Intelligent Street Lighting Using a ZigBee Network of Devices and Sensors
Abstract— The lighting systems within the public sector are designed using the previous standards of reliability and they don't use the advancements of latest technological developments. In this paper, a wireless street lighting system is developed. It consists of set of sensors to detect the presence of humans and checks for the intensity of light and transmits the light in wireless.The proposed remote-control system can optimize management and efficiency of street lighting systems. It uses ZigBee-based wireless devices which enable more efficient street lamp- system management which is an advanced interface and control architecture.It uses a sensor combination to control and guarantee the desired system parameters. The information is transferred point by point using ZigBee transmitters and receivers and is sent to a control terminal used to check the state of the street lamps and take appropriate measures in case of failure. The use of renewable energy sources instead of typical power sources takes care of the environment, which is considered to be another advantage of this system.
Index Terms—Automation, control system, lighting system, sensors, wireless networks, ZigBee.
LIGHTING systems, especially in the public sector, are still designed according to the old standards of reliability and they often do not take advantage of the latest technological developments. Our project needs no manual operation for switching (ON and OFF).When there is need of light, it detects itself whether the light is need or not, based on the “Persistence of vision using Passive Infrared Sensor (PIR).When darkness rises to a certain value then automatically street light is switched ON.I.e., In day time, the street light gets OFF using Light Dependent resistor (LDR).The power consumption will be measured and displayed on a computer display to prove the power savings of the proposed project. In this new system, the system with LDR sensor, PIR sensor and Zigbee is used to intimate the status of human’s use. Light intensity and street light ON/OFF status to the EB section is also enabled to avoid wastage of energy by glowing street lights in unwanted areas. The whole system is operated by using natural energy source called SOLAR and with battery backup the existing system is based on either LDR or checking for the evening time by using RTC. In this method the remote monitoring and controlling is not there. In this new system the system with LDR sensor, PIR sensor, GPS and Zigbee is used to intimate the status of humans use, light intensity and street light ON/OFF status to the EB section to avoid wastage of energy by glowing street lights in unwanted areas. The whole system is operated by using artificial energy source called solar and with battery backup. The PIR and LDR sensors sense the persons and light intensity of a particular place and transmits Schematic image of the system.
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The data in wireless to the EB section with its GPS section. Depend upon the data received the controller will turn ON/OFF the street light in wireless communication. For emergency purpose, if the particular light wants to ON means, the input should give from the PC side. That data will receive in Zigbee in street light section, According to that the light will ON.
Power Supply Unit:
The supply of 5V DC is given to the system which is converted from 230V AC supply. Firstly, the step down transformer will be used here for converting the 230V AC into 12V AC. The microcontroller will support only the DC supply, so the AC supply will be converted into DC using the bridge rectifier. The output of the rectifier will have ripples so we are u sing the 2200uf capacitor for filtering those ripples. The output from the filter is given to the 7805 voltage regulator which will convert the 12V DC into 5V DC. The output from the regulator will be filtered using the 1000uf capacitor, so the pure 5V DC is getting as the output from the power supply unit. Here we are using the pic microcontroller which will be capable of getting the supply of 5V DC so we have to convert the 230V AC supply into 5V DC supply.
Software is used to compile the coding of the desired application for the corresponding embedded system.
PIC16F877A: The PIC16F877A CMOS FLASH-based 8-bit microcontroller is upward compatible with the PIC16C5x, PIC12Cxxx and PIC16C7x devices. It features 200 ns instruction execution, 256 bytes of EEPROM data memory, self-programming, an ICD, 2 Comparators, 8 channels of 10- bit Analog-to-Digital (A/D) converter, 2 capture/compare/PWM functions, a synchronous serial port that can be configured as either 3-wire SPI or 2-wire I2C bus, a USART, and a Parallel Slave Port.