The Implication of PEDP on School Administration, Teaching and Learning Process in Tanzania - Success and Challenges
The implementations of Primary Education Development Plan(PEDP) that articulates the vision of Universal Primary Education (UPE) in Tanzania primary education system is probably a most important pedagogical move, which requires a lot of resources to realize. The study aimed to investigate the implications of PEDP program on primary school administration and on teaching – learning process in public primary schools in Dodoma urban and Chamwino districts in Dodoma region. The sample of the study consisted of one hundred and twenty (120) head teachers. The teaching experience of the sample ranged between 1 and 35 years with the mean being 15 years. Both qualitative and quantitative approaches were employed in which interviews, structured questionnaires and documentary reviews were employed . It was found that although there were quantitative gains in terms of pupils’ enrolment, insufficient and quality resources were still adverse as a result head teachers suffers as far as school administration is concerned. This research article recommends that the government should empower head teachers in terms of leadership training as well as resources allocation as possible measure to facilitate teaching and learning.
Key words: Primary Education Development Program (PEDP), School administration, Teaching, Learning, Process .
The move to provide education opportunities to all school age going children was inspired by the United Nations Charter and Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UNO, 1948).The right to education adopted in the year 1948 states in Article 26 that education is a basic human right. This implies that each individual should have access to education at elementary and fundamental stages regardless of one’s background, sex, religion, or geographical location (UNESCO, 2002; URT, 2001a; UNESCO, 2000a).This move required all countries to implement among others, Universal Primary Education (UPE).
The introduction of UPE in the 1970s, aimed at providing basic education to all school age children which was also considered necessary for economic development and as mechanism for poverty reduction (UNESCO, 2002). In the year 2000s, Tanzania implemented the World Conference on Education For All (WCEFA) goals which were geared towards increasing equity, access and enrolment in primary education.
The Primary Education Development Plan (PEDP) was a five year (2002-2006) programme that articulated the vision of Universal Primary Education (UPE) within the wider Tanzania Policy, frameworks of the Education and Training Policy, the Education Sector Development Programme (ESDP), the Local Government Reform Programme (LGRP), the Poverty Reduction Strategy (PRSP) and the vision 2025. The plan translated the ESDP goals and the International Education For All (EFA) 2000 goals into feasible strategies and actions for the development of primary education.
In 2002 Tanzania embarked on the implementation of Primary Education Development Plan (PEDP) aiming at achieving Universal Primary Education by 2011 and improving the quality of education provided in primary schools. Under this program a number of projects were established, each with specific objectives that will contribute to the achievement of the aims of education for all school age children and the provision of quality education. Example of such projects included, the change in primary school curriculum by introducing social sciences instead of compartmentalized subjects of geography, history and civics at primary school level and the introduction of vocational skills as a subject in primary schools; building more classrooms in the existing schools and constructing new schools in places that had none, provision of furniture; giving each school a capitation grant so that it can meet specific learning needs, improving the quality and quantity of teaching and learning materials in schools(Babyegea, 2003; URT,2007).
However, UNESCO,(2005) pointed out that, although enrolment rate is high in most regions, the quality of teaching and learning has been suffering .Education for All is all very well, but good quality education for all is another story. The expansion has suffered because schooling alone has been extended, neglecting the enhancement of school administration as well as effective teaching and learning process. Because less have been implemented in regard to the PEDP,most primary school system in Dodoma urban and Chamwino districts have shown inability to provide an environment conducive for effective teaching and learning as well as school administrations ( Mlaki,2007).
The main purpose of this study was to examine the implications of PEDP program to primary school administration and the teaching – learning process. The specific objectives of the study were:
- To investigate the achievements gained in the implementations of PEDP phase 1 in public schools in Dodoma urban and Chamwino districts,
- To determine the challenges of the PEDP program in phase 1 in public school in Dodoma urban and Chamwino districts,
- To identify strategies which the government can apply in facilitating the program in public schools in Dodoma urban and Chamwino districts.
The sample of the study consisted of one hundred and twenty (120) head teachers. The teaching experience of the sample ranged between 1 and 35 years with the mean being 15 years. This study employed both quantitative and qualitative research paradigms since each one was seen to complement one another in order to make the data valid and reliable. Data were obtained through semi structured interviews, structured questionnaire and documentary review as a triangulation approach. Interviews provided deeper understanding on the achievements gained in the implementations of PEDP phase 1 in public schools and the challenges that the school head teachers face during the implementation of the plan. Documentary analysis was used to gather data regarding availability of resources. Further to this, the quantitative part employed a structured questionnaire in order to get information on the extent of the problem in execution of the program in their respective schools.
Qualitative data from interview were subjected to thematic analysis in which common themes and patterns were identified. Individual comments were also included as a way of illustrating the variety of respondents’ views. Quantitative data from questionnaires were subjected to descriptive analysis.
Presentation of the findings by research questions,
Research question One: What are the major achievements gained in the implementation of PEDP phase 1 in public schools in Dodoma urban and Chamwino districts?
Fig. 1: Enrolment Trend in Selected Schools
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Source: Field Data (2009)
From the figure above it showa that enrolment trend was the highest in Nkuhungu and mbwa barabarani followed by Makulu and Dodoma mlimani primary schools between 2001-2004.On the other hand it showed the lowest record in Kawawa, Lusinde, Kalembo, Segala, Magulo Mwititira and Malechela between 2000-2001 respectively.
Research question Two : What are the major challenges of the PEDP program in phase 1 in public primary schools in Dodoma urban and Chamwino districts?
Indicated in the table below are some of the major challenges of PEDP.
Table 1: Frequencies and Means for Responses on the challenges of the PEDP by Location of Schools
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Table 1 indicates that in the context of Chamwino (rural) public primary schools, majority of them were reported under the agree category (12 statements) and strongly agree category(2). None of them fell under the disagree, not sure or strongly disagree categories. In case of the urban setting, it is evident that majority of them fell under the agree and strongly agree (13), and only one was reported under the not sure category (1 statement)