1.1 Need of present study
1.2 Objectives of present study
CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE
CHAPTER 3 RESEARCH DESIGN AND PROCEDURE
3.1 Sample summary and representation of population:
3.2 Tool used in the study
3.3 Field and analytical Procedure
CHAPTER 4 ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA
4.1 Respondents chance of opting career in academics
4.2 Factors affecting the reasons behind opting for the teaching profession:
4.2.1 Rejection of Alternative options (Extrinsic)
188.8.131.52 Reliability analysis of Factors related to rejection of alternative
4.2.2 Self-exploration (Intrinsic)
184.108.40.206 Reliability analysis of Factors related to self exploration
4.4.3 Career and Qualifications (Extrinsic)
220.127.116.11 Reliability analysis of Factors related to Career qualification
4.4.4 Social enjoyment (Extrinsic)
18.104.22.168 Reliability analysis of Factors related to Social enjoyment
4.4.5 Social Pressure (Extrinsic)
22.214.171.124 Reliability analysis of Factors related to Social pressure
4.2.6 Altruism (Intrinsic)
126.96.36.199 Reliability analysis of Factors related to Altruism
4.2.7 Role of teachers in career decision:
188.8.131.52 Reliability of Factors related to learning environment
4.3 Motivating factors operating behind choice of academics
4.3.1 Motivations to choose a career in Academics:
4.3.2 Aspects of teachers as source of motivation so as to choose a career in academics:
4.3.3 Aspects of teachers as discouraging factor in choosing a career in academics:
CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSION AND SUGGESSION
I sit here and ponder all of the people I need to acknowledge and how I begin to thank everyone who contributed in this work. I will begin thanking my supervisor Dr. (Smt.) Shashi Kiran Pandey for guiding me in every step whenever I required her help. Her professional wisdom has made this document what it is, and for that, my appreciation for her is unending.
It is my sincere thanks to all those respondents who has spend their valuable time and selflessly filled up the questionnaire (the backbone of this research). Without their sincerity in responding with honesty, this would not have completed.
I need to say a huge thank you my class mates for providing information time to time and kept me going in the process. You all have provided guidance and wisdom when I needed advice. It was a pleasure working with each of you throughout this incredible journey.
The next person I would like to thank is my maternal uncle (Boto). Through all of this, he was my biggest inspiration to complete the work. He time to time inspired me to take this opportunity to and finish the course with sincerity.
There are a lot of people at my family that deserve a thank you. I am grateful for all of their contribution in selfless contribution.
List of Tables
Table 3.1: Gender representation in the survey:
Table 4.1: Probability of respondents opting for career in academics
Table 4.2 Rejection of Alternative options (Extrinsic) behind choosing career in academics
Table 4.3 Self-exploration (Intrinsic) behind choosing career in academics
Table 4.4 Career and Qualifications (Extrinsic) behind choosing career in academics
Table 4.5 Social enjoyment (Extrinsic) behind choosing career in academics
Table 4.6 Social Pressure (Extrinsic) behind choosing career in academics
Table 4.7 Altruism (Intrinsic) behind choosing career in academics
Table 4.8 Factors relating teaching environment behind choosing Academics as career
Appendix 1: Influence of Teachers on the University Student’s Motivation for Academic Career. (Questionnaire - ITMSCDAQ1)
Shortage of quality faculty in the higher education is a big challenge to be addressed in Indian education system. The proposed research aims to investigate the influence of teachers in motivation level of students for career development in academics. The study shall be conducted in different departments at HNB Garhwal University. Data shall be collected on from the population consisted of all student and teachers in the HNB Garhwal University, Birla & Chauras Campus. Stratified Random sampling technique will be used to select sample of the study. Sample of this study would comprise of both male and female students of the different departments of the University. Departments to be sampled shall include at least one department from each school, selected after randomization. The sample size from each department shall be decided based on the availability of students and teachers response. It is proposed that the sample size should be good enough to get a representative sample of population.
1.1 Need of present study
There are reports that India facesa shortageof 300,000 faculty members in its universities and colleges. It is estimated that the shortage will increase at the rate of 100,000 each year. These are big numbers even for a country of one billion-plus people and counting. What is remarkable is that the faculty shortage is serious not only in poor-quality public universities and colleges, but even at the world-class Indian Institutes of Technology (IITs) and the Indian Institutes of Management (IIMs). There is a shortage of 12 lakh government school teachers. The UNESCO Institute of Statistics goes one step further. In a 2010 report, it says India will need 20 lakh new teachers by 2015. The truth is that, with some exceptions, higher education is in deep rot. India produces a sufficient number of high-quality Ph.D.’s but unable to motivate them to opt for jobs in academics within India.
“In India, teaching is not seen as a high status profession and toppers do not opt for it,” points out Aruna Sankaranarayanan, director, Prayatna, Centre for Educational Assessment and Intervention, Bangalore. The world over, successful education systems are those that have been able to uphold the status of the teaching profession, attracting the best talent and providing pay and professional development opportunities comparable to other professions needing similar levels of qualification and training (Chatterji 2011).
Many highly qualified Indians work at foreign universities but prestigious Indian universities face trouble getting high-quality faculty. Sometime back a government minister launched an uproar by remarking that the quality of IITs' students surpasses their faculties.But the same IITs’ have problem in getting faculty. And the problem is far more severe for lesser institutions.
Obstacles to recruiting high-caliber professors include low pay, a shortage of top-ranked Ph.D. programs in India, poor quality of life in many college towns, and the generally low status of the academic profession in the country.At this stage if anything can encourage the intellectual students to take up the career in academics is motivation acquired from their teachers. There are many reasons those with good grades look down upon teaching. “Outdated teaching practices are keeping students away from this profession in government schools; in private schools it’s the poor pay,” says Ameeta Mulla Wattal, principal, Springdales School, Delhi, and vice-chairperson, National Progressive Schools Conference, a body of 120-odd private schools from across the country.
Students motivation is important owing to importance of very less number of intellectual mass are opting for academic career in their professional life. This study is proposed to identify the factors that help to know students’ attitudes towards making career in academics and highlight the role of teachers deciding student’s professional career. This will assist educational thinkers to introspect and guide the teachers to play their role in motivating students, especially the intelligent student mass to opt for the career in academics.
Statement of problem:
In spite of increasing number of student coming for higher studies, there is increasing gap in the demand and supply of quality students coming into academics.
Motivation: Motivation is defined as the process that initiates, guides and maintains goal-oriented behaviors. Motivation is what causes us to act, whether it is getting a glass of water to reduce thirst or reading a book to gain knowledge.
Students: Students here means Post graduate and Research scholars enrolled in Ph.D coursed
Career development: Career development is the series of activities or the on-going/lifelongprocess of developing one’s career. It usuallyrefersto managing one’s career in an intra-organizational or inter-organizational scenario.
Academics: Here the term academics has been used to refer profession in which the main responsibility is teaching and research.
1.2 Objectives of present study
Following were the objectives of this study-
- To find the difference of opinion among male & female student about influence of teachers in motivation development for choosing career in Academics.
- To investigate the effect of teacher’s career and use of teaching techniques on motivation of student to look for the career in Academics.
- Find out factors which influence motivation of students.
- Suggest a remedial program to effect motivation positively among students for choosing career in academics.
H0: a) Motivation factors related to career development in academics and there is no significant difference among the different category of students.
H0: b) Teacher’s quality is significantly correlated with motivation factors linked with career development of students in academics.
Due to shortage of time and resources the present study has been conducted upon the students of different departments of chauras campus of H.N.B. Garhwal University.
CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE
Student motivation is the element that leads students’ attitude towards deciding their career goal. Number of studies has been conducted to probe the role of student motivation. Different definitions of students’ motivation have been used by various researches. For instance Lumsden, (1994) analyzed students’ involvement towards education and sources of their motivation. Marshal (1987) viewed students’ motivation as a force beneficial to the learner. Ames (1990) stated that motivation to learning is dependant on long-term, quality attachment in learning and pledge to the process of learning. Most motivation theorist believes that motivation is involved in the performance of all learned responses and leaned behavior will not occur unless it is energized. Bomia et al. (1997) has suggested student motivation as student willingness, need, desire and obligation to participate and be booming in the learning process. Student motivation is often separated into two types: Intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation.
In today’s world, higher education institutions play an ever-increasing role. Besides their traditional functions of teaching and research, they are now challenged to contribute to society’s economic and social development, which is often articulated as relevance or the ‘third mission’ of universities (Gibb, 1996; Johannisson, Handström, & Rosenberg, 1998; Etzkowitz, Webster, Gebhardt, & Terra, 2000). How universities could contribute to economic progress and structural change is illustrated by the impressive examples of Massachusetts Institute of Technology and other universities (Chrisman, Hynes, & Fraser, 1995; Hsu, Roberts, & Eesley, 2007; Bramwell & Wolfe, 2008). Hereby, a ‘producing’ qualified person is an important task and perhaps the most fruitful transfer mechanism. In this context, the universities’ relevance is twofold. On the one hand, the constantly regenerating stock of students and scientists stand for an enormous potential of ideas for creating new business ventures. Studies have shown that individuals with a university degree have a higher proclivity to start their own business (Sternberg et al., 2007). Furthermore, firms issuing from the academic environment have a particular potential for growth and innovation (Roberts, 1991; Steffensen, Rogers, & Speakman, 2000). Therefore, economic policy makers claim the promotion of start-ups from the higher education sector. The last decades have witnessed an immense growth in establishing entrepreneurship as an academic discipline and instituting entrepreneurship courses and programmes at all educational levels (Falkäng & Alberti, 2000; Hisrich, 2003; Solomon, Duffy, & Tarabishy, 2002). However, when business creation by graduates is intended, it is imperative to understand the motives of those who strive for self-employment in order to sensitise and educate them accordingly.
On the other hand and apart from the fact that only a certain percentage of individuals are likely to choose career in academics. From this point of view, it is equally appropriate to inspire students to ponder the option of employment in academics. For this purpose again, there is a need to anticipate students’ career choices and the underlying motivations. The rationale of our research is that comprehending the students’ motives for career choice is crucial not only for entrepreneurship education and graduate entrepreneurship but also in career choice in academics.
Several prior studies have found that career choices are determined by many, sometimes quite different motives. In this context, some theories for understanding the reasons underlying the decision to begin a specific occupational or entrepreneurial career have been developed over time. As a result, the Theory of Social Learning (Bandura, 1977), the Entrepreneurial Event Theory (Shapero & Sokol, 1982) and the Theory of Planned Behaviour (Ajzen, 1991) have emerged as the most promising approaches. The central element of these theories is the individual’s intention to undertake and to put a specific behaviour into practice, influenced by motivational elements. In general, the motives can be classified into cognitive personal factors on the one hand; contextual or environmental factors on the other. They can exert positive or negative influence on the intended career, and often their specific combination and interaction moulds the individual’s decision to enter a particular career path.
Intrinsic motivation: A student is intrinsically motivated when he or she is motivated from within: Intrinsically motivated students keenly engage themselves in learning out of oddity, interest, or enjoyment, or in order to achieve their own scholarly and personal goals. Dev (1997) viewed that student who is intrinsically motivated will not need any type of reward or incentive to instigate or complete a task. This type of student is more likely to complete the chosen task and eager by the challenging nature of an activity. Lepper (1988) viewed intrinsic motivation for own sake for the enjoyment it provides, the learning it permits, or the feeling of accomplishment it evokes.
Extrinsic motivation: Dev, (1997) viewed that extrinsically motivated student engages in learning purely for attaining a reward or for avoiding some punishment. Lepper (1988) states extrinsic motivation means to obtain some reward or avoid some punishment external to the activity itself such as grades, stickers or teacher approval.
Thus students with intrinsic motivation are more enthusiastic, self driven, challenging and feel pleasure in achieving their goal, whereas, students with extrinsic motivation try to drag themselves towards goal and feel compelled to do things, and always put minimal efforts to achieve maximum appreciations. Intrinsically motivated, students tend to utilize strategies that require more effort and that allow them to process information more intensely. Condry and Chambers (1978) found that when students were confronted with multifarious intellectual tasks, those with an intrinsic direction used more logical information-gathering and decision-making strategies than did students who were extrinsically motivated. Students with an intrinsic orientation also tend to prefer tasks that are fairly challenging, whereas extrinsically oriented students incline toward tasks that are low in degree of difficulty. Extrinsically oriented students are prone to put forth the minimal amount of effort necessary to get the maximal reward (Lepper, 1988). We can summarize motivation in students as follows.
Motivation is the inspiration of a person to do any task. It can be define as the draining force that initiate and drives an individual‟s behavior. The research literature demonstrates that while not everyone is similarly motivated to teach, there are some motivations commonly expressed by those considering a career in teaching. Some of the common motives for the teaching are as follows:
(a) a 'calling': having always wanted to teach (Dinham & Scott, 2000; Gordon 1993; Hart & Murphy, 1990; Stiegelbauer, 1992; Whately, 1998; Yong, 1999);
(b) students: a 'love' of children, a desire to work with children or adolescents, previous involvement with children, or for the benefit of children (Allard, Bransgrove, Cooper, Duncan & MacMillan, 1995; Ferrell & Daniel, 1993; Gordon 1993; Hart & Murphy, 1990; Serow, Eaker & Forrest, 1994; Stiegelbauer, 1992; Weiner, Swearingen, Pagano & Obi, 1993; Whately, 1998; Yong, 1995);
(c) altruism: the perceive worth or value of teaching to others, to make a difference in the lives of others, to help other people, to change society or lo help a troubled profession (Allard ct al, 1995; Ferrell & Daniel, 1993; Gordon 1993; Hart & Murphy, 1990; Johnson & Birkeland, 2002; O'Brien, & Schillaci, 2002; Public Agenda Online, 2000; Serow et al, 1994; Stiegelbauer, 1992; Weiner et al, 1993; Whately, 1998; Yong, 15199);
(d) intellectual stimulation: including a love of learning, teaching, or a particular subject area (the latter more likely reported by secondary teachers), or the desire to impart knowledge (Gordon 1993; Serow, 1993; Serow et al, 1994; Stiegelbauer, 1992; Whately, 1998; Yong, 1999); |
(e) the influence of others: including family members, past teachers or members of the community (Allard et al, 1995; Ferrell & Daniel, 1993; Gordon 1993; Hart & Murphy, 1990; Serow et al, 1994; Stiegelbauer, 1992; Yong, 1995);
(f) the perceived benefits and/or convenience of teaching: including work schedules, work hours, vacations, career security and salary (Allard et al, 1995; Ferrell & Daniel, 1993; Gordon 1993; Hart & Murphy, 1990; Serow, 1993; Weiner et al, 1993; Yong, 1999);
(g) the nature of teaching work: especially the opportunities teaching provides for satisfying interpersonal interactions with others (Crow, Levine & Nager, 1990; Ferrell & Daniel, 1993; OECD, 2005; Weiner et al, 1993; Yong, 1999);
(h) a desire for a career change: through dissatisfaction with a previous career, or a stressful life event such as divorce, unemployment or geographic relocation (more common in second career student teachers) (Hart & Murphy, 1990; Richardson & Watt, 2006; Serow, 1993);
(i) the perceived relative ease of entry into initial teacher education courses, or of the job of teaching itself (Weiner et al, 1993; Yong, 1995); and/or,
(j) the status of teaching; including the opportunities teaching provides for career or social advancement (Allard et al, 1995; Dilworth, 1991; Yong, 1999).