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Why is Compressed Natural Gas not successful in Austria?

Bachelorarbeit 2012 76 Seiten

BWL - Sonstiges


I Content

I Declaration of authorship

III List of abbreviations

IV List of figures

V List of Tables

VI Summary

1 Introduction.
1.1 Motivation
1.2 Methodology
1.3 Organization of thesis

2 Review of Literature
2.1 Definition of CNG
2.2 Characteristics
2.3 Refueling system
2.4 Natural Gas Vehicles (NGV)

3 Primary Research
3.1.1 Data
3.1.2 Purchase Price
3.1.3 Subsidies
3.1.4 Insurance Costs
3.1.5 Inspection Costs
3.1.6 Refueling costs
3.1.7 Opportunity Costs
3.2 Analysis
3.2.1 Scenarios
3.2.2 Example
3.2.3 Main results

4 Conclusion
4.1 Answering the research question
4.2 Limitations
4.3 Further Research

VII List of literature

VIII Appendix

II List of abbreviations

illustration not visible in this excerpt

III List of figures

Figure 1: GHG emissions of different fossil fuels

Figure 2: Difference in opportunity costs

Figure 3: Calculation IRR, Opel Zafira Tourer, diesel-CNG, 10,000 km, big city

Figure 4: Profitability depending on kilometers

Figure 5: Profitability depending on holding time

Figure 6: Profitability depending on infrastructure

Figure 7: Profitability after six years

IV List of Tables

Table 1: Formula for calculating the NOVA

Table 2: Purchase prices (incl. NOVA, Bonus-Malus and VAT)

Table 3: Difference in purchase price

Table 4: Difference in subsidies

Table 5: Annual insurance Costs

Table 6: Difference in insurance costs

Table 7: Difference in inspection costs

Table 8: Difference in refueling costs

Table 9: Scenarios

V Summary

As transportation causes the biggest part of greenhouse gas emissions, there is a global need to reduce carbon emissions especially of passenger cars. Due to certain specialists, one possible alternative to reduce car emissions would be to switch from gasoline or diesel to Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) vehicles. They are environmentally friendly and the technology is even ready.

In Austria, CNG cars were introduced in 1992. Nevertheless, the demand of CNG cars is decreasing, its market share is not as high as predicted and lower than in some other countries, like for example Italy. All these indications must have its reasons and leads to the research question: Why is CNG not sucessful in Austria?

One hypothesis, which will be analyzed within this research, is that CNG cars are not profitable compared to its main competitors gasoline and diesel. In order to measure the profitablily of CNG cars, the Internal Rate of Return (IRR) of the investment will be calculated and compared to the project’s cost of capital.

However, calculations show that under certain circumstances CNG is profitable and under different criteria it is not. Consequently, it could be said that in some cases CNG is not successful in Austria because there is a lack of profitability. Nevertheless, there must definitely be some other reasons, too.

Da Verkehr und vor allem Personenkraftwagen (Pkws) zu den größten Umweltverschmutzern weltweit gehören, wird der globale Druck, die Emissionswerte von Pkws zu verringern, immer größer. Eine Möglichkeit Umweltabgase zu reduzieren, sei laut Experten der Umstieg von diesel- und benzinbetriebenen Fahrzeugen auf Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) Vehikel. Diese sind einerseits umweltfreundlicher als Benzin- und Diesel-Autos und andererseits ist die benötigte Technologie bereits gegeben.

In Österreich wurden 1992 die ersten CNG Autos eingeführt; doch ihr Erfolg blieb aus. Die Nachfrage nach CNG Autos sank in den vergangenen Jahren stetig, der Marktanteil liegt weit unter den vorhergesagten Werten und unter dem manch anderer Länder wie beispielsweise Italien. Da diese Negativentwicklung Gründe haben muss, beschäftigt sich diese Arbeit mit der Fragestellung: „Warum ist Compressed Natural Gas nicht erfolgreich in Österreich?”

Eine mögliche These, die im Rahmen die Forschungsarbeit analysiert wird, ist, dass CNG im Vergleich zu seinen Hauptkonkurrenten Benzin und Diesel nicht profitable ist.

Die Profitabilität von CNG im Vergleich zu Benzin und Diesel wird in dieser Arbeit mit Hilfe der Internen Zinssatz Methode gemessen. Berechnungen haben ergeben, dass die Profitabilität von CNG von verschiedenen Kriterien beeinflusst wird und in diversen Situationen variiert. Folglich kann man sagen, dass CNG in Österreich unter bestimmten Situationen nicht erfolgreich ist, da es im Vergleich zu Diesel und Benzin nicht profitable ist. Da jedoch keine definite Aussage getroffen werden kann, muss es noch weitere Ursachen für CNGs rückläufige Nachfrage und geringen Marktanteil geben.

1 Introduction

1.1 Motivation

In 2008 transportation caused 26.1% of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in Austria. Thus, transportation is after the manufacturing industry, causing 30.5% of all emissions, the second largest polluter of GHG emissions in Austria.[1] Within the transportation sector the main polluter are cars. They pollute, according to a study conducted by the Verkehrsclub Österreich (VCÖ), 53% of all transport-related CO2 emissions.[2]

In order to reduce the negative impacts of transportation on humans and the nature, there is an increasing pressure from the European Union (EU) to reduce GHG. Particularly car manufacturers are required to reduce the emission level of all their newly manufactured cars. The regulation No. 443/2009 of the European Parliament and the Council of 23 April, 2009 setting emission performance standards for new passenger cars as part of the Community's integrated approach to reduce CO2 emissions from light-duty vehicles determines that till 2015 each newly manufactured car in the EU has to top the limit value of 130 gram (g) CO2 equivalents per kilometer (km). The long-term target of this regulation is to reach 95 g CO2 equivalents per km from 2020 onwards.[3] In 2010 the average value of the CO2 emissions of newly manufactured cars was 144 g/km[4]. So, there is a need to reduce CO2 emissions by 14 g/km until 2015.

One alternative to reduce emissions and reach the EU target is to optimize diesel or gasoline cars or to switch from diesel and gasoline driven cars to alternative ones.

Due to Prof. Dr. Ferdinand Dudenhöffer, automotive expert at the University of Duisburg / Essen, Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) as an automotive fuel would be an appropriate solution. In his study CNG as automotive fuel for Europe/CEE: Is it possible to achieve 5%+x market share for CNG? Necessary steps and actions to achieve? Dudenhöffer comes to the result that a market share of 5%+x of CNG in Europe can be achieved until 2025.[5] As a reason to believe, he highlights on the one hand the ecological advantages compared to diesel or gasoline and on the other hand the economic advantages compared to other alternative drives like electricity or hybrid.[6] As CNG cars emit on average only 124 g/km CO2 equivalents[7], they pollute about 20 g/km less than diesel or gasoline and 6 g/km less than the EU target for 2015 prescribes. Additionally, technology is mature and production costs of CNG cars are lower than those for alternative driven cars like E-cars or hybrid-cars.[8] These arguments lead Dudenhöffer to the assumption that CNG cars are an appropriate mid-term alternative to diesel and gasoline and could capture a market share of 1.6% in 2015, 3.7% in 2020 and 5.5% in 2025. Precondition is the commitment of all stakeholders, including the car manufacturers, oil/gas industry, politicians etc..[9]

Europeans best-practice country in case of CNG is Italy. End of 2009, Italy registered 676,850 CNG models[10] out of 36,372,000 passenger cars[11]. This corresponds to a market share of 1.8%. While Italy has already reached Dudenhöffer’s 2015 prediction, Austria is less successful. In 2009, there were 4,359,944 passenger cars on Austrian’s streets, 4,663 of them were driven by natural gas, which corresponds to a market share of 0.1%. A closer look on the last three years annual sales also shows that there is a significant difference between the development of CNG in Italy and in Austria. While the number of newly sold CNG cars is steadily increasing in Italy, the sales in Austria are declining.[12]

The low market share relative to Italy and Dudenhöffer’s forecasts as well as the last years decrease in demand indicate that CNG is not successful in Austria. These indications must have its reasons and lead to the following research question:

Why is CNG not successful in Austria?

While there are several studies analyzing CNG’s market potential, there is no study focusing on the causes of the status quo of the Austrian CNG market. Thus, the following research tries to analyze possible reasons why CNG is not successful in the Austrian market and consequently gives some indication what could be improved in future.

1.2 Methodology

CNG’s main competitors in the Austrian fuel market are diesel and gasoline, with a market share of 55.5%, respectively 44.2%.[13] In order to increase the sales of CNG and to gain market share, consumers have to decide for CNG and/or switch from gasoline or diesel to CNG. One hypothesis why consumers do not buy CNG cars is that CNG is less profitable for consumers than gasoline or diesel.

Based on this assumption, the central question, which will be analyzed within this research, is: Is CNG more profitable than gasoline and diesel in Austria?

According to the research question this study analyses the profitability of CNG compared to gasoline and diesel. First of all, the differences in costs and benefits between CNG and diesel as well as between CNG and gasoline will be quantified over a certain period. Costs and benefits taken into consideration are: purchase price reduced by subsidies, insurance costs, inspection costs, refueling costs and opportunity costs. The differences in costs and benefits will be the basis for calculating the Internal Rate of Return (IRR). The IRR will show the rate of return of investing in CNG instead of investing in gasoline or diesel. Comparing the IRR to the project’s cost of capital will confirm, if the decision for CNG is profitable or not.

In case that it is not profitable, it is one possible explanation why CNG is not successful in Austria. If the investment is profitable, there must be some other reasons for CNG’s last year’s decrease in demand and its low market share relative to Italy and Dudenhöffer’s forecasts.

1.3 Organization of thesis

The next chapter will give an overview about CNG, its characteristics, the refueling system and the different models of cars.

Chapter 3 will explain how the present study was carried out, show the various steps of the research and provide the statistical analysis.

Chapter 4 will draw a practical conclusion, discuss the limitations of this study and suggests areas for further research.

2 Review of Literature

As it is important to get an insight into the topic, this section gives a general overview about CNG.

First of all, there will be a definition of the term CNG. As a next step there are some main characteristics of CNG listed, which describe CNG as a fuel and compare it in some case with the characteristics of diesel and gasoline. Afterwards there will be an explanation of the different types of CNG cars.

2.1 Definition of CNG

CNG is the abbreviation of Compressed Natural Gas and is the compressed version of natural gas.[14] Natural Gas is a fossil fuel, which is made out of organic substances under pressure and exclusion of air over years. Chemically it consists for the most part (up to 99%) of methane.[15] In order to use it as fuel, the natural gas gets compressed with a pressure of 200bar and thereby reduced to about one two-hundredth of its volume.[16]

2.2 Characteristics

CNG is a natural gas and consists for 97% up to 99% of methane, which is a molecule with one carbon atom and four hydrogen atoms. Diesel and gasoline by contrast are made of crude oil and are a mixture of different hydrocarbons.[17] CNG’s aggregation at a temperature of 25°C is gaseous, while diesel and gasoline are liquid at room temperature. CNG’s melting point is at minus 183°C, its boiling point at minus 161°C[18] ant its temperature of self-ignition is 600°C. Gasoline and diesel, however, ignite spontaneously at a temperature of 360°C, respectively 230°C. This means that CNG is not more explosive than diesel or gasoline, as it is often thought.[19] In addition, CNG burns slower than gasoline or diesel. This signifies that CNG cars are quieter than diesel or gasoline ones.[20]

CNG’s residue of combustion is primarily steam[21], followed by environmentally harmful carbon compounds. In comparison to gasoline and diesel, the emission of environmentally harmful carbon compounds of CNG is below that of other fossil fuels, as the following figure shows.

illustration not visible in this excerpt

Figure 1: GHG emissions of different fossil fuels

(Own illustration, data taken from Dudenhöffer, 2010, p.7 and Lebensministerium, 2012 – URL: [10.06.2012])

On average, diesel emits about 145 g CO2 equivalents / km and gasoline about 144.[22] CNG however emits 124 g CO2 equivalents / km, 21 g/km less than diesel and 20 g/km less than gasoline. This signifies that CNG is the only fuel among the three which match the required 2015-EU-target of 130 g CO2 equivalents / km.[23]

Basically, natural gas is odorless, but in case of CNG it is mixed with a kind of warning smell (similar to the sulphur or garlic odor), so that it can already be perceived at low concentrations.[24] These additives as well as CNG itself are colorless and not toxic. CNG is also lighter than air, thus it can easily volatile.[25]

Generally, natural gas is measured in cubic meter (m3), but for technical reasons, CNG at filling station is listed in kg. One kg of CNG corresponds to the energy content of about 1.5 liter gasoline and 1.3 liter diesel.[26]

2.3 Refueling system

CNG gets provided at filling stations, which are specially designed for CNG. These stations have additional gas pumps, which look quite the same as the conventional pumps for gasoline and diesel. The natural gas passes through an underground pipeline system directly to the filling stations. At the filling stations the natural gas passes through a compressor and gets compressed with a pressure of 200bar. Afterwards it gets stored in a pressure vessel, from where it directly enters the refueling pump. The refueling process only starts when the gas pump is correctly connected and locked.[27]

2.4 Natural Gas Vehicles (NGV)

A natural gas vehicle or NGV is an alternative fuel vehicle that uses CNG or, less commonly, liquefied natural gas (LNG) as automobile fuel.[28] As LNG vehicles are not quite common, especially in Austria (125 LNG cars in 2011[29] ), this study purely discusses Natural Gas Vehicles, which use CNG.

In Austria the Oberösterreichische Ferngas GmbH presented the first CNG-car in 1991. But the technology wasn’t new. In 1991 there were already 800,000 CNG cars on the market, not in Austria, but mainly in the former Sowjetunion and Italy. The reason for introducing CNG cars was the possibility to get independent in case of oil scarcity, price explosion or tougher environmental regulations.[30]

Nowadays, there are two different types of CNG cars: monovalent and bivalent ones. Monovalent, also called monofuel, means that there is only one type of drive, for example CNG. Consequently, monovalent CNG vehicles can only be refueled with CNG.[31]

Bivalent, also called bifuel, vehicles have two types of drive. This means that bivalent natural gas vehicles can be refueled with CNG or gasoline. A combination of CNG and diesel is not possible because CNG and diesel do not work with the same type of motor.[32]

Within this study it will be assumed that CNG cars are only monovalent driven.

3 Primary Research

As it was already mentioned in the introduction, this study mainly analyzes the profitability of acquiring and holding a CNG car compared to gasoline and diesel.

In the first part of this chapter the differences in costs between CNG and diesel, as well as between CNG and gasoline, are measured and the relevant data, its sources, measurement, problems and limitations are described.

The second part of this chapter will show the calculations and the reasoning leading to the analysis’s results.

3.1.1 Data

This part shows the differences in costs and benefits of acquiring and holding a CNG, diesel and gasoline car. Costs and benefits taken into consideration are: purchase price of car, subsidies, insurance costs, inspection costs, refueling costs and opportunity costs. Externalities like environmental costs or benefits are excluded, as they are hardly quantified.[33]

The differences in costs and benefits are measured by a randomly selected sample of three different types of cars: Fiat Punto Evo, Opel Zafira Tourer and VW Touran – Highline. All three models are sold as CNG, diesel and gasoline models. Details on the cars can be found in the appendix.[34]

3.1.2 Purchase Price

The purchase price is the initial cost of a car and includes the Normverbrauchsabgabe (NOVA), Bonus-Malus and Value Added Tax (VAT).[35]

The NOVA is a onetime tax, which has to be paid directly to the retailer when a car is delivered to the customer or permitted for the first time. The NOVA is dependent on the vehicles mileage and is calculated as a percentage of the net vehicle value.[36]

The formula for calculating the NOVA is as follows:

illustration not visible in this excerpt

Table 1: Formula for calculating the NOVA

(Own illustration, data taken from Bundesministerium für Finanzen, 2012. – URL: [16.07.2012])

The Bonus-Malus System extends the NOVA and is dependent on the vehicles emissions. A Bonus is a discount and reduces the NOVA while a malus increases the tax liability.[37]

For cars with CO2 emissions higher than 160 g/km, the tax liability increases by € 25.00 for each additional g/km CO2. For each additional g/km CO2 over 180 g/km CO2, there is a malus of € 50.00 and for each additional g/km CO2 over 220, there is a penalty of € 75.00.[38]

For gasoline cars with less than 60 milligram (mg) nitrogen oxide (NOx) per km, the tax liability decreases by € 200.00. Diesel cars with a maximum of 80 mg NOx / km and a maximum particle 0.005 g/km get a bonus of € 200.00, while diesel cars with particulate emissions of more than 0.005 g/km get a penalty of € 300.00. Cars with alternative fuels like CNG get a bonus of € 500.00.[39]

In Austria, the VAT is 20% and is measured as a percentage of the net vehicle value. This means that the NOVA and Bonus-Malus are not part of the taxable base.[40]

In case of Fiat Punto Evo, Opel Zafira Tourer and Volkswagen (VW) Touran-Highline the total purchase prices are as follows:

illustration not visible in this excerpt

Table 2: Purchase prices (incl. NOVA, Bonus-Malus and VAT)

(Own illustration, data taken from Fiat, 2011, p. 2; Opel, 2012, p. 2f

and VW, 2012, p. 3)

To figure out the differences in costs between CNG and gasoline and between CNG and diesel, the purchase price of CNG is subtracted from the purchase price of gasoline and diesel, respectively.

As it can be seen in the table below, CNG cars are more expensive than gasoline and diesel cars (indicated by the negative algebraic sign), where the difference in costs between CNG and gasoline is higher than the difference in costs between CNG and diesel.

illustration not visible in this excerpt

Table 3: Difference in purchase price

(Own illustration)

3.1.3 Subsidies

Subsidies are financial benefits given by the government to support a desirable activity.[41] In Austria, the acquisition of CNG cars is on the one hand supported by the Bonus-Malus system and on the other hand by direct subsidies from the federal states.

Subsidies for CNG cars differ between private and business customers. This means that companies buying a CNG car get other subsidies than private individuals.[42] To limit the scope of this research, this study only considers private subsidies.

There are different subsidies in each federal state. In Vienna, private customers can apply at the municipal administration for a financial subsidy of € 1,000.00.[43] In Lower Austria CNG cars get subsidized by € 700.00[44], while in Salzburg and Styria the subsidy is about € 500.00[45] and € 600.00[46], respectively. In Burgenland private customers can apply for a subsidy up to € 750.00[47], whereas in Tyrol it is possible to get a subsidy of up to € 625.00.[48] Preconditions in each case are that the CNG car has to be registered in the relevant federal state and has to show an advertising label of CNG.

In Upper Austria and in Vorarlberg, the municipal administration does not offer any direct subsidy, it is only possible to get some free refueling coupons. In Upper Austria, the coupons are worth € 750.00 at maximum[49], in Vorarlberg they have a value of 500 kg natural gas[50]. Carinthia is the only federal state that offers no subsidies for private individuals at all.

Considering the length of this study, this research only includes direct subsidies; refueling coupons are excluded. Furthermore, calculations are based on the average value of possible direct subsidies, which is about € 463.89 in Austria[51]. For concrete calculations it would be necessary to consider the exact subsidy of the relevant federal state.

As there are not any subsidies for gasoline and diesel cars, the difference in benefits between CNG and gasoline and CNG and diesel is in both cases € 463.89. As it can be seen in the table below, this means that buying a CNG car instead of a diesel or gasoline one, would reduce costs on average by € 463.89.

illustration not visible in this excerpt

Table 5: Annual insurance Costs

(Own Illustration, data taken from Hörmann, UNIQA Insurance Company, 2012)

As the Fiat Punto Evo is smaller and has less power than the Opel Zafira Tourer and the VW Touran-Highline, this type of car has also lower insurance costs.

Subtracting the insurance cost of CNG from the insurance cost of gasoline and diesel respectively shows the following cost differences:

illustration not visible in this excerpt

Table 6: Difference in insurance costs

(Own illustration)

The calculations show that insurance costs for CNG cars are lower than for gasoline cars in each case. This is different when analyzing the cost differences between diesel and CNG: Only the Fiat Punto Evo CNG has lower insurance costs, the other CNG models have slightly higher ones (indicated by the negative algebraic sign).

3.1.5 Inspection Costs

In Austria it is required by law to check the traffic and operational safety and environmental efficiency of a vehicle at regular intervals. This service check is called the §75a-Inspection and has to be done due to the 3-2-1-Rule. This rule requires that the first inspection has to be done three years after initial registration; the second review after further two years, and then the inspection is annually required.[56]

At the §75a-Inspection the car gets checked for its right and fully functional lighting equipment and warning devices, safety devices, frame and vehicle body, wheels, engine and brakes.[57] Apart from that, only CNG cars need an additional inspection of their gas system. The inspection has to be done in a two-year interval; the first review is required two years after the initial registration.[58]

The costs of inspection differ slightly from garage to garage. Within this research data are taken from a randomly selected garage: VW Ortner, Langenstein in Upper Austria.

The §75a-Inspection costs for CNG and gasoline cars are normally the same since both have the same engine, while the inspection costs of diesel cars are mostly higher. At VW Ortner, Langenstein the §75a-Inspection for CNG and gasoline cars costs € 270.00 and the one for diesel cars costs € 290.00. The gas system inspection for CNG cars costs additionally € 55.00.[59]

These prices are just the regular prices; they can vary if there is some special repairing work needed. Within this research additional repairing costs are not taken into consideration.

Looking at the cost differences illustrated below, it can be seen, that there is no difference in regular inspection costs between CNG and gasoline, but there is a difference of € 20.00 between CNG and diesel. As gasoline and diesel cars do not need a gas system inspection, cost for the CNG models are about € 55.00 higher than for gasoline or diesel.

illustration not visible in this excerpt

Table 7: Difference in inspection costs

(Own illustration)

3.1.6 Refueling costs

Refueling costs are the costs that have to be paid for refueling a car. Annual refueling costs depend on the fuel price, the car’s mileage and the kilometers driven per year.

Fuel prices are generally given in € per liter. As CNG is measured in kg the price for CNG is given in € per kg. Within this research calculations are based on the average fuel prices of 2011. The average price of gasoline in 2011 is € 1.387 per liter, the price of diesel is € 1.336 per liter and the one of CNG is € 0.979 per kg.[60]

As it can be seen, the costs of one kg CNG are lower than the costs of one liter diesel or gasoline. One reason why CNG is cheaper than gasoline or diesel is that the CNG price includes less tax than the price of gasoline and diesel. The gasoline and diesel price includes a fuel duty called petroleum tax of € 0.347 per liter for gasoline and of € 0.447 per liter for diesel.[61] CNG is excluded from the fuel duty.

In Germany, it is already legally assured that CNG and other alternative fuels are excluded from the fuel duty until 2018.[62] As this assurance does not exist in Austria, it should be noted that the fuel price of CNG could strongly change if CNG is included in fuel duties in future.

In order to calculate the annual refueling costs, the fuel price per liter or kg is multiplied with the car’s average mileage per kilometer and the kilometers driven per year.


[1] cf. Umweltbundesamt, 2010, p.40

[2] cf. ORF science - URL: [10.06.2012]

[3] cf. European Parliament and Council, 2009, p.5

[4] cf. Lebensministerium, 2012 – URL: [10.06.2012]

[5] cf. Dudenhöffer, 2010, p.40

[6] cf. Appendix 1: Cost / CO2 reduction for different types of drive

[7] cf. Dudenhöffer, 2010, p.15

[8] cf. ibid., p.10

[9] cf. ibid., p.40

[10] cf. NGVA Europe, 2010, p.4

[11] cf. UNECE – URL: [10.06.2012]

[12] cf. Appendix 2: Newly registered Natural Gas Vehicles form 2007 until 2009

[13] cf. Statistik Austria, 2011 – URL: [12.06.2012]

[14] cf. OVGW, 2011, p.34

[15] cf. Fachverband Gas Wärme, p.3

[16] cf. ibid., p.5

[17] Cf. Wirtschaftsgesellschaft des Kfz-Gewerbes mbH. - URL: [14.06.2012]

[18] cf. Breitmaier, Jung, 2005, p.22

[19] cf. OVGW, 2011, p.4

[20] cf. ibid., p.35

[21] cf. Fachverband Gas Wärme, p.3

[22] cf. Lebensministerium, 2012 – URL: [10.06.2012]

[23] cf. European Parliament and Council, 2009, p.5

[24] cf. OVGW, 2011, p.4

[25] cf. Fachverband Gas Wärme, p.3

[26] cf. ibid., p.5

[27] cf. OVGW, 2011, p.37

[28] cf. The free dictionary - URL: [12.06.2012]

[29] cf. Statistik Austria, 2011 – URL: [12.06.2012]

[30] cf. OVWG, 2011, p.14

[31] cf. Fachverband Gas Wärme, p.19

[32] cf. ibid, p.18

[33] cf. Swann, 1999, p. 47

[34] cf. Appendix 3: Overview sample cars

[35] cf. Bundesministerium für Finanzen, 2012. – URL: [16.07.2012]

[36] cf. ÖAMTC, 2010. – URL:,1098231,,#knot:1342446920040 [16.07.2012]

[37] cf. ibid.

[38] cf. Bundesministerium für Finanzen, 2012. – URL: [16.07.2012]

[39] cf. ÖAMTC, 2010. – URL:,1098231,,#knot:1342446920040 [16.07.2012]

[40] cf. Bundesministerium für Finanzen, 2012. – URL: [16.07.2012]

[41] cf. Business Dictionary. – URL: [17.07.2012]

[42] cf. Erdgas-Natürlich unterwegs, 2011. - URL: [17.07.2012]

[43] cf. Magistrat der Stadt Wien, 2011. – URL: [17.07.2012]

[44] cf. Amt der NÖ Landesregierung, 2012. - URL: [17.07.2012]

[45] cf. Land Salzburg, 2010. – URL: [17.07.2012]

[46] cf. Energie Steiermark, 2012. – URL: [17.07.2012]

[47] cf. Burgenländische Energie Agentur, 2010. – URL: [17.07.2012]

[48] cf. TIGAS. – URL: [17.07.2012]

[49] cf. Erdgas OÖ. – URL: [17.07.2012]

[50] cf. Erdgas – Natürlich unterwegs, 2011. – URL: [17.07.2012]

[51] cf. Appendix 4: Calculation of average value of subsidies

[52] cf. HELP – Offizieller Amtshelfer für Österreich, 2012a. – URL: [18.07.2012]

[53] cf. RIS – Rechtsinformationssystem, 2012. – URL: [18.07.2012]

[54] cf. Hörmann, UNIQA Insurance Company, 2012

[55] cf. Appendix 5: Third-party vehicle insurance - Offer by UNIQA Insurance Company

[56] cf. HELP – Offizieller Amtshelfer für Österreich, 2012b. – URL: [18.07.2012]

[57] cf. ÖAMTC. – URL: [18.07.2012]

[58] cf. ibid.

[59] cf. Schöller, VW Ortner, 2012

[60] cf. Wien Energie, 2012. – URL: [27.06.2012]

[61] cf. Wien-konkret, 2007. - URL: [18.07.2012]

[62] cf. Focus, 2008. – URL: [18.07.2012]


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Titel: Why is Compressed Natural Gas not successful in Austria?