began enormously to grow from the second half of the 20th century. So, China and the USA subsidised their farmers to cultivate soybeans for their own markets. But after establishing abroad, the necessity of adequate protein suppliers achieved the European husbandry, too. With the agreement on tariffs between the EWG and the USA as well as the introduction of an intervention price for cereals, Europe changed from importer of grain to importer of protein crops. At this time, soy displaced cereals from feed rations, because of their higher nutritional value as well as the lower prices for soybeans. Depending on different harvesting times for soybeans in the northern and southern hemisphere, the price for soy usually varies under seasonal fluctuations. This means, that the harvest of the southern hemisphere affects the protein market in April, because har­vest time in Brazil or Argentina is in spring and normally a great amount of soy reaches the world market. The formation of prices is calculated at the commodity forward exchange in Chicago, CBOT. With a share of over 50% on the oil crop cultivation, the soybean is the most important product on the Exchange in Chicago. This makes clear that the real pricing is not based on supply and demand but rather on pure play (Lyssenkov 2005 page two and THE FOLLOWING).

Great soybean importers like China or the EU-27 depend on exports from Brazil and Argentina. Nowadays the USA, Brazil and Argentina produce more than 80% of the whole soy amount, numerical 169 million tons (2008/2009). 90% of all soybean exports and 60% of the world soy grist exports are caused by the three American nations (Agra Europe 2010a exchange and argument page two). The EU-27 has to import 25 million tons of soy grist and 15 million tons of soybeans, which will be converted to soy oil and soy grist (Information life science 2008b).


[1] Criterion for the quality of protein in feeding

[2] Affects meat-growing

[3] Affect milk-production

[4] Affects mucus-production

[5] Affects feed intake

[6] Forward the blind gut

[7] Belongs to the pea family

[8] Renowned for the fixation of atmospheric nitrogen

[9] Has a dietetic effect

[10] Often influence the health as well as enzyme functions in a negative way


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Soy Alternative Protein Plants Feed value Application Feeding costs




Titel: New Developments in the Plant Protein Market for Pig Feeding