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Computerization of United States Army as an Inspiration of Modern Warfare

Bachelorarbeit 2012 62 Seiten

Politik - Internationale Politik - Region: USA

Leseprobe

Table of contents

Introduction

1. The origins of the first military computer
1.1 The motivations for launching the “PX project”
1.2 The idea behind the “PX project”
1.3 ENIAC—Facts and reliability

2. Military computer based simulations
2.1 Team based virtual tarining
2.2 Virtual Reality as form of overcoming post-traumatic stress disorder
2.3 Computer games as a form of soldier training
2.4 America’s Army—The Virtual Soldier Experience
2.5 DSTS—The future of solidier training

3. Computers on the modern battlefield
3.1 Cyber weapons
3.2 Miliary aspescts of the Global Positioning System (GPS)
3.3 Werable computers and advanced warfighter military programs

Final remarks

Appendices

Bibliography

Introduction

In this paper I am going to present a detailed analysis of subjectively chosen aspects of computerization of the United States Army, in the context of conducting modern warfare operations with the emphasis on military computer simulations. It is of great difficulty to analyze every element of such a broad, and at some points multi-layered and complex subject. Nevertheless, it is vital to indicate and establish boundaries of the areas of the subject that will be the target of my theoretical study, which will mainly concentrate on the origins and development of the first military computer, Virtual Reality computer training simulations, and chosen aspects of the use of computers with emphasis on their indispensability on the modern battlefield.

The aim of this paper is to prove that the invention of multiple technologically advanced computer devices, and their incorporation into the United States Army, redefined the form of conducting complex military operations, and considerably improved the training, and educational process of American soldiers, by creating innovative methods based on state of the art computer technology.

The detailed analysis of the origins of the first military computer, supplied in the first chapter, enabled me to discover how new pioneering ideas of implementing never seen before technology were motivated by the military conflict of World War II. Despite the initial skeptical approach of the authorities towards such an ambitious achievement. What is more, it also helped me to realize how this, at first failure prone technology, quickly developed through the years and opened new incredible possibilities for the United States Army.

Subsequently, the study of how the advanced capabilities of computers found its use in creating various programs commonly referred to as computer games enabled me to present how such technological potential is efficiently used by the American Army to conduct advanced Virtual Reality simulations, with real time scenarios for the purpose of additional combat training, and also how American soldiers can benefit from them when overcoming post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). What is more, the chapter will also include evidence that in some cases computer games or also referred to as a form of electronic entertainment are considered to be effective recruitment tools. This point of the chapter will be discussed basing on the computer game and software developed by the United States Army, and the medical research performed by specific bodies of the American government.

Finally, the third chapter will focus on the practical use of computers on the modern battlefield, by presenting the gathered resources and information about the currently used equipment by the United States Army forces, and the equipment that will be used in the future. Furthermore, the chapter will provide an analysis of specifically chosen live examples of indispensable computer equipment, and also to some extent, a study concerning the technical side and capabilities of those appliances.

My research required using a combination of various types of literature, as the characteristics of the studied subject developed a necessity of analyzing it with great care to details. That is why, the very content of my paper is based on texts written by acclaimed specialists in the field of United States military, and as well as experts in terms of computerization and technological advancement. The information included in McCartney S., ENIAC, the triumphs and tragedies of the world’s first computer, Walker Publishing Company, Inc., New York 1999, and in Bergin T. J., 50 Years of Army Computing from ENIAC to MSR. A Record of a Symposium and Celebration November 13 and 14, 1996 Aberdeen Proving Ground, 2000, were of great value for me as they presented the facts, required for the initial chapters of my work, in a comprehensible and well organized form. However, Edwards P. N., The Closed World Computers and the Politics of Discourse in Cold War America, MIT Press 1996, presented most of the historical aspects in a strictly theoretical perspective, and made the distinguishing between valuable, and redundant information considerably difficult. It must also be mentioned that the content of Persky M., Digital game-based learning, Paragon House, Saint Paul 2007, and Seidel R. J., Virtual Reality, Training’s Future?, New York 1997, proved to be very useful in the systematization process of the facts needed for the purpose of the second chapter. Additionally, the texts published by the officials of the United States Army, like the FY 2002 Annual Report for the Office of the Director; Operational Test & Evaluation, 2002 and Army Science & Technology Master Plan – Executive Sum mary, 2007, and numerous other in a form of internet publications, aided me in gathering significant facts concerning the area of my analysis. To be specific, presenting a clear and comprehensible degree of analysis of the specific aspects of the evolution of computer based appliances, in the context of the United States Army required systematizing, and classifying the knowledge with reference to the obtained articles, books and internet sources, which generally presented a substantial value to my work.

In the process of writing my paper I used the spatial method, inductive method and as well as the comparative method.

1. The origins of the first military computer

The United States Army advanced scientific researches and revolutionary ideas played a major and fundamental role in the coming of the modern computer age. The constant need in the military for new technologies that would turn the complex and tiresome calculating processes into effective and rather simple tasks, looking from the perspective of a human operator, motivated the United States Army Ordnance Corps to fund the design of the first high-speed electronic automatic computer, today recognizable by an acronym— Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer (ENIAC). This motivation was also emphasized by the operations that took place during the World War II. The American Army wanted to find an effective way to improve the coordination of calculating artillery strikes, thus creating a considerable advantage for themselves on the battlefield[1].

Nevertheless, the technology needed for the major improvement in the functioning of the army was largely expensive and failure-prone. The early invented analog computers were perceived as calculating appliances used mainly for the purposes of complex and advanced scientific research[2]. Such as the Atanasoff-Berry Computer (ABC) developed in years 1937-1942 by John Vincent Atanasoff, a professor at Iowa State University, and a graduate student, Clifford Berry, which main design purpose was to aid students in solving various mathematical tasks. However, it was not programmable, thus it terms of capability it was similar to an advanced mathematical calculator rather than a fully programmable computer unit[3].

Adaptation of computer technology to the military was a great in perspectives, but at the same time a hazardous achievement[4]. However, this strongly committed to undertaking the first actions in order to improve the feeble accuracy of antiaircraft weaponry of the Allies and at the same time stood as the turning point in terms of commencing the ENIAC project. A pioneering venture which goal was to create the first operational, general purpose, electronic digital computer, a machine capable of efficiently performing complex mathematical calculations crucial for conducting military operations[5].

At the same time, it is vital to point out that the basic computer architecture, known also by the term the von Neumann architecture, to a certain degree can be classified as false. As it defines John von Neumannas the first ever inventor of the computer. Nonetheless, John von Neumann as a mathematician greatly contributed to the spectrum of science and logic, and later to computer development, but he never actually invented one. Contrary to the scientist from the University of Pennsylvania, John Presper Eckert and John Mauchly, to whom I am going to refer throughout this chapter and who can be rightly named the inventors of the world’s first general purpose computer[6].

1.1 The motivations for launching the “PX project”

As it was previously mentioned the stimulus which initiated and sustained the effort that produced the ENIAC the widely regarded world's first electronic digital computer, was provided by the extraordinary demand created by the military conflict to find the solution to a task of surpassing importance[7]. Specifically, it is vital to trace back the initial stages of the project that took place in the Research Division of Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG), Maryland, in the year 1939, which was shortly after renamed to Ballistic Research Laboratory (BRL) and became the core part of the Weapons Technology Directorate[8].

The constant urge to speed up the calculation process of the firing and bombing tables forced the ballisticians, at the Ballistic Research Laboratory facility at Aberdeen, to develop a permanent solution to the described above issue. The firing and bombing tables, or also referred to as ballistics tables, showed a particular soldier what angle of elevation was required for a specific projectile to impact at a target at a specified range with a given propellant charge. To make the firing at a given target successful the tables also included corrections that were needed to be applied in order to adjust the trajectory of the projectile to the variable atmospheric factors such as: angle of visibility, weight of projectile, temperature, strength of wind, compensation for drift and the temperature of the gunpowder used in a given projectile[9]. The firing and bombing tables were the key elements especially during the World War II, when the coordinates had to be swiftly and accurately prepared and afterwards sent to the field, in order to make the artillery strikes as accurate as possible. Each artillery weapon e.g. the 155mm Gun M1, widely known as Long Tom[10], required a firing table consisting of over five hundred different varieties of conditions[11].

Initially the tables were calculated manually by civilians employed by the United States Army who used simple mechanical desk calculators to complete each arithmetic operation[12]. It is also of relatively great importance to highlight that in this period the term computer [13] was used to define the people employed to perform the above mentioned calculations[14]. Furthermore, it was later estimated that in fact women were more capable than men of doing the calculations more accurately and rapidly, since the number of women trained in the area of mathematics was significantly higher than men at that time, and the cost of their employment was also a major and decisive factor, as it was relatively lower. As a result, around the year 1943 mainly women were assigned to perform the necessary artillery calculations[15].

The first solution to the problem of ineffective manual calculating was formed by the Ballistics Section. It was investigated and arranged to partially substitute the manual method with the use of an analog device known as Differential Analyzer or Bush Differential Analyzer, which was capable of generating the tables considerably faster when compared to a human being or more specifically to the human brain[16]. In order to acquire the required appliance the United States Army had to conclude a contract with the Moore School of Electrical Engineering, University of Pennsylvania, and at the same time assign Captain Herman Goldstine Ordnance Department officer, a well qualified mathematician with a D.Sc. degree, graduate of the University of Chicago and a professor at the University of Michigan, as the overseer of the whole operation[17].

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Captain Herman Goldstine (September 13, 1913 – June 16, 2004) was initially assigned to supervise the ballistics calculations with the use of Bush Differential Analyzer at the Moore School of Electrical Engineering, at the University of Pennsylvania[18].

The Differential Analyzer itself[19] was an analog device invented in 1931 by dr. Vannevar Bush, an American engineer specialized in electronics, an employee of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and later the overseer of governmental mobilization of scientific research during World War II[20]. The construction of the Differential Analyzer was based on metal rods and gears. All elements were mechanical and the unit itself was capable to solve six-order differential equations. Moreover, it was the first reliable and practical device of its kind, thus the device is sometimes referred to as an analog counterpart of a digital computer[21]. Unfortunately, the Differential Analyzer was able to reliably perform its task of conducting the necessary arithmetic operations provided that every element of the device was in perfect alignment, and such state of affairs was not satisfactory for the United States Army authorities.

Especially when taking into consideration the fact that in the early year 1943, the conflict of World War II was not in favor of the Allies. Adolf Hitler was controlling most of the Europe, the United Sates Army and the British forces were struggling on the terrains of northern Africa, and the American fleet managed to turn the Japanese Army only as far as the area of Guadalcanal. Although, factories were producing bigger artillery weapons, which were delivered to Europe and Africa, the soldiers found them useless because they could not be aimed without the necessary coordinates. The difference in terrain was also becoming a considerable issue for the Allied forces, especially in Africa[22].

Furthermore, the American soldiers discovered that the ballistics tables intended for Europe were not adjusted to accurately aim the artillery guns in Africa. This was determined by the distinction in the softness of the ground, the guns behaved differently on soft and hard ground surface. As a result, the previously mentioned Captain Herman Goldstine was put under great pressure by the authorities of the United States Army so as to find a more effective way to generate the firing and bombing tables, even though the United States Army had acquired their own copy of the Differential Analyzer, which was functioning at that time at the Ballistic Research Laboratory[23].

1.2 The idea behind the “PX project”

Captain Herman Goldstine hoped to overcome the problem of generating the tables by combining the grater usage of human resources in form of female mathematicians and instructing the employed technicians to run the Differential Analyzer as efficiently as possible. This however, was just a temporary solution for the United States Army[24].

Fortunately, by coincidence one of the graduates of the University of Pennsylvania informed him that one of the newly employed professors at the university, John Mauchly[25], had an idea of constructing a digital calculator that could perform different mathematical tasks within seconds, in comparison to the analog devices used at that time[26]. John Mauchly earlier presented this pioneering idea in a seven-page document titled The Use of High-Speed Vacuum Tube Devices for Calculation. However, the idea at the University of Pennsylvania was ignored by its authorities and widely regarded as impossible to perform[27].

John Mauchly and John Presper Eckert[28] met at a training course in electronics and despite the age difference, they were twelve years apart in age, quickly became friends. They both shared interest in electronic engineering and speeding up mathematical processes via usage of various mechanical appliances. In their early cooperation, John Mauchly and John Presper Eckert were discussing the idea of redesigning significant components of the Differential Analyzer in order to make it a partially electronic device, but finally they both agreed that it would be more beneficial to construct a new appliance form the very beginning. This concept was also presented to Captain Herman Goldstine when he finally was able to contact John Mauchly. Subsequently, the main idea of creating an electronic calculating device was rewritten and forwarded to the authorities of the United States Army, who then arranged a meeting in order to examine the idea and decide whether it was practical and reasonable enough to finance it[29].

The arranged meeting included Colonel Lesslie E. Simon, director of the Ballistics Research Laboratory, and Oswald Veblen, a renowned mathematician who was employed on the position of the laboratory technical adviser. At first, John Mauchly, John Presper Eckert and Captain Herman Goldstine were expecting large skepticism regarding the whole concept of constructing an electrical calculator, as they were assuming that it will be perceived as a an innovative but impossible category of science, but contrary to that it was understood by the commission as a conversion of the existing at that time analog technology to electronics[30]. Specifically, a design of a general-purpose computer unit, capable of inter alia generating firing tables, performing wind tunnel calculations and weather-pattern predictions was proposed by the two engineers represented by Captain Herman Goldstine[31].

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

John Presper Eckert (on the left) and John Mauchly (on the right) examining a computer printout[32].

In addition, Colonel Paul N. Gillon, the assistant director of the Ballistic Research Laboratory, supported the idea and took full responsibility, and supervision of the project, despite the fact that he was aware of the probable opposition that would form against the initiation and prosecution of this type of achievement, especially when taking into consideration that the successful completion of the appliance had a very speculative character. However, the decisive factor that influenced his decision was the realization of the importance of the need for an electronic numerical analyzer not only in terms of ballistic computations, but also research programs that were to be conducted in the future by the United States Army Ordnance Corps[33].

The partially skeptic, yet positive support from the United States Army authorities resulted in signing a contract with the authorities of the University of Pennsylvania on June 5, 1943, for Research and Development of the Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer. The original agreement committed 61 700 USD in United States Army Ordnance funds. Furthermore, additional nine supplements extended the period of work on the project to the year 1946. As a result, increasing the amount of funds to total of 486804 22 USD. John Presper Eckert was assigned as the chief engineer, whereas John Mauchly as the principal consultant of the operation[34].

Initially the project was named “Project PX” but shortly after, under the influence of the previously mentioned Colonel Paul N. Gillon, was renamed to Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer [35]. The construction of the machine began in June 1944 and the final assembly at the University of Pennsylvania took place in 1945, subsequently in January 1947 the computer was dismantled and delivered to Aberdeen Proving Ground. The project, from its inception and until being declassified in 1946 bare the “Confidential” status[36].

1.3 ENIAC—Facts and reliability

The most intriguing finding that can be made, even after conducting a superficial analysis, is that the completion and the final assembly of ENIAC took place after the conflict of World War II. So generally the machine did not reach its full potential in the terms of the purpose it was designed for, meaning computing ballistics tables during World War II. Nevertheless, the upcoming crisis of Cold War was the perfect period for the United States Army to use the machine in governmental research projects, where advanced mathematical calculations where required. Furthermore, it is vital to outline the facts concerning the general attributes such as overall dimensions and the operating principles of this electronic unit[37].

The ENIAC in terms of size was enormous when compared to nowadays miniaturized computers. When located at the Moore School of Electrical Engineering it occupied a basement of one hundred thirty five square meters and weighted twenty eight tons[38]. The forty panels of the machine, which included twenty accumulators, were arranged along the walls of the room in a U-shaped form. All units were connected with a thick durable black cable[39]. In detail, the machine consisted of 17 468 vacuum tubes, 500 000 solder joints, 70 000 resistors and 10 000 capacitors. The power resources required to run ENIAC equaled 174 kilowatts, however even when the computer was not fully operating it required additional energy, so as to heat the filaments in the vacuum tubes and keep the fans operational to protect the unit from overheating[40].

ENIAC could operate flawlessly for approximately two days before a vacuum tube would burn out[41]. In order to replace a tube every single one had to be individually checked, which made it a tiresome and a time consuming task[42]. It is also worth pointing out that basing the machine on such an unreliable device such as a vacuum tube was the source of many doubts whether or not it will be able to operate accurately when assigned to an important research program[43].

The computer itself could perform five thousand addition cycles a second and perform the work of fifty thousand people working manually. ENIAC was capable of providing a complete set of calculations of a single trajectory in thirty seconds, a task that would consume twenty hours using a desk calculator or fifteen minutes on a Differential Analyzer. At that time there was no other device that could perform such advanced mathematical operations so effectively and accurately[44].

Being a module based machine ENIAC was equipped in special units to perform particular processes. For instance, to add two numbers the programmers of the computer would store the first number in the accumulator one and the second in the accumulator two, which purpose was to combine pulses. Subsequently, the accumulator one would send its number into the accumulator two that would register the sum of the two numbers. Additionally, ENIAC had special units designed for high-speed multiplication and division with built in multiplication table, so as to impart the problem into simple multiplication of each digit[45].

Parallel operations could be scheduled in order to assign different sets of accumulators to work on different areas of a problem simultaneously. Subsequently, two or three different results from the parallel processes could be merge during the succeeding cycle stored in the program. It was also possible to use two accumulators together to obtain one twenty-digit number, instead of ten-digit numbers. The overall design of the machine made it possible to be run by a single operator, however the average operating time without any issues oscillated between five and six hours[46].

The preparation of a specific program for the machine required at least a month, often involving configuring manually approximately 3 000 switches, whereas finding an error in the program could take a week. It is quite surprising when compared to nowadays programming process performed on present day computers, which can be measured in hours or minutes rather than months, depending on the complexity of the task[47].

Nevertheless, being a machine designed for military purposes ENIAC was immediately assigned to the problems of the emerging Cold War. As it was previously mentioned, it was equipped with the capability to perform complex mathematical operations such as weather prediction, cosmic ray studies, thermal ignitions, atomic-energy calculations and wind-tunnel designs. That is why, it was a potential solution providing tool for classified governmental research projects. One of those projects, which was at that time classified and later revealed to the public, was the use of ENIAC to program the model of a hydrogen bomb for the Los Alamos Atomic Weapons Laboratories in 1945[48]. The computer being unable to store in its memory more than twenty ten-digit number, required a considerable number of weeks in order to commence the program through a series of stages. Each step of the program involved manual configuration of the machine via its plug boards and switches. The final result data, which was stored on one million punch cards[49], exposed several problems in the initially proposed model of the hydrogen bomb design that would not be able to be solved without the assistance of ENIAC. The remaining rest of the government sponsored projects in which ENIAC was involved, remains classified to this day[50].

ENIAC provided a considerably effective and successful active period of service for the United States Army, until it was shut down at 11:45 p.m. on 2nd October in 1955, because of the too high operating costs compared to its successors, Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer (EDVAC) and Ordnance Discrete Variable Automatic Computer (ORDVAC), which were available at that time[51]. But undoubtedly, the process of creating the first military computer clearly shows in which direction the warfare was developing, thus at the same time crediting the United States Army with the initiation of the revolution in the field of computerization[52].

[...]


[1] See, T. J. Bergin, 50 Years of Army Computing from ENIAC to MSR. A Record of a Symposium and Celebration November 13 and 14, 1996 Aberdeen Proving Ground, 2000, p. 13.

[2] Another example of an early programmable device, which is also considered the first fully operational computer, used for engineering calculations, was the Z3 (the successor of the mechanical in design Z1 and Z2) computer that was designed and built in 1941, by a German engineer Konrad Zuse (1910-1955) who greatly contributed to the overall development of computer technology. Additionally, it is vital to refer to the cryptographic machine known as Colossus, designed by Thomas Harold Flowers (1905-1998) in 1943 (the model Mk1), which was used by the British Army to decrypt confidential German messages of great strategic value during World War II. After the War Colossus had to remain as a secret project that is why most of the machine’s components and blueprints were destroyed, and the existence of the unit was finally revealed in 1970s. Such fact caused that Colossus, and its designer, were not properly credited for the pioneering achievements in the field of electronic computing. See, M. Bellis, Investors of the Modern Computer, http://inventors.about.com/library/weekly/aa050298.htm (Accessed 19th May 2012)

[3] See, T. J. Bergin, op. cit., p. 13.

[4] See, P. N. Edwards, The Closed World Computers and the Politics of Discourse in Cold War America, MIT Press, 1996, p. 43.

[5] See, P. A. Freiberger and M. R. Swaine, ENIAC, http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/ 183842/ENIAC (Accessed on 12th December 2011)

[6] See, S. McCartney, ENIAC, the triumphs and tragedies of the world’s first computer, Walker Publishing Company, Inc., New York 1999, p. 5.

[7] See, M. H. Weik, The ENIAC Story, http://arl.mil/mike/comphist/eniac-story.html (Accessed 11th November 2011)

[8] See, W. T. Moye, ENIAC: The Army-Sponsored Revolution, http://arl.mil/mike/comphist/ 96summary/index.html (Accessed on 23th December 2011)

[9] See, T. J. Bergin, op. cit., p. 13.

[10] See, Appendix 1.

[11] See, S. McCartney, op. cit., p. 53.

[12] See, Ibidem, p. 54.

[13] The usage of the term ‘computer’ changed when electronic computers became commercially available. At the time when ENIAC was operational it is very probable that the term had gradually started to gain a very significant role in terms of the use that functions nowadays.

[14] See, Woman Computers in World War II, http://www.ieeeghn.org/index.php/Women_Computers_ in_World_War_II (Accessed 16th February 2012)

[15] See, W. B. Fritz, The Women of ENIAC [in:] “IEEE Annals of the History of Computing”, Number 3 , Volume 18, 1996, p. 1.

[16] See, W. T. Moye, ENIAC: The Army-Sponsored Revolution, http://arl.mil/mike/comphist/96 summary/index.html (Accessed on 23th December 2011)

[17] See, S. McCartney, op. cit., p. 55.

[18] See, Herman Goldsitne (1913-2004), http://www.computerhistory.org/revolution/birth-of-the-computer/4/80/331 (Accessed 5th June 2012)

[19] See, Appendix 2.

[20] See, M. A. Dennis, Vannevar Bush, http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/86116 /Vannevar-Bush (Accessed 16th February 2012)

[21] See, P. A. Freiberger and M. R. Swaine, Computer, http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/ 130429/computer/216032/Invention-of-the-modern-computer#toc216034 (Accessed 16th February 2012)

[22] See, S. McCartney, op. cit., p. 54.

[23] See, Ibidem, p. 55.

[24] See, P. N. Edwards, op. cit., p. 49.

[25] John Mauchly (August 30, 1907 – January 8, 1980) before being involved in co-operating with the United States Army was an American physicist and engineer who in 1925 studied at the Johns Hopkins University, received a scholarship and finally graduated with a degree in physics. In 1932, John Mauchly received his D.Sc. degree in physics. Nevertheless, he was always interested in electrical engineering, which later developed in creating the basis for the first digital computer (ENIAC). In 1941, John Mauchly during the period of attending a training course in advanced electronics at the Moore School of Electrical Engineering, University of Pennsylvania, where he met John Presper Eckert. See, M. Bellis, John Mauchly, http://inventors.about.com/od/mstartinventors/p/JohnMauchly.htm (Accessed 17th February 2012)

[26] See, S. McCartney, op. cit., p. 55.

[27] See, Ibidem, p. 50.

[28] John Presper Eckert (April 9, 1919 – June 3, 1995), an American engineer who at that time was a newly graduated lab instructor at t the Moore School of Electrical Engineering at the University of Pennsylvania. Together with John Mauchly he worked on the construction of the world’s first general-purpose computer. See, M. Bellis, John Presper Eckert (1919-1955), http://inventors.about.com/od/ pstartinventors/p/JohnPresperEckert.htm (Accessed 17th February 2012)

[29] See, S. McCartney, op. cit., p. 57.

[30] See, Ibidem, p. 59.

[31] See, Ibidem, p. 60.

[32] See, John Mauchly, http://www.ohiohistorycentral.org/entry.php?rec=2657 (Accessed 11th April 2012)

[33] See, M. H. Weik, The ENIAC Story, http://arl.mil/mike/comphist/eniac-story.html (Accessed 11th November 2011)

[34] See, W. T. Moye, ENIAC: The Army-Sponsored Revolution, http://arl.mil/mike/comphist/ 96summary/index.html (Accessed on 23th December 2011)

[35] See, S. McCartney, op. cit., p. 61.

[36] See, T. J. Bergin, op. cit., p. 13.

[37] See, P. A. Freiberger and M. R. Swaine, ENIAC, http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked /topic/183842/ENIAC (Accessed on 12th December 2011)

[38] See, Apendix 3

[39] See, Apendix 4.

[40] See, S. McCartney, op. cit., p. 101-102.

[41] See, 1946: ENIAC computer, http://www.technical expressions.com/pagedesign/wp/?p=145 (Accessed 21st February 2012)

[42] See, Appendix 5.

[43] See, S. McCartney, op. cit., p. 75.

[44] See, Ibidem, p. 101.

[45] See, Ibidem, p. 91.

[46] See, Ibidem, p. 93.

[47] See, Ibidem, p. 94.

[48] A number of internet sources indicates that ENIAC was actively involved in the Manhattan Project (active 1942-1946) that is however a false statement as the computer was not yet operational at that time. The misunderstanding is caused by confusing the first atomic bomb, used during the conflict of World War II, with the research of the Los Alamos National Laboratory on the development of the model of a hydrogen bomb. See, C. Sulivan, Betty Holberton: Woman of ENIAC, http://www.uri.edu/ personal/csul7234/bettyholberton1.html (Accessed 2nd February 2012), History of Computing Information, http://ftp.arl.army.mil/mike/comphist/ (Accessed 2nd February 2012)

[49] Punch cards were at that time (19th century) used as a type of a physical data storage devices, they can be called the counterparts of the today’s hard disk drives or popular nowadays USB flash drives. Made on stiff paper punch cards contained digital information by the presence or absence of holes in predefined positions on their structure. See, V. Slamecka, Information Processing, http://www.britannica. com/EBchecked/topic/287847/information-processing/61655/Recording-media?anchor=ref212053 (Accessed 3rd February 2012)

[50] See, P. N. Edwards, op. cit., p. 51.

[51] See, M. H. Weik The ENIAC Story, http://arl.mil/mike/comphist/eniac-story.html (Accessed 11th November 2011)

[52] See, ARL Computing History, http://www.arl.army.mil/www/default.cfm?page=148 (Accessed 22th October 2011)

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Titel: Computerization of United States Army as an Inspiration of Modern Warfare