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Supply of Bielawa with woody biofuel from forest and SRC

Comparison

Hausarbeit 2011 29 Seiten

VWL - Umweltökonomie

Leseprobe

Table of contents

1. Introduction
1.1 Bielawa - territorial conditions
1.2 Forestry policy in Lower Silesia
1.3 Environmental policy and issues
1.4 Agricultural policy and conditions concerning rural areas

2. Supplying Bielawa with wood-fuel scenario
2.1 Wood availability and issues related to the energy supply
2.2 Fuelwood from forestry - logistics and related cost factors
2.3 Biofuell from SRC plantations

3. Conclusions

1. Introduction

1.1 Bielawa - territorial conditions

The administrative division of Poland since 1999 has been based on three levels of subdivision. The territory of Poland is divided into voivodeships (regions); these are further divided into powiats (counties), and these in turn are divided into gminas (communes or municipalities). Major cities normally have the status of both gmina and powiat. Poland currently has 16 voivodeships, 379 powiats (including 65 cities with powiat status), and 2 478 gminas.

Bielawa is a small town inhabited by approximately 32 000 citizens. It’s situated in the Lower Silesia region, in Dzierżoniów county - south part of the region, near Czech republic border.

Figure 1.1 - Administrative division of Poland - location of Bielawa, surrounding counties and towns/cities (State Forest Agency, 2011)

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It’s situated approximately 55 km from capital of the region - Wrocław. Bielawa has municipality status.

Bielawa is situated in Owl mountains, which is a part of Central Sudetes mountains. The lowest located point is situated 280 m above the sea level and the highest one is 964 m above the sea level.

Figure 1.2 Bielawa - view from one of the mountains (Wikipedia EN)

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1.2 Forestry policy in Lower Silesia

Forestry In Poland is regulated by “State forests law act” (State Forests Law act, 1991 with changes up to 2011). It constitutes State Forest agency as an organization responsible for the management of forests that belong to the state. In Poland forests that belong to the state are 78,3 % of all forests (W. Adamczak, 2008). In Lower Silesia region it’s 93,9 %.

Figure 1.2 Ownership of forests in Lower Silesia (State Forests Agency - Lower Silesia Department, 2003) ,

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Forests are over all in Poland are approximately 1/3 of the whole country area. Poland forestation (percentage of forested areas comparing to overall area) was 28,9% in 2006 (W. Adamczak, 2008) and now it’s more than 29% (GUS - State Statistic Agency, 2010). In Lower Silesia it’s 29,3%.

“State forests law act” constitutes State Forest Agency as a management body for all forest that belong to the state. Ministry of environment is an organ responsible for control. State Forests Agency consists of regional divisions for each region. Each Regional Division of State Forests Agency is responsible for its own region and manages it according to Regional operational plan for state silvicultural policy (State Forests Agency - Lower Silesia Department, 2003) which is based on National Forestation Programme . Each Regional division consist of subdivisions called “nadleśnictwa” - these units are not divided in the exactly same way as counties. Each of those subdivision runs according to document called “Plan of forest management”.

Figure 1.3 Organizational map of Lower Silesia Regional Division - “nadleśnictwa” and their forestation (W. Adamczak, 2008)

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Forests in Bielawa are being managed by Nadleśnictwo Świdnica.

“Plan of forest management” is a detailed instruction for foresters how to manage forest for next ten years. It has to aim in fulfilling goals for forestry described by (State Forests Law act, 1991 with changes up to 2011):

- maintaining of forests capital and country’s forestation
- protection and maintaining of forest and its ecosystem that are especially valuable for:
- biodiversity
- forest genetic resources
- landscape valour
- possibilities for scientifical exploration
- soil protection, especially in areas where it’s vulnerable for damage
- protection of country’s water resources with special emphasis on areas that are supplying the sources of drinking water
- reasonable level of productivity - wood and other forest products (like f. ex. berries)

Overall acquisition of wood in Poland is sustainable. Each Plan is confirmed by Ministry of environment. Ministerial agreement contains amount of wood in cubic meters, that can be acquired from forests.

1.3 Environmental policy and issues

Important thing to mention is that acquisition of wood is not the most important goal in forestry policy. Biodiversity and wild animals habitats upkeep - concerning especially endangered species - are the top priority.

Regulations are made in separate law act called “Protection of nature act” and other regulations - f. ex. EU regulations, which oblige Ministry of environment to take it into consideration.

There are few forms of protection that apply to different areas:

- National Parks
- Landscape Parks
- Nature Reserves
- Protected Landscape Areas
- Nature 2000 sites (agreed in EU accession treaty) regulated by EU directives:
- Habitats directive
- Birds directive
- Ecological Sites
- Geological Documentary sites
- Nature and Landscape complexes

Other form of protection are so called Natural Monuments, which are single standing objects (mostly old trees) that are situated in regular areas.

Figure 1.4 - Areas of special protection near Bielawa (State Forest Agency, 2011)

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Figure 1.5 - Nature 2000 in Lower Silesia Region (Lower Silesia - regional administration, 2007)

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“State forests law act” also constitutes some forms of protection not related to those stated in environmental acts previously mentioned. These ones mentioned in article 15th of that act (State Forests Law act, 1991 with changes up to 2011) are called “Protection forests”.

Details

Seiten
29
Jahr
2011
ISBN (Buch)
9783656352990
Dateigröße
3.2 MB
Sprache
Englisch
Katalognummer
v207941
Institution / Hochschule
Linnaeus University
Note
5.0
Schlagworte
biomass biofuels woody biomass forestry bioenergy SRC

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Titel: Supply of Bielawa with woody biofuel from forest and SRC