A B S T R A C T
Sapahi river is a very small tributary of river Swarnrekha river system. It’s just 15 km far away from main capital and functional region of Ranchi. In the lower portion of river Sapahi, Rukka dam is major water reservoir for water supply in Ranchi capital. The case study considered as try to prove river’s natural behavior. Thus it is a macro level field based research, there is very less possibility to acquire micro level field data. River rises from the up land of the northwest, area characterized by rocky explore and mainly forest with Sal. In monsoon season, river gives huge water mass, where as in winter it converts in a small stream. River deposits alluvial materials each year in maximum fluvial year. River morphometry and their related characteristics such as channel morphometry, drainage density and basin configuration are try to represent through different data and real environment calculation.
This paper is considered to explore some specific characteristics of very small river system, that how Sapahi river system behaving with their surface configuration.
KEYWORDS: Bifurcation ratio, Lithological, Hypsometric Curves , Channel Geometry, Clinographic , Thalwag.
A three-tier approach comprising image interpretation, intensive field survey and laboratory investigation as cartography and printing adopted. Image interpretation comprises data derivation from map analysis, map work, computation from topographical maps and satellite imageries pertaining to deferent component of settlement. Research also used Geospatial techniques for the landform analysis and various geographic changes.
In the last for empirical analysis on the spot verification on examination of fact dealing in surface configuration and river behavior taken as consideration through field observation and Photography.
The main hypothesis is following types which I considered for testing:
- Charging and Discharge of Sapahi river basin differs in different seasons.
- Degradational behavior of Sapahi river basin is based on the Lithological characteristics.
- Basin morphometry depends on the configuration of surface and runoff characteristics.
Sapahi River is a very small drainage unit; 13.8 km long and almost few km in width. It is a tributary of Subarnrekha river which rises from the up land of the northwest on the area characterized with rocky explore and mainly forest with Sal. Jirabar is a major tributary of Sapahi in initial stage, which joins near Jirabar village. Sapahi river joins with Subarnrekha (Rukka Dam) near Rukka village. The pattern of the drainage looks like dendritic. The general slope of the basin towards north-northwest to south-south-eastward. Through empirical observation, fully Granite and Gneisses characterize the river; underlying rocks are hard. From upper course to lower valley the river serves number of villages, which settled, beside the bank. During rainy season it appears with huge amount of water.
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1.1 LOCATION OF THE STUDY AREA
The study area is located in Chottanagpur plateau region just 15 km far away from Ranchi main capital region. Problem selected i.e. the status of Sapahi river and their feeding capacity for living population in the valley, with special reference to resource evaluation – a macro-level study of the river Sapahi. Sapahi river basin is lying over Chottanagpur plateau of Jharkhand, especially say Ranchi Plateau. It has formation of consultation of molten magma since the Achaean period. The whole plateau is dominated by the rocks of granite and gneiss.
1.2 MORPHOMETRIC ANALYSIS
Morphometric concept refers to the real configuration of the earth surface. How the relief is is showing by our eyes. What are their 3D feature and their other things (Physical and Cultural)? The basin morphometry includes the analysis of the characteristics of linear, areal and relief aspects of fluvial originated drainage basin.
1.3 LINEAR ASPECTS OF THE BASIN
It includes channel patterns of the drainage network wherein the topological characteristics of the stream segments in terms of open links of the network system (streams) are analyzed.
1.3.1 STREAM ORDERING
According to Horton ordering of stream begins from the finger-tip tributaries, which do not have their own feeders; rather they are independent in terms of supply of water. Such finger-tip streams are designated as 1st order streams. Two streams of first order, when join together form 2nd order stream. Similarly, two streams of 2nd order meet to make the stream of 3rd order and this process continues till the trunk stream is given the highest order. In Sapahi river basin there are nineteen 1st order stream, four 2nd order and only one 3rd order streams.