Appraisal of Staff Training and Development on Job Performance in Federal Radio Corporation of Nigeria (FRCN) Ibadan, Oyo State
This was necessitated by the need to ensure quality training and development on job performance in FRCN.
Both primary and secondary sources of data were used. The Primary data are questionnaire and interview method.The sources of data were textbooks, journals, internet sources etc. Purposive sampling was adopted. This is to ensure that the target population FRCN Ibadan have equal chance of being selected and sampled.The term paper revealed that the training and development mechanism that exist in FRCN Ibadan is not an exclusive function of its Director of Administration but other heads of various departments must give consent to it.The paper conclude that scale of salaries of employees should be reviewed as it will improve their job performance, suitable and effective evaluation system should be designed to ensure that there is prompt and effective monitoring of progress by the management and that trainee should be revisted for assessment on how effective the program attended,has enhanced his/her performance.
The term paper appraised staff training and development on job performance in Federal Radio Corporation of Nigeria (FRCN) Ibadan, Oyo State. It identified the training and development mechanism in FRCN, examined the adequacy of staff training and manpower development in FRCN Ibadan and assessed the effect of training and development on staff performance in FRCN Ibadan.
This was necessitated by the need to ensure quality training and development on job performance in FRCN.
Both primary and secondary sources of data were used. The Primary data are questionnaire and interview method. The sources of data were textbooks, journals, internet sources etc. Purposive sampling was adopted. This is to ensure that the target population FRCN Ibadan have equal chance of being selected and sampled.The term paper revealed that the training and development mechanism that exist in FRCN Ibadan is not an exclusive function of its Director of Administration but other heads of various departments must give consent to it.The paper conclude that scale of salaries of employees should be reviewed as it will improve their job performance, suitable and effective evaluation system should be designed to ensure that there is prompt and effective monitoring of progress by the management and that trainee should be revisted for assessment on how effective the program attended, has enhanced his/her performance.
1.1 Background to the Study
Training and development is the framework for helping employees to develop their personal and organizational skills, knowledge and abilities. The focus of all aspects of human resources development is on developing the most superior workforce so that the organization and individual employees can accomplish their work goals in service to customers.
All employees want to be valuable and remain competitive in the labour market at all times. This can only be achieved through employee training and development. Employees will always want to develop career-enhancing skills, which will always lead to employee motivation and retention. There is no doubt that a well trained and developed staff will be a valuable asset to the company and thereby increase the chances of his/her efficiency in discharging his or her duties.
Employers of labour should enable employees to pursue training and development in a direction that they choose and are interested in, not just in-company assigned directions. Companies, organizations, media houses should support learning in general and not just in support of knowledge needed for the employee’s current or next anticipated job. It should be noted that the key factor is keeping the employee interested, attending, engaged, motivated and retained.
For every employee to perform well especially supervisors and managers, there is need for constant training and development. The right employee training, development and education provides big payoffs for the employer in increased productivity, knowledge, loyalty and contribution to general growth of the firm.
By providing employees with the opportunity to improve themselves, specific training and development programmes help to reduce the number of dead-end jobs in an agency. Reducing the number of such jobs and providing opportunity for advancement can, in many instances, increase motivation. Training helps prepare employees for jobs that are unique to the public sector. As government continues to serve as the channel of technological progress and the champion of social progress, the number of these unique jobs will very likely increase.
For these reasons, then, managers should not prejudge training programmes as time-consuming. On the contrary, they should look to their agency’s employee-development branch as a key ally in their own tasks of employee motivation and programme management.
They should also be aware of the types of training programmes available. The orientation programme is perhaps the most elementary but it is not unimportant. When well conceived, an orientation programme can make employees more productive more quickly.
The mass media, (the industry which Federal Radio Corporation of Nigeria (FRCN) belongs to) is the specialized agency through which information; entertainment and propaganda are transmitted to an audience over a vast area. It plays a crucial role in fostering and promoting a particular direction for social development. In Nigeria, the media consists of the newspaper press, as well as the radio and television stations. The radio is used mainly to inform people about the latest events and developments within their societies and in the outside world. In terms of availability, the radio is relatively cheap and generally within the reach of both rural and urban dwellers. It is also used to give simple health, economic and political education, all of which are to aid development. The mass media therefore is not left out in the act of effectively training its staff in order to achieve the organizational goals and objectives.
Internal training involves when training is organized in-house by the human resources department or training department using either a senior staff or any talented staff in the particular department as a resource person. On the other hand, external training is normally arranged outside the organization and is mostly organized by training institutes or consultants.
External training is the type of training that exists in the Federal Radio Corporation of Nigeria (FRCN). The FRCN training school in Lagos is solely in charge of the training of the staff. The FRCN is the pioneer broadcasting organization in Nigeria with a rich culture of excellence. The Corporation has evolved through different stages to become what it is today - the largest radio network in Africa.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Today, the FRCN is a public service broadcaster with its headquarters in Abuja. It has national stations in Enugu, Ibadan, Kaduna and Gwagwalada (FCT) plus a Lagos Operations Office. These national stations and the operations office control all the thirty(30) plus FRCN FM/MW/SW stations spread across the country reaching more than 100 million listeners, uplifting the people and uniting the nation. However, with such a wide coverage of listeners and the day-to-day efforts of the staff to reach them, certain things are still lacking.
Training for the staff is still not as regular as what it should actually be. There are still many staff who are not very well composed in the presentation of radio programmes - their pronunciations, accent and intonation are incorrect. Most of all, in terms of radio broadcasting the staff have not met up to international standard. In view of this, the study intends to engage in the assessment of training and development in FRCN Ibadan on job performance.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The objectives of this study are to
(i) identify the training and development mechanism in place in Federal Radio Corporation of Nigeria, Ibadan;
(ii) examine the adequacy of staff training and manpower development in FRCN, Ibadan;
(iii) assess the effect of training and development on staff performance in FRCN, Ibadan; and
(iv) assess the mode of selection of staff for training per time.
1.4 Research Questions
i) What is the training and development mechanism in place in Federal Radio Corporation of Nigeria, Ibadan?
ii) Is there adequate staff training and manpower development in FRCN, Ibadan?
iii) What is the effect of training and development on staff job performance in FRCN, Ibadan?
iv) How are the staff selected for training per time?
1.5 Significance of the Study
The whole essence of this study is to bring to fore the following:
- Training in FRCN is off-the-job that is; the training is done by a special directorate referred to as the Training School.
- It is only 2 members of staff that are sent from each department no matter the staff strength.
- Training takes place only twice a year and the school has a timetable with various courses, which the staff can choose from.
- The trainers have the dilemma of balancing between the talented and the educated. By this, we mean that some of the staff have radio voices but are not educated while for some others, it is vice versa.
Having mentioned all these, this work deems it fit to look into the quality of staff and how their job performance has improved or not based on the training session especially at this critical period of democracy in Nigeria. There is no gainsay that the workers in media houses - whether journalists or administrative staff - have a lot to do in providing independent and impartial broadcasting services in every Nigerian home.
Therefore, delving into the essence of training and development on the job performance of these staff is very timely.
The study attempts to assess the benefits of training and development to the staff of FRCN (Radio Nigeria), Ibadan. It will also highlight the challenges of training and manpower development facing the staff of FRCN, Ibadan. It is hoped that this study could be of immense relevance to any other media organization especially in the area of training their staff.
1.6 Scope and Limitation of the Study
The study centers on the staff of Radio Nigeria Ibadan who have at one time or the other been a part of the training conducted by the FRCN training school. This study is limited to FRCN Ibadan because it cannot cover all the national stations across Nigeria.
It is a national station with a considerable staff strength that could facilitate adequate reliability and validity of the study. Moreover, accessibility and/or availability of data to the researcher coupled with time and financial constraints can limit the scope.
1.7 Definition of Terms
Training – It refers to the systematic development of the knowledge, skills and attitudes required by a staff member to perform adequately on a given job task.
Development – This refers to both the training and the education of an organization’s staff as well as the overall career development of each staff member.
Job Performance – This is a formal and systematic assessment of an employee’s performance in a prescribed manner at a given time. It is used for wage determination, determination of training needs and motivation.
Knowledge – This refers to what the individual or employee needs to know; this includes theories and practical knowledge such as mode of operating a machine or the dynamics of a particular procedure.
Skills – It refers to what the individual needs to be able to perform a task. Skills have to do with know how; it endows ability in an individual. Knowledge is transmitted into skills by practical training in which the employee is actively involved and enhanced by repeated training.
Attitude – This is the disposition or behavior that is normally associated with a particular job. The amount of knowledge and skills possessed by an employee determines to a large extent his attitude to work.
This chapter presents a review of relevant literature on training and development. It focuses on the concept of training and development, designing training and development programmes and job performance.
2.2 Historical Background of Federal Radio Corporation of Nigeria, Ibadan.
The Federal Radio Corporation of Nigeria is the pioneer broadcast organization in Nigeria with a rich culture of excellence. The corporation has evolved through different stages to become what it is today - the largest radio network in Africa. Available records reveal that Radio broadcasting was introduced into Nigeria in 1933 by the then colonial government. It relayed the overseas service of the British Broadcasting Corporation through a wired system with loudspeakers at the listening end. The service was called Radio Diffusion System, (RDS).
From the RDS emerged the Nigeria Broadcasting Service, (NBS) in April 1950. Prior to the NBS, the colonial government had commissioned the Nigeria Broadcasting Survey undertaken by Messrs Byron and Turner which recommended the establishment of stations in Lagos, Kaduna, Enugu, Ibadan and Kano. Mr. T.W. Chalmers, a Briton and controller of the BBC Light Entertainment Programme was the first Director – General of the NBS.
The Nigeria Broadcasting Corporation, (NBC) came into being in April 1957 through an Act of Parliament Number 39 of 1956. The Director General was Mr. J.A.C Knott OBE.
In 1978, the Nigerian Broadcasting Corporation was re-organized to become the Federal Radio Corporation of Nigeria, FRCN. The NBC was instructed to handover its stations that broadcast on medium wave frequencies in the states to the state governments and it took over short wave transmitters from the states. The Broadcasting Corporation of Northern Nigeria (BCNN) was merged with the NBC stations in Lagos, Ibadan and Enugu to become the present day FRCN. The Reverend Victor Badejo was the first indigenous Director – General of Radio Nigeria.
Today, the FRCN as public service broadcaster with its headquarters in Abuja has national stations in Enugu, Ibadan, Kaduna and Gwagwalada FCT plus a Lagos Operations Office. These national stations and the Lagos Operations office control all the 30 plus FRCN FM/MW/SW stations spread across the country reaching more than 100 million listeners, uplifting the people and uniting the nation.
2.2.1 Establishment of the Corporation
Under Decree Number 8 of 1st April 1978 and Amendment Decree 1988, a body to be known as the Federal Radio Corporation of Nigeria was established. Under this Act, the body shall be one corporation with perpetual succession seal and common seal which may sue and be sued its corporate name.
The Corporation (at the federal level) consists of a Chairman, Director-general, one representative of the Federal Ministry of Information, one representative of the ministry of foreign affairs, one person to represent women’s interest in Nigeria, six persons with requisite experience in mass media; education; management; engineering; financial matters; arts and culture.
The Director-General is an official of the Corporation who is the chief executive officer of the Corporation. Under the Act of Establishment, he is responsible for the execution of the policy of the corporation and its day to day business. The Director is appointed by the Minister of Information with prior approval of the President.
The Secretary of the Corporation keeps records and conducts the correspondence of the Corporation as directed by the Director from time to time. The Corporation appoints other employees and agents as it deems fit for the efficient performance of the functions of the Corporation.
2.2.2 Functions of the Corporation
General Duties of the Corporation
It is the duty of the Corporation to provide as public service in the interest of Nigeria, independent and impartial radio broadcasting services for general reception within Nigeria and to provide external services for general reception in countries outside Nigeria.
The Corporation ensures that the services which it provides when considered as a whole shall reflect the unity of Nigeria as a federation and at the same time give adequate expression to the culture characteristics, and affairs and opinions of each state or other parts of the Federation.
Particular functions of the Corporation
- To erect, maintain and operate a radio transmitting and receiving station;
- To install and operate wired radio distribution services;
- To enter into arrangements with the Federal or a State Government or any other public body for the purpose of obtaining licenses, rights, privileges and concessions;
- To plan, regulate and coordinate the activities of all the stations and the entire Federal Radio broadcasting System;
- To ensure the establishment and maintenance of high standards and promote the efficient operation of the entire Corporation in accordance with national policy;
- To organize, provide and subsidize for the purpose of broadcasting, educational activities and public entertainment;
- To collect from any part of the world and in any manner that may be thought fit, news and information;
- To produce, manufacture, purchase or otherwise acquire gramophone and other mechanical records and tapes and to use them in conjunction with broadcasting services or any commercial venture whatsoever;
- To provide facilities for training and advancing the skills of persons employed in its services and for enhancing the efficiency of the equipment used in its services including provision by the Corporation or by others on its behalf of facilities for training, education and research; and
- To carry out such other activities as are necessary or expedient for the full discharge of all or any of the functions conferred on it under or pursuant to this Act.