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Applying the 'No Frills' concept to other specific Airline Businesses

Masterarbeit 2004 75 Seiten

BWL - Unternehmensführung, Management, Organisation


Table of Content

Table of Abbreviations

Table of Figures

Table of Annexes

1. Introduction

2. Definition of the ‘No Frills’ concept

3. The development of the ‘No Frills’ Airlines from the 1970ies until now
3.1. Pioneers and Followers in the USA
3.2. The development in Europe
3.3. The beginnings in South America
3.4. The development in Asia / Pacific
3.5. The first efforts between continents
3.6. Summary

4. Analysis of the success factors of ‘No Frills’ Airlines
4.1. Network
4.2. Operation
4.3. Fleet
4.4. Sales and Pricing
4.5. Customers and Competitors
4.6. Corporate Culture and Human Resource Management
4.7. Summary
4.8. Checklist for Airline Start-Ups in the ‘No Frills’ business

5. Applicability of the ‘No Frills’ concept to specific Airline Businesses
5.1. A ‘No Frills’ intercontinental Economy Class business model
5.1.1. Description of the business model
5.1.2. Applicability of the Network
5.1.3. Applicability of the Operation
5.1.4. Applicability of the Fleet
5.1.5. Applicability of Sales and Pricing
5.1.6. Applicability of Customers and Competitors
5.1.7. Conclusion
5.2. A ‘No Frills’ intercontinental Business Class business model
5.2.1. Description of the business model
5.2.2. Applicability of the Network
5.2.3. Applicability of the Operation
5.2.4. Applicability of the Fleet
5.2.5. Applicability of Sales and Pricing
5.2.6. Applicability of Customers and Competitors
5.2.7. Conclusion
5.3. Further fields for research

6. Summary


Table of Sources

Curriculum Vitae

Table of Annexes

Annex 1: Route maps of Ryanair, easyJet,
Southwest Airlines and jetBlue

Annex 2: Available lowest fares on selected routes
from Ryanair and easyJet

Table of Figures

Figure 1: Unit Costs of Major Airlines vs. Low-Cost Carriers
in US cents / ASM

Figure 2: The Pillars of the ‘No Frills’ Airline concept

Figure 3: Hub and Spoke Network Structure

Figure 4: Point-to-Point Network Structure

Figure 5: Checklist for ‘No Frills’ Start-Ups

1. Introduction

The ‘No Frills’ Airline concept is not a phenomenon of the last couple of years in the Airline industry even if the recent development of these carriers in Europe might lead to this conclusion. The first Airline operating under the ‘No Frills’ concept started in the beginning of the 1970ies in the USA and it took quite a while until this concept was followed by Airlines in Europe, South America and Asia / Pacific.[1] There were a lot of ‘No Frills’ Airlines coming and going again in the last 33 years. To start an Airline and define it as a ‘No Frills’ carrier seems to be not enough to be successful in the market for a lot of years. Only a very restricted number of these Airlines were successful and profitable for years. The question is why. What are the reasons why some ‘No Frills’ Airlines are surviving and others do not. This is one of the questions which will be answered in this paper.

The low cost and low price strategy which is the basis for the ‘No Frills’ concept in the Airline Industry[2] is a business concept which was described by Porter as one of the basic strategies a company can follow.[3] This strategy was followed by a lot of companies in other industries like ALDI[4], IKEA and Toyota.[5] These companies followed successfully the cost leadership strategy but adopted also other strategic goals to their business concept like quality and corporate culture items. The cost leadership strategy is nothing new but how can it be reached and maintained in the Airline industry? What are the prerequisites and the required activities to be successful in this industry with this concept? In this paper answers to these questions will be given.

Currently the ‘No Frills’ Airlines are only active on single continents and with a quite specific, undifferentiated product. Southwest Airlines and JetBlue are flying within the USA[6], Ryanair and EasyJet[7] are offering their services only within Europe and GOL is only active in Brazil[8]. There is currently no ‘No Frills’ activity going on between continents although this happened in the past but without significant success.[9] The products offered by the above mentioned Airlines are all comparable concerning the seats and service in the aircraft. There is currently no ‘No Frill’ Airline existing which offers a premium product between continents based on a cost leadership business strategy.[10] In this paper it shall be analysed if such different products based on the drivers and success factors of the ‘No Frills’ Airline concept could be successful or not. It shall be found an answer if the ‘No Frills’ concept can be adopted to other specific Airline businesses and if yes how big their chances for survival are.

To answer these questions a definition of the ‘No Frills’ concept will be done first and the differences to classical hub and spoke structures of established major carriers and to the concept of charter Airlines will be worked out. After that the development of the ‘No Frills’ Airlines in the different areas of the world will be described and the efforts which established major Airlines put into this segment to fight the ‘No Frills’ Airlines and their success with it will be lined out. In part 4 the drivers and success factors of the ‘No Frills’ concept will be analysed based on the most successful Airlines in this segment which are currently active. The result will be a checklist for all items which are critical to make the operation of a ‘No Frills’ Airline successful independent from the geographical area an Airline might operate in.

In the last part the results of the analysis of the success factors and drivers will be adopted to two other specific Airline businesses. The first will be an intercontinental economy class passenger services ‘No Frills’ concept and the second a more specialised intercontinental business class passenger service ‘No Frills’ concept. The two different business models will be described and then analysed if they are workable. It will be worked out which factors have to be taken into consideration and which items are critical for a successful start of such Airline business models.

2. Definition of the ‘No Frills’ concept

The marking ‘No Frills’ for an Airline does not really describe what is exactly behind the activities of that Airline. It has more or less being created during the years to describe an Airline model which is following a specific and different business approach compared to the big established flag carriers (National Airlines). These two words have been established as a brand name for Airlines which are following a special strategy. ‘No Frills’ independent from Airline business means a service or a product without any unnecessary item around the service or product in the truth sense.

‘No Frills’ Airlines are also called ‘low-cost’ Airlines[11], ‘low-fare’ Airlines[12] or ‘budget’ Airlines[13]. All these descriptions are used as synonyms in the literature and in the Airline magazines used for this paper. The marking ‘low-cost’ is giving a hint to what these Airlines all have in common. They try to reduce their costs whenever and wherever possible to establish a lasting competitive advantage for themselves compared with their competitors.[14] But the cost leadership approach is only one aspect of these Airlines. Another is described with the marking ‘low-fare’. This means that these ‘No Frills’ Airlines are offering their services to their customers for much lower fares than their established major Airline competitors do.[15] The business approach of these carriers is to offer significant lower fares by reducing their costs to enable people to fly. This shows that the potential customers are not only coming from other Airline competitors but also from the busses, trains and highways.[16] The marking ‘budget’ is also going in the direction of low-fares even when it does not describe the advantage for the customer as the marking ‘low-fares’ does. However all the markings are parallel used for Airlines which are following the cost leadership strategy.

Beside the well known and successful ‘No Frills’ Airlines like Ryanair and EasyJet in Europe and Southwest Airlines and JetBlue in the USA there is another ‘low-cost’ but with frills approach which was already established decades ago. These are charter Airlines which were and are also offering very cheap fares for flights including the frills (alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages, meals, big seat pitch) which are obligate for major Airlines. The charter or non scheduled Airlines were quite successful within Europe during the last years and it is sometimes mentioned that the charter Airlines were the first ‘low-cost’ Airlines before the different and more consequent ‘No Frills’ concept appeared.[17] Rigas Doganis says:”[...]that there are two possible ways of making money in the Airline industry. The first is through a network approach based on hub and spoke operations. The second way is through a low-cost approach for which there are two distinct models. The traditional low-cost model has been that of the charter or non-scheduled Airlines[...]. But the second model introduced into Europe in the late 1990ies is that of the point-to-point, low-cost, no-frills scheduled Airline.”[18] He divides the business concepts into two categories.

The first one is the classical hub and spoke model[19] which is used by almost all major Airlines which are offering continental and intercontinental services. The services within a continent or country are used to feed the passengers into a gateway airport to increase the load factors for the intercontinental services. Airlines which are following this concept are offering a widespread network with connections between all the destinations within this network. The importance of this network as a basis for success can be seen in the focus and development of the Airline alliances like Star Alliance, One World and Skyteam.[20]

The second category is the low-cost model which he again divides into two separate models. The model of the charter or non-scheduled Airlines is based on low fares but they are dominantly flying into holiday destinations under a contract of a company which is selling package holiday trips. So the flight itself is only a part of the product of the travel company. The charter Airlines are selling remaining seats on the market themselves but their model differs beside the low fares very much from the model which Doganis calls the second low-cost model.[21] The second low-cost model is the model which is followed by Southwest Airlines, jetBlue, Ryanair, easyJet etc. These Airlines are offering scheduled services, they are selling the capacity of the flights via their own sales channels, they are flying under their own risk and they are offering low fares on their flights.

This low-cost Airline model is the base for this paper. The way these Airlines are enabling themselves to offer very low fares compared with hub and spoke Airlines and charter Airlines and the fact that they are making money with it is so different from the other models that this is the model the following parts of this paper are based on.

3. The development of the ‘No-Frills’ Airlines from the 1970ies until now

All the so called ‘No Frills’ Airlines which started operation since 1970 had in common that they wanted to offer flights between city pairs for much lower fares than the established major Airlines did. They wanted to make travel by air affordable for people who were not able to pay the fares of the major Airlines and they wanted to compete with their fares with ground transportation systems like railway, busses and automobiles. Therefor they had to find a concept for operating aircraft for much lower costs than the competitors.[22] In the literature is often mentioned that the charter Airlines were the real pioneers in low-cost air travel[23]. The beginnings of these package holiday trips including a flight on an aircraft were in the 1950ies.[24] But these Airlines are here not in the focus because of the different business concept they are following. Also very old established national carriers like Aeroflot from Russia, which started operation in 1932 are mentioned as the first ‘No-Frills’ Airlines in the Airline industry. Even when they had/have interesting similarities with the real ‘No Frills’ Airlines like very low fares and really no frills[25] they were/are Airlines owned and steered by a country and they follow political and status related tasks. The business concept of these Airlines had/has nothing in common with the concept the real ‘No Frills’ Airlines started in the 1970ies, based on the wish to make flying affordable and make money with a different concept of running an Airline.

3.1. Pioneers and Followers in the USA

“As far as low-cost travel is concerned, he was definitely the pioneer,” said Sir Richard Branson, founder of the Virgin Group, about the founder and former CEO and now chairman of the most successful ‘No Frills’ Airline Southwest Airlines in the Airline industry, Herbert D. Kelleher.[26] Similar statements can be found throughout the literature and Airline business magazines. Even Michael O’Leary, CEO of Ryanair, said that the whole concept and success of Ryanair is based on the Southwest Airlines concept, which O’Leary had a look at in the beginning of the 1990ies and which he adopted to his own Airline.[27]

In the Airline industry there is no doubt about the fact that Southwest Airlines was the first Airline world wide which used the ‘No Frills’ concept for a success story without any comparison. Southwest Airlines was founded in 1967 to operate short haul flights within Texas. Based on several court battles with the domestic competitors it took three year until Southwest Airlines started operation within Texas.[28] Southwest Airlines offered only high frequent point-to-point services for much lower fares than its competitors from the secondary airport Love Field Dallas. The low fares generated a lot of demand and ended up in high load factors on the served routes.[29] In 1973 Southwest Airlines reported a profit for the first time in the company’s history after two and a half years of operation and they continued this until 2002; there was no year with losses in the meantime.[30]

In 1978 when the US domestic air travel deregulation took place Southwest Airlines started to operate point-to-point flights into destinations in other states of the USA. Southwest continued its steady growth within the USA during the following decades and turned out to be the biggest Airline in terms of domestic passengers in 1999 in the USA. With offering very low fares and generating much lower unit costs than their competitors Southwest Airlines was able to proof that the ‘No Frills’ concept is something that works in the high competitive and investment intensive Airline industry.[31]

As per May 14, 2003 Southwest Airlines had a fleet of 378 Boeing 737 aircraft and a number of 115 aircraft of the same type on order. Compared with other domestic carriers in the USA this is a huge fleet with the obvious direction of massive growth.[32] In 2002 Southwest Airlines was one of the very little number of passenger US Airlines, which reported a positive net income of 241 Mio. USD.[33] Not only the fact that Southwest Airlines was profitable during the last 30 years is an indicator for their success but also the awards which the Airline won during the last years. It was awarded the Airline of the year three times by the Air Transport World magazine, the last time in 2003. This is the main award an Airline can receive in the Airline industry.[34] Southwest Airlines remains the US low-cost, low-fare champ.[35]

The success of Southwest Airlines with the ‘No Frills’ model made a lot of companies follow these potential profits in the USA. These followers can be divided in two groups. One group are the start-ups which tried to copy the Southwest Airlines business model and the second group are the major US Airlines which started their own ‘No Frills’ Airline derivatives within their group structure.

The first battle Southwest Airlines faced was directly after they started operation in terms of low fares. The two domestic carriers Braniff and Texas International lowered their fares on the routes which were served by Southwest Airlines because they were able to cross subsidise these low fares with other routes in their network. It didn’t take long until they stopped this price war because their cost structure was not competitive for such low fares. Both of these competitors collapsed later on.[36]

Over the last two decades several established Airlines and new start-ups have tried to follow a low-cost, low-fare approach either without frills, such as PEOPLExpress or with frills, such as Muse Air and Florida Express. Only a few of them survived more than five years.[37] Other start-ups which came and left during the years were Kiwi, Air South, Lone Star and Western Pacific. They either collapsed or were taken over by others, for example Southwest Airlines.[38] The larger Airlines have also created subsidiaries to operate low-cost, low-fare services but only with limited success. Continental Light, the subsidiary of Continental Airlines, was one of the first unsuccessful ones.[39] Other majors followed like United Airlines with ‘Shuttle by United’ and US Airways with ‘Metrojet’ but all of them failed sooner or later. The only US major which has never tried the concept was American Airlines.[40]

More recently founded low-cost, low fare, no frills carriers have been more successful than the early ones. Two examples are Sun Country in the USA and West Jet in Canada (founded early 2000). Also other independent Airlines such as Frontier and AirTran Airways have adopted the Southwest Airlines ‘No Frills’ concept successfully and are vigorous challengers on the US domestic passenger market. The youngest participant in the low-cost circus in the US is jetBlue which is based in New York at JFK International and started operation in February 2000 with quite positive results.[41]

Another successful low-cost US market participant is the Delta Airlines subsidiary ‘Delta Express’ launched in 1996. It is the only low-cost carrier created by a major US Airline which is still active in this segment. By early 2000 there were about a dozen of low cost carriers operating in the US.[42]

This number changed again after 9-11-2001. Based on ATW issue in July 2003 there are only the following Airlines defined as low-cost Airlines in the US domestic market with very unbalanced success in 2002: American West Airlines (net loss 430 Mio. USD), Southwest Airlines (net income 241 Mio. USD), AirTran (net income 10,7 Mio. USD), Frontier (net loss 22,8 Mio. USD), jetBlue (net income 54,9 Mio. USD), Midwest Express (net loss 10,6 Mio. USD). In addition to these Airlines there are still a couple of subsidiaries of the major carriers existing which are planned to be re-launched and finally positioned in the future.[43] The main successful low-cost Airlines are still the pioneer Southwest Airlines and the youngest start-up jetBlue.

3.2. The development in Europe

Based on the fact that air traffic deregulation in Europe took place much later than in the USA[44] low-cost Airlines are a much more recent and revolutionary phenomenon in Europe. Ryanair was the first Airline which adopted the successful Southwest Airlines model after they offered double class services for low fares between Ireland and the United Kingdom with relatively little success. In 1993 the CEO Michael O’Leary has finally adopted the ‘No Frills’ concept to Ryanair and that was the beginning of the Airline’s success. In the first years Ryanair was a low-cost carrier which only served the market between Ireland an UK. After the large deregulation of air traffic within the European Union in 1993 they started to expand their network to the continent and started an impressing growth during the following years.[45] It was the deregulation of the European air traffic in 1993 which made other low-cost Airlines appear in Europe. In October 1995 easyJet was launched and offered intra-European low-fare services from London’s airport Luton. In June 1996 Debonair was launched and they offered intra-European low-cost services from Luton as well but stopped operation in 1999 again, only three years after the launch. In 1997 the Belgium based low-cost Airline Virgin Express was launched and offered services within Europe from Brussels. In May 1998 the first major European carrier British Airways launched its ‘No Frills’ subsidiary Go which was also operating from London Stansted airport into European destinations. British Airways was followed by KLM (Royal Dutch Airlines) in 2000 which launched its low-cost subsidiary Buzz operating from London Stansted airport as well. In the meantime three additional low-cost Airlines were launched in other European countries. In 1999 Air One was founded in Italy, Color Air was launched in Norway and Air Europa started operating from Spain.[46] In the time period from 1993 until 2000 of seven years there were 9 low-cost Airlines existing in the European air travel market. This was a much faster and more intensive development than in the USA.

Even if the consolidation phase started in 2001 during which Go was taken over by easyJet and Buzz was bought by Ryanair the trend to launch further low-cost Airlines was still ongoing in Europe. Air Berlin redefined themselves as an low-fare Airline offering services from Germany into European destinations including frills like snacks and non-alcoholic beverages. BMIBABY the ‘No-Frills’ subsidiary of BMI British Midland started low-fare services from East Midlands airport in March 2002. FLYbe changed its business model from a traditional UK business Airline into a low-cost carrier offering services within the United Kingdom and to other European destinations. Germanwings the low-cost subsidiary of Eurowings (mainly owned by Lufthansa) started operation from Cologne in 2002 into different European destinations.[47] The last ‘No Frills’ carrier which was launched in Europe in December 2002 was the TUI subsidiary Hapag Lloyd Express which started operation from Cologne within Germany and Europe.[48] This development shows that almost all major players in the European Airline industry try to participate in the ‘No Frills’ business. Like in the USA a lot of flag carriers try to enter this market with their own subsidiaries and time will show how many of them will be able to survive.

While in the USA 15,4% of all ASKs were produced by ‘No Frills’ Airlines in May 2002 it were only 11% of all ASKs produced within Europe. Ryanair and easyJet seems to be the most successful and most consequent low-cost Airlines within Europe. They had the highest net income of all the ‘No Frills’ Airlines in 2002.[49]

3.3. The beginnings in South America

The Airline industry in South and Latin America is still dominated by major established national Airlines like Lan Chile, Varig, Aeromexico etc. Currently there is only one low-cost Airline active in South and Latin America. GOL started operation in January 2001 within Brazil and is based on the ‘No Frills’ concept which was initiated by Southwest Airlines.[50] GOL realised a net income in 2002 of 3,98 Mio. USD[51], had a fleet as of May 14, 2003 of 19 Boeing 737 aircraft[52] and has disproved the expectations that the low-cost Airline model would not work in Brazil. Fact is that air traffic in South America is comparably underdeveloped and Brazil is a country big enough to generate customer potential from highways and buss traffic based on the low fares.[53] Based on the air traffic structure in South America it can be anticipated that this region of the world is the most promising one for additional low-cost Airlines in the future. The size of the countries in South America offer a big potential for start-ups.

3.4. The development in Asia / Pacific

Compared with the USA and Europe the low-cost, low-fare Airline concept in Asia / Pacific is still very rare. It is so limited that in statistics about low-cost flying growth from 1998 until 2002 in ATW Issue August 2002 the Asian Airlines are not even mentioned. While the total ASKs increased in Canada from 2,7% in 1998 to 15,1% in 2002, in Europe from 6,2% in 1998 to 11,0% in 2002 and in the USA from 10,0% in 1998 to 16,4% in 2002 only the development in Australia as part of the Asia / Pacific region is mentioned with an increase from 0,5% in 2000 to 12,4% in 2002.[54] Virgin Blue founded by Sir Richard Branson started operation as the first and only low-cost Airline within Australia in 2000 and achieved a market share in March 2003 from about 30% of Australian domestic passenger traffic.[55] Virgin Blue is mentioned as a classic low-cost Airline based on the Southwest Airlines concept. It has a fleet of 31 B737 aircraft and 10 aircraft of the same type on order and in 2002 Virgin Blue realised a net income of 28,5 Mio. USD.[56]

In other Asian countries the circumstances in the Airline industry are quite different than in Australia, Europe and the USA. One significant item are the lower labour costs in Asia than in Europe or the USA. While European and US American low-cost Airlines could realise a significant cost advantage compared with their major Airline competitors in the past this was not possible for the Asian low-fare start-ups.[57]

In Figure 1 a comparison between the unit costs of major Airlines and low-cost Airlines in different areas of the world illustrates that the gap of the unit costs between majors and low-costs is smaller in Asia than in Europe or the USA. To reach a cost advantage, which is a substantial part of the low-cost Airline philosophy, seems to be harder for Asian low-fare challengers than for others.

illustration not visible in this excerpt

Figure 1: Unit Costs of Major Airlines vs. Low-Cost Carriers in US cents / ASM[58]

Another significant difference in Asia is that the flag carriers of the single Asian countries are much more protected by the authorities than the flag carriers in Europe and the USA. The skies in Asia are not that much deregulated and the open sky policies like developed in the US and in Europe years ago are much more restrictive. The bureaucratic battles of potential low-cost start-ups are expected to be much harder and this makes potentials to drop their plans before they take off the ground.[59] A third factor in Asia is that the holiday package market is quite strong and that means additional competition for potential low-cost Airlines. Summarised it can be said that a similar development of low-cost Airlines in Asia was suppressed by relative low costs and low fares of the established major flag carriers, the air traffic regulations of the government authorities and the strong competition of the charter Airline industry with relatively low fares.[60]


[1] Compare Doganis. The airline business in the 21st century., 2001, p. 128

[2] Compare Part 2 of this paper

[3] Compare Kotler/Bliemel. Marketing Management., 1992, p. 79 and, p. 14 f.

[4] Compare

[5] Compare Gittell. The Southwest Airlines Way., 2003, p. 4 f.

[6] Compare ATW., July 2003, p. 88 f. and p. 93

[7] Compare ATW., July 2003, p. 69 and p. 75

[8] Compare ATW. Brazil’s daring wings., 2002, p. 46

[9] In the literature it is differently discussed if Virgin Atlantic can be seen as a intercontinental ‚No Frills‘ carrier. This will be discussed in part 3 of this paper.

[10] Lufthansa is operating an only business class flight between Duesseldorf and Newark since June 2002 but with fares which are equal to normal business class fares on the North Atlantic; compare ATW. Something for everybody., June 2003, p. 43

[11] Compare Doganis. The airline business in the 21st century., 2001, p. 126 and Calder. No Frills., 2002, p. 2 ff.

[12] Compare Boeing Frontiers. Ryanair mulls ‚upmarket‘ service boost., 2003, p. 44

[13] Compare ATW. As easy as 1-2-3., 2002, p. 42

[14] Compare Aircraft Commerce. The difference in unit cost performance of low-cost & major airlines., 2003, p. 12 and Calder. No Frills., 2002, p. 1

[15] Compare Freiberg & Freiberg. Nuts., 1996, p. 5 f.

[16] Compare Freiberg & Freiberg. Nuts., 1996, p. 54

[17] Compare Doganis. The airline business in the 21st century., 2001, p. 127 and Calder. No Frills., 2002, p. 5

[18] Compare Doganis. The airline business in the 21st century., 2001, p. 127

[19] Compare Freiberg & Freiberg. Nuts., 1996, p. 51

[20] Compare Doganis. The airline business in the 21st century., 2001, p. 72 f.

[21] Compare Calder. No Frills., 2002, p. 8 ff.

[22] Compare Freiberg & Freiberg. Nuts., 1996, p. 53 ff.

[23] Compare Doganis. The airline business in the 21st century., 2001, p. 127

[24] Compare Calder. No Frills., 2002, p. 8 ff.

[25] Compare Calder. No Frills., 2002, p. 20

[26] Compare Calder. No Frills., 2002, p. 22

[27] Compare Doganis. The airline business in the 21st century., 2001, p. 128

[28] Compare Doganis. The airline business in the 21st century., 2001, p. 128

[29] Compare Doganis. The airline business in the 21st century., 2001, p. 128 f.

[30] Compare Calder. No Frills., 2002, p. 30 and Doganis. The airline business in the 21st century., 2001, p. 128

[31] Compare Doganis. The airline business in the 21st century., 2001, p. 129 f.

[32] Compare ATW. Fleet Summary., 2003, p. 97 ff.

[33] Compare ATW. World Airline Financial Results – 2002., 2003, p. 36

[34] Compare ATW. Airline of the Year – Southwest Airlines., 2003, p. 26

[35] Compare ATW. No more hiding places., 2002, p. 27

[36] Compare Calder. No Frills., 2002, p. 29 and Doganis. The airline business in the 21st century., 2001, p. 128

[37] Compare Doganis. The airline business in the 21st century., 2001, p. 133

[38] Compare Calder. No Frills., 2002, p. 36

[39] Compare Doganis. The airline business in the 21st century., 2001, p. 133

[40] Compare Calder. No Frills., 2002, p. 36

[41] Compare Doganis. The airline business in the 21st century., 2001, p. 133 ff.

[42] Compare Doganis. The airline business in the 21st century., 2001, p. 134

[43] Compare ATW. Issue July 2003, p. 36 ff.

[44] Compare Doganis. The airline business in the 21st century., 2001, p. 38 ff.

[45] Compare Doganis. The airline business in the 21st century., 2001, p. 135 f.

[46] Compare Doganis. The airline business in the 21st century., 2001, p. 136 f.

[47] Compare ATW. Issue July 2003, p. 64 ff.

[48] Compare Touristik Report 20/2002. Auf fremden Terrain, p. 2

[49] Compare ATW. Issue July 2003. World Airline Financial Results – 2002., p. 35 f.

[50] Compare ATW. Issue May 2002. Brazil’s daring wings., p. 43 ff.

[51] Compare ATW. Issue July 2003, p. 36

[52] Compare ATW. Issue July 2003, p. 105

[53] Compare ATW. Issue May 2002. Brazil’s daring wings., p. 46 f.

[54] Compare ATW. Issue August 2002. No more hiding places., p. 28

[55] Compare ATW. Issue October 2003. After the Honeymoon.

[56] Compare ATW. Issue July 2003. p. 35 ff.

[57] Compare ATW. Issue September 2002. Asia’s absent revolution., p. 42

[58] Compare ATW. Issue September 2002. Asia’s absent revolution., p. 47

[59] Compare ATW. Issue September 2002. Asia’s absent revolution., p. 42 ff.

[60] right there


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Applying Frills Airline Businesses




Titel: Applying the 'No Frills' concept to other specific Airline Businesses