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The Study of Cephalic Index Of North Indian Students In TMMC & RC

Bachelorarbeit 2013 45 Seiten

Medizin - Anatomie, Physiologie, Cytologie

Leseprobe

TABLE OF CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION

HISTORICAL REVIEW

REVIEW OF LITERATURE

AIM & OBJECTIVE

MATERIAL AND METHOD

OBSERVATION

DISCUSSION

CONCLUSION

BIBLIOGRAPHY

LIST OF TABLES

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LIST OF FIGURES

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LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS USED

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INTRODUCTION

Cephalometry is the scientific measurement of the dimensions of head. 1 The name Cephalometry is grain to the morphological study of all structures present in the human head. 2 Cephalometry is a branch of Anthropometry.

Anthropometry may perhaps be most simply and comprehensively defined as the conventional art or system of measuring the human body and its parts. The systems of measuring the skull and the skeleton are known separately as craniometry and osteometry, but these terms are frequently merged with that of anthropometry ;thus we speak only of anthropometric instruments, anthropometric methods in anthropometric laboratories.

HISTORICAL REVIEW

Cephalic index was first identified by Swedish Professor of Anatomy Anders Rezitus (1796-1860). With the passage of time constant changes occurred in the structural appearances of human life as evolution. Evolution is defined as genetic change overtime. CHARLES DARWIN defined evolution as “Descend with modification”. Anthropology is a science founded on evolutionary principles. 3 Cephalic index is the term used in anthropology to find out racial differences, sexual differences which are of great significance in diagnosing medico legal cases of forensic medicine.

Man is fond of making comparison to prove his superiority over the increasing size of Phylogeny. Measurements serve as an important guideline for Comparison. Comparative changes in the cephalic index between parents, offspring, and siblings towards their genetic transmission of inherited characteristics.

To compare skulls of different races and species, the physical anthropologist takes various measurements of skull. This process is called Craniometry. 6 The breadth/length ratio is the cranial index (cephalic index in the living). Distinction between measurement of dried crania and living heads, by the two sets of terms, is not rigidly applied. The “Cephalic” terms are more common, often used for both the purposes. 7 internationally accepted techniques of craniometry/Cephalometry have promoted a large number of comparable data for males and to lesser extent, females.

Measurements are important tools for comparisons. Measurements of the body were begun and are used by the artisan, and by the artist, the object of the one being a proper "fit' and that of the other a correct or artistically superior production. They were and are employed in recruiting armies, with the aim of eliminating the inferiors. They are used to some extent by medical men and dentists, to assist them in reaching diagnosis or tracing improvement in their patients. They enter largely into the modern systems of college and other gymnastics, and lately also into those of the popular baby studies. Certain measurements play important role in criminological and medico-legal identification. Finally, we have measurements that have become invaluable aids to scientific research in physiology, anatomy and especially anthropology.

Cephalometry is an important tool for an Anthropologist and Forensic expert for identification of the racial differences, sexual differences, comparison of changes between parents, offsprings and siblings towards their genetic transmission of inherited characteristics and also in forensic practice where cranial remains were compared with existing photographic and radiographic records in identification of disputed identity.

Race: “Biological grouping within the human species distinguished or classified according to genetically transmitted differences”. Thus, race is a population concept. Races are populations, which differ in the frequency of some genes.

The population of world is divided into 3 types of races namely 9:-

1. Caucasians or Caucasoids
2. Mongolians or Mongoloids
3. Negros or Negroid

Table No. 1 – Differentiating features between races 9

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Table No. 2 – Differences in skull types for determination of races 9

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Dolichocephalic Mesaticephalic Brachycephalic

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Fig. no. 1 - Showing differences in skull types for determination of races

Dolichocephalic skull (Fig. no. 1 - A)

Source: Raveendranath V. & Manjunath K. Y.; An anthropometric study of correlation between cephalic index, cranial volume and cranial measurements in Indian cadavers; Indian Science Abstracts; Sep. 2010: vol. 15 (ii); pp. – 55-58.

If the maximum width of cranium is less than 75% of its maximum length, it is called as Dolichocephalic skull.

Mesaticephalic skull (Fig. no. 1 - B): - If the ratio between maximum width of cranium and maximum length of cranium is between 75% to 80%, it is called as Mesaticephalic skull.

Brachycephalic skull (Fig. no. 1 - C): - If the maximum width of cranium is more than 80% of its maximum length, it is called as Brachycephalic skull.

The length and breadth are measured by spreading calipers, and not by measuring tape.

The skull of an Indian is Caucasian with few Negroid characters.From the various measurements of the skull , race can be determined in 85% to 90% of cases. Because of the racial mixing , all the skulls may not be correctly differentiated into the 3 races. Racial mixing has been and is constant and as such pure races are uncommon.

The Mongoloids includes native Americans, Asiatic orientals such as Korean, Japanese, Chinese and Southeast Asians. Most Europeans skulls fall into Mesaticephalic group.

SEXUAL DIMORPHISM: It is generally less marked in mankind than in some other primates. This is to be associated with the paedomorphic tendency of the human stock , not in females but also males being less divergent in adult development , from their juvenile form , than is the case among some other primates , especially in the males.(Abbies 1952; Schultz 1956).

Even in extinct species of mankind sexual dimorphism appears - (on the slender fossil evidence available) - to have been less than in primates.

In modern man the differences are further reduced but the degree of divergence between the sexes in cranial dimensions and proportions varies in different racial groups .

These sexual differences have attracted less exact evaluation than have general studies of ethnic variations.

In both cases, assessment depends upon observation of 2 kinds of features:

- Those which cannot be measured. (Size of mastoid process, prominence of chin).
- Those which are customarily expressed as actual measurements or indices. (eg. Cranial capacity , orbital index )

Craniometric methods have a special usefulness in forensic practice where cranial remains can be compared with existing photographic and radiographic records in making an identification. They also play a part in attempts to reconstruct the appearance in life of Indus represented only by skeletal remains.

The most important of Cephalometry dimensions are length and breadth of head that with them determine the cephalic index. The Cephalic

index is the ratio of the maximum breadth of head to its maximum length.

CEPHALOMETRY

1. (A) Maximum length of the head, or the maximum antero-posterior diameter; c.e. This is the maximum glabello-occipital diameter of the vault.

Landmarks:

Anteriorly — the most prominent point of the glabella;

Posteriorly — the most prominent point on the occiput as shown by the

Maximum determinable spread of the branches of the spreading calipers.

1. (B) The Iniac antero-posterior diameter (optional); c.e.

Taken in the sagittal and median plane of the vault.

Landmarks:

Anteriorly — the most prominent point of the glabella;

Posteriorly — the inion, the individual peculiarities of which should be discounted.

2. The maximum breadth of the head or maximum lateral diameter; c.e. This is the greatest horizontal and transverse diameter which can be found on the vault by the spreading callipers.

Landmarks:

Determined solely by the maximum breadth of the skull above the supra-mastoid and zygomatic crests.

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Fig. no.2: - Showing the head points used for the measurements

Source: Raveendranath V. & Manjunath K. Y.; An anthropometric study of correlation between cephalic index, cranial volume and cranial measurements in Indian cadavers; Indian Science Abstracts; Sep. 2010: vol. 15 (ii); pp. – 55-58.

REVIEW OF LITERATURE

Cephalic index is an important parameter in evaluating racial and gender differences. A large body of evidence shows a clear racial variation in cephalic index. Therefore detailed knowledge of the population specific data on biometric features of the cranium is important in the study and comparison of the crania of populations from different racial backgrounds, assessing growth and development of an individual and in the diagnosis of any abnormalities of cranial size and shape.

Cephalic index was first identified by Swedish Professor of Anatomy Anders Rezitus (1796-1860) and first used physical anthropology to classify ancient human remains found in Europe.

S. Bharati et al (2001) investigated the relationship between head form and climatic variation in different tribal and caste populations of India. The magnitude of the cephalic index varied significantly in different zones. In tropical zones, head form was longer (dolicocephalic), but in temperate zones, head form was more round (mesocephalic or brachycephalic), especially among Scheduled Tribes (ST) and Scheduled Castes (SC) than among other castes. The authors concluded that these trends possibly support a climatic adaptation model in head form differences among ST and SC in India.

Shah G. V. & Jadhav H.R. (2004) measured cephalic index in medical students of Gujarat, 500 medical students were measured for head length & head breadth and cephalic index was calculated. After comparing previous records of cephalic index with their work, a tendency was proved towards brachycephalisation – an evidence of continuous growth of brain more in the lateral direction. The authors also concluded that the sex as well as race of the deceased can be determined accurately with the head measurement.

Hossain Golam M. D. et al (2005) found secular changes in head dimensions of Japanese adult males. The subjects for the study were all of Japanese birth and Japanese ancestry. The age range of the subjects was between 18 and 25 years. Four head measurements were taken: head length, breadth, height and circumference. In addition, stature and body weight were also measured. All measurements were made by one observer (Fumio Ohtsuki) from 1998 to 2001. The study sample was compared with the series taken between 1910 and 1917 of Matsumura and the one measured in 1965 of Morita and Ohtsuki. The study demonstrated the presence of larger means for head length, head breadth and cephalic index in the current sample than in their predecessors of about 35–85 years ago. Also, the findings displayed larger head circumference than that of the Morita and Ohtsuki series. When ANOVA test was applied for statistical analysis of data, head length and head breadth showed significant (p <0.01) differences among all birth-year cohorts from 1978 to 1983 of the current sample. Head height, head circumference and cephalic index did not display significant differences. However, the slope of the regression line indicated that all measurements as well as the cephalic index showed slightly decreasing tendencies during the investigated period. The results suggested that brachycephalization has been occurring for approximately about 35–85 years in adult Japanese males, but the change seems to have become reversed slightly during the period covered by this study sample.

Lobo S.W . et al (2005) found cephalometric characteristics and gender differences in Cephalic Index of a Gurung community, Nepal. Head length, head breadth and Cephalic Index were determined for 267 subjects of Gurung village. The mean Cephalic Index for male was 83.1 and for female 84.6 which was statistically significant. The author concluded at the end of the study that on comparing the results with the existing literature the Gurung community can be categorized as Brachycephalic.

Golalipour M. J. (2006) stated that cephalic index and head shape are affected by geographical, gender, age, racial and ethnic factors. This study was carried out to determine cephalic index and head shape in 410 normal 17- 20 years old female (Turkman group – 200 and Fars group – 207) in Gorgan north Iran. After observing his results and comparing with other studies in the world, he concluded that ethnic factor affects the head dimensions.

Vojdani Zahra et al (2009) conducted the study for determining normal range of head shapes in 867girls and 960 boys in the age of 14-18 in fars-Iran. In regards of cephalic index their results showed that dominant type of head in girls was brachycephalic with 42.5% and in boys was hyperbrachycephalic with 34.3%, rare type of head shape in girls was dolicocephalic with 4.80% and in boys was 7.5%. There was significant difference between boys and girls cephalic index.

Oladipo G. S. et al (2009) determined the cephalic indices among Ogonis. 800 subjects comprising 400 male and 400 female with age ranging from 25 – 45 years, of Ogoni ethnic group by both parents and grandparents, were measured. The subjects were measured for head length and head breadth and cephalic index was worked out by dividing the head breadth by head length and multiplying by 100. The cephalic indices were calculated and the result analysed using Z test. The test analysis indicated that there was significant difference between Ogoni males and females. They also observed that cephalic index is an important parameter for classifying populations.

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Details

Seiten
45
Jahr
2013
ISBN (eBook)
9783656747352
ISBN (Buch)
9783656747338
Dateigröße
1.2 MB
Sprache
Englisch
Katalognummer
v280294
Institution / Hochschule
Teerthanker Mahaveer University – Teerthanker Mahaveer Medical College & Research Centre ,Moradabad ,U.P., India
Note
Schlagworte
study cephalic index north indian students tmmc

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Titel: The Study of Cephalic Index Of North Indian Students In TMMC & RC