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The impact of the polluted river Kali (east) on the groundwater of Meerut

von Prabhakar Shukla (Autor) M K Singhal (Autor)

Hausarbeit 2014 18 Seiten

Umweltwissenschaften

Leseprobe

IMPACT OF POLLUTED RIVER KALI (EAST) ON GROUNDWATER OF MEERUT

Saurabh Mishra, Shilpa yadav, Prabhakar Shukla, Mukesh Kumar Singhal

Alternate Hydro Energy Center

Indian Institute of Technology

Roorkee, India

ABSTRACT:

Now-a-days the groundwater quality is continuously being degraded due to the percolation of polluted water from the wastewater drains, polluted rivers and ponds. As a result its quality has not remained potable in many parts of the country. To assess the impact of the highly polluted Kali River, physic-chemical characterization has been performed on different groundwater samples collected from hand pumps and tube wells from 7 villages located at different distances from the pollution source. The main water quality parameters that have been used to assess the quality of groundwater abstracted through shallow and deep hand pumps placed in the different villages along the banks of River Kali (East). Color, taste and Odor, pH, EC (us/cm), TDS(mg/L), Hardness(mg/L) B.O.D(mg/L), C.O.D(mg/L), Chloride(mg/L, Iron(mg/L, Nitrate (mg/L), Sulphate(SO4),Sodium(mg/L),Potassium(mg/L), Calcium(mg/L), Magnesium(mg/L), Zinc (mg/L), Lead (mg/L), Chromium (mg/L), Cadmium (mg/L). the result shows that worst affected water source are the private hand pumps which are located closest to the River Kali. Unfortunately, deeper govt. hand pumps were also found violating the permissible limits for some of the parameters. Only very deep government tube wells (up to 120 m) had values within stipulated range, indicating that groundwater aquifer contamination is extreme nearer to the surface of ground.

Keywords: Groundwater, physic-chemical characterization, river kali, hand pumps.

INTRODUCTION

Our Earth is 75% covered with water in form of oceans, seas etc. but all of this water is no potable. Only a small proportion of this i.e. 2.5% is not salty hence potable and out of this small proportion, major part is trapped within ice caps and glaciers hence inaccessible, so only 0.08% of total water present can be put to use for drinking. The major source for potable water i.e. groundwater is also been gradually declining and in some areas in the world it has react the verge of exhaustion. Western UP area has many rivers be it big or small. The important ones being Ganga, Yamuna, Hindon, Kali (East & West) and Krishni which sustain the area’s lives. But due to rapid industrialization these rivers are continuously being polluted over the past few decades. They are polluted to an extent that now these rivers take lives instead of giving it. The ground water quality in the Meerut district has been deteriorating at a very fast rate, the reason are the 2 most polluted rivers viz. Kali tributary of river Ganga and Hindon river passing through the district. The studies conducted on ground water analysis near using hand pump and tube well water samples from villages near the bank of river kali reveals that water from hand pumps was found unsuitable for drinking and other uses, as they violated limits prescribed by BIS & WHO at all stations. It was found that values of BOD, COD, TDS, EC, potassium, magnesium, calcium and iron were above the limit at every station. The most important concern characteristic is that groundwater in some villages have heavily contaminated with lead, chromium, cadmium and zinc. This is very toxic to human health. The villages as nearer to river, contamination increases with decrease in distance which is alarming. A number of studies regarding pollution aspects of the Kali River have been carried out by different C. K. Jain et al. (1997), Shilpi Bhargava et al. (2009) Dhakyanaika K. and Kumara P. (2010) Interactions between groundwater and surface water at river banks Luc Lambs (2003). Quality of groundwater aquifers of the Meerut region by Shreya Mishra et al. (2013). Haroon Sajjad et al (2013).

STUDY AREA: MEERUT

The Kali River is one of the most polluted rivers of Uttar Pradesh. River Kali East is an intermittent river which flows through monsoonal months. Around 1200 villages are situated on the banks of Kali River as it flows through major and minor cities and towns. Study area for present work covers the stretch around Meerut district. Assessment of groundwater quality has been done in Meerut district to check its suitability for different domestic purposes. The stretch as shown in fig.1, location and coordinates of drains falling in the Kali River has been shown in fig.2 mentioned in table 1. Govt. Tube wells and Hand pumps availability for collecting samples from different villages has been mentioned in table 2.

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Fig. 1: Image showing River Kali & different sampling stations in Meerut (source: Google Earth)

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Table 1: Location and coordinates of drains falling in the Kali River (source: own data)

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Fig 2: Location of sampling points (Source: own data)

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WATER QUALITY SAMPLING

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Table 2: Govt. Tube wells and Hand pumps availability in different villages (source: own figure)

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Table 3: Different groundwater sampling points (source: own data)

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Table 4: Different surface water sampling points (source: own data)

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METHODOLOGY FOR GROUNDWATER QUALITY ASSESSMENT

For selecting the sampling wells, following criteria were looked for:

- Water wells used for drinking by the villagers;
- Those well which were situated in close vicinity to any kind of pollution source like industry or dumping sites etc.
- Wells which were discharging contaminated water as per information collected from the villagers.

Three types of wells were chosen for groundwater sampling and samples were collected from either of them Open dug wells, Tube wells, Hand Pumps. For analyzing the monsoonal variation in surface and groundwater quality, the sampling will be done in pre-monsoon (march 2014) and post-monsoon (October 2013) at all the locations.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

The following table’s shows the result obtained during lab analysis of the water sample collected from selected sites. Table 5-18 represents the pre and post monsoon result of groundwater quality of Villages, while table 19-20 shows the river water test results of pre and post monsoon.

1: VILAGE GROUNDWATER QUALITY RESULTS

Table 5: Pre-monsoon results of groundwater quality of Village A (source: own data)

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Table 6: Post-monsoon results of groundwater quality of Village A (source: own data)

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Table 7: Pre-monsoon results of groundwater quality of Village B (source: own data)

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Table 8: Post-monsoon results of groundwater quality of Village B (source: own data)

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Table 9: Pre-Monsoon results of groundwater quality of Village C (source: own data)

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Table 10: Post-monsoon results of groundwater quality of Village C (source: own data)

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Table 11: Pre-monsoon results of groundwater quality of Village D (source: own data)

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Table 12: Post-monsoon results of groundwater quality of Village D (source: own data)

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Table 13: Pre-monsoon results of groundwater quality of Village E (source: own data)

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Table 14: Post-monsoon results of groundwater quality of Village E (source: own data)

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Table 15: Pre-monsoon results of groundwater quality of Village F (source: own data)

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Table 16: Post-monsoon results of groundwater quality of Village F (source: own data)

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Table 17: Pre-monsoon results of groundwater quality of Village G (source: own data)

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Table 18: Post-monsoon results of groundwater quality of Village G (source: own data)

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RESULTS OF RIVER WATER SAMPLING

Table 19: River water test results (pre monsoon) (source: own data)

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Table 20: River water test results (post monsoon) (source: own data)

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GROUNDWATER SAMPLES:

Color, taste and Odor: All Samples collected from Tube wells were colorless tasteless and odorless. Majority of the samples from Gov. Hand pumps were also colorless, tasteless and odorless except from village F & G. Most of the hand pump samples were discolored, salty but were odorless.

pH: It is an important parameter which maintains the levels of carbonate and bicarbonates in the water. The pH values of all the samples from groundwater were found in the range of 7.0- 8.0 during pre and post monsoon, which is within the permissible limit as prescribed by WHO (1977) i.e. 6.5-8.5. Samples from hand pumps were slightly alkaline which shows the presence of bicarbonate ions resulting due to the combination of water and carbon dioxide hence forming carbonic acid.

Electrical Conductivity: It is an important parameter measuring the salinity of water which affects the pot ability of water. The value for E.C varied from 350-1350 us/cm during pre and post monsoon. Samples from hand pumps from all stations were having E.C values above the WHO’s permissible limit of 1000 us/cm which shows high concentration of inorganic salts and dissolved minerals in the sample while govt. pumps and tube wells samples were within limit. Variation in pre and post monsoon quality was marginal.

Total Dissolved Solids: It shows the concentration of all dissolved solids. TDS values of samples from private hand pumps were in the range of 400-770us/cm which are above the desirable limit prescribed by WHO i.e. 500 us/cm but within the permissible limit i.e. 2000 us/cm. Samples from Gov. hand pumps and tube wells were having values within desirable limit except at F & G owing to their nearness to the river because river water along with sewage percolates into the groundwater which raises the value of TDS in groundwater.

Total Hardness: Hardness in water is due to the presence of cations like calcium and magnesium and anions like sulphates, bicarbonates, nitrates and chlorides. The values were found in the range of 94-346mg/L which are within the desirable limit of 300mg/L. Only samples from village G which is nearest to the River Kali violated the limit indicating the impact of river pollution due to sewage, effluents and solid waste on the groundwater aquifers. Depending to this value, water with value under 75 is called as soft, further values in the range 76-150mg/L are moderately soft, samples with value up to 300 are hard and above 300mg/L water are called as very hard. So majority of Meerut groundwater are moderately soft.

Biological Oxygen Demand: It measures the amount of biological degradable organic matter in the sample. Higher BOD indicates higher biological activity at elevated temperatures. The value were found in the range of 0.5-3.5mg/L. Hand pumps in most of the villages are discharging water with BOD values higher than the permissible limit of 2mg/L hence using this water for drinking purpose is not safe. So some water pre-treatment is required prior to its usage. While tube wells and some deep Gov. Pumps were having values within desirable limit.

Chemical Oxygen Demand: It measures the pollution in aquatic systems. If high COD values are found it indicates depletion of oxygen due to the decomposition of microorganisms. The values recorded were in the range of 13-192 mg/L. Majority of the samples were having values well above the desirable and permissible limit of 10mg/L indicating the contamination of groundwater due to the heavy pollution load of River Kali because of dumping of effluents, garbage and agricultural organic and inorganic matter, which percolated down with the river water.

Chloride: It is one of the major inorganic anion present in the water samples. Major source of this anion is domestic sewage and agricultural activities. High chloride value indicates pollution by high industrial and animal organic wastes. The values for chloride were found to be in the range of 18-142 mg/L. According to BIS, highest acceptable limit for chloride in potable water is 200mg/L. All samples were within the limit.

Iron: The values for iron were found in the range of 0.16-1.20 mg/L in pre-monsoon and 0.10-1.10 mg/L in post monsoon showing marginal variation. Groundwater sample extracted from private hand pumps from Villages E, F & G were found exceeding the maximum acceptable limit of Iron in drinking water as given by BIS i.e. 1.0 mg/L. Other samples were within the stipulated values

Nitrate: value recorded for nitrate in the samples was in the range of 2-39mg/L in both pre and post monsoon. As prescribed by BIS the desirable limit for nitrate is 45mg/L and maximum acceptable limit is 100mg/L. All the values from different villages were within the stipulated values. Diseases like goiter, cancer and methemoglobinemia are caused by drinking water with high nitrate concentration.

Sulphate: It is an important factor in determining water suitability for industrial and public usage High sulphate concentration causes alimentary canal malfunctioning. Sulphate were found in the range of 18-95 mg/L at different villages in pre and post monsoon which were within the limit prescribed by BIS for drinking water i.e. 200mg/L.

Sodium: Sodium values in groundwater are increased by the percolation of river water having high ionisable salts along with domestic sewage and industrial effluents. Usually high sodium is found with associated high chloride values which results in salinity. The values for sodium were recorded in the range of 20-79 mg/L which are within the permissible limit as mentioned by BIS for drinking water i.e. 200 mg/L.

Potassium: Availability of potassium in groundwater is due to the weathering of mica, clay and mineral. Greater resistance to fixation in clay mineral formation results in low potassium values while higher values are attributed to the fertilization with manure and potassium nitrate near bank of river. Potassium values for different villages were recorded in the range of 5-41mg/L in pre-monsoon and 2-39 mg/L in post monsoon for groundwater samples which were found exceeding the BIS permissible limit of 12 mg/L at majority of the villages except A,B and C. Samples from tube wells were within stipulated value.

Calcium: Concentration of calcium in water samples is related to hardness of water. The calcium value at different villages was found in the range of 24-130mg/L in pre monsoon and 22-128 mg/L in post monsoon season showing slight variation. Samples of villages E, F & G from private and Govt. hand pumps had values exceeding the permissible limit of 100mg/L, while tube well water had values under limit. Hardness of water increases with increase in calcium value making it unfit for drinking purpose.

Magnesium: It is also related to hardness of water. As magnesium increases so is hardness making water non-pot ability. Values for magnesium were recorded in the range of 5-63 mg/L in pre monsoon and 11-61 mg/L in post monsoon season. All samples except tube wells were giving values exceeding the desirable limit of magnesium prescribed by BIS i.e. 30 mg/L. But all values were within the maximum acceptable limit i.e. 100mg/L.

Heavy Metals: Concentrations of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Pb, and Zn) in the ground water samples collected from the concerned area have been analyzed. According to WHO and BIS the permissible range of these heavy metals i.e. Pb, Cd, Cr and Zn is 0.08-0.39, 0.068-0.14, 0.04-0.12 and 20-42 mg/L respectively. Pb, Cd, Cr, Zn were found in the range 0.01-0.2, 0.005-0.06, 0.001- 0.0214 and 2.68-34.31mg/L resp. in pre monsoon samples and in the range0.009-0.04, 0.004-0.15, 0.0005-0.0064 and 2.01-27.32 mg/L in the post monsoon samples. In few hand pump sample i.e. in the village E, F, G the concentration of these metals were found violating the permissible range and as a result making water unfit for drinking.

RIVER WATER SAMPLES

pH: Due to the inter dependence of pH and metabolic activities of aquatic organisms, they are highly affected by pH changes in river since solubility of toxic and nutrients in water is affected by pH. pH values were recorded in the range of 6.86-7.46 in pre monsoon and 6.9-7.4 in post monsoon. Data values were within the range of 6.5-8.5. Lower pH values in post monsoon can be attributed to larger input of industrial waste.

Electrical Conductivity: It is a very important and quick measure for locating potential water contamination. As the level of dissolved solids increases, the value of EC increases. This increase is a result of mineralization and decomposition of organic minerals. Values recorded were in the range of 1320-1503us/cm in post monsoon while it fall in the range of 1020-1289 us/cm in pre monsoon. The values exceeded desirable limit of 1000 us/cm at all stations but were within permissible limit i.e. 2250 us/cm for class E water.

Total Dissolved Solids: It mainly comprises of carbonates, bicarbonates, nitrates, chlorides of magnesium potassium, sodium, calcium, salt, organic matter and some other particles. TDS values obtained in pre and post monsoon are in the range of 794-1267mg/L and 960-1542 mg/L respectively. All samples were found above desirable limit of 500 mg/L. River water samples after confluence of Meerut drain were having higher value than the rest. Higher values of TDS were obtained in post monsoon due to the transport of large amount of sediment load because of the rainfall runoff from the watershed area. Also another reason may be the addition of industrial effluent to the river. Water high TDS raises health concerns.

Total Hardness: It is a water quality parameter for checking the water suitability for drinking and other domestic and industrial purposes, for describing dissolved minerals effect i.e. Ca & Mg usually. Large input of alkaline ions increases hardness of water. Hardness values recorded for pre monsoon lies in the range of 294-779 mg/L and 224-680 mg/L for post monsoon which exceed the maximum permissible limit of 600 mg/L at R4, R5, R6 and R7.

Dissolved Oxygen: It is a very important parameter in ascertaining the extent physical and biological processes in the river water. It determines the water quality criteria for an aquatic system. When large amount of organic matter contaminates the river water, DO is consumed by aerobic activities, which then affects the aquatic lives. The values of DO were in the range of 0.0- 2.2 mg/L in pre monsoon and 0.2-2.5mg/L in post monsoon, which are far below the level which must be met as prescribed by CPCB i.e. 4 for fisheries. Minimum of value 2 is required for having higher life forms. DO values increased slightly in post monsoon due to the increased discharge. This increase in DO leads to decrease in values of BOD and COD.

Biological Oxygen Demand: It is measure of measuring that fraction of the DO consumption which is biologically degradable in a water sample. DO and BOD are inversely related. The values for BOD as recorded lies in the range of 30-137 mg/L in pre monsoon while it decreased to 24-125 mg/L in post monsoon season. The BOD values at all stations were found violating the maximum permissible limit laid by GPCB of 30 mg/L for surface water of rivers.

Chemical Oxygen Demand: It is a parameter that measures the content of organic matter present in the water sample indirectly. It is an important parameter that indicates organic pollution. The range of COD was recorded as 110-399 mg/L in pre-monsoon while in post monsoon it decreased marginally to 102-387 mg/L. COD values are always higher than the values of BOD. The values exceed the maximum acceptable limit as laid by WHO i.e. 300 mg/L at stations R4, R5, R6 & R7 in both seasons.

Chlorides: The values for chlorides varied from 289-654 mg/L in pre monsoon and from 256-620 mg/L in post monsoon. All the values at all stations violates the desirable limit of 250 mg/L but were within the permissible limit of 600 mg/L except at R7. Reason for high values of chloride is the dumping of untreated sewage and industrial effluent into the river water. It was found that values decreased in post monsoon season, the most probable reason for such decrease may be attributed to dilution effect of rain.

Iron: Pre monsoon and post monsoon range for iron were found to vary from 0.56-2.96 mg/L and 0.5-2.58 mg/L respectively. The values at all stations exceeded the desirable limit of 0.3 mg/L. At some stations value even exceeded the maximum acceptable limit.

Nitrate: The values for nitrate in pre monsoon varied from 32-52 mg/L and for post monsoon showed variation from 28-48 mg/L at different sampling locations. Values at station like R5, R6 & R7 exceeded the desirable limit laid by BIS i.e. 50 mg/L in pre monsoon season. Rain caused dilution of nitrate hence values were lower than their corresponding values in pre monsoon season.

Sulphate: The major sources of sulphate in surface water are the dissolution of minerals containing sulphate, pyrite and organic sulphides oxidation. The values were in the range of 246- 834 mg/L in pre monsoon and 218-824 mg/L in post monsoon. The values were above desirable limit of 250 mg/L at all stations except R1. All values were under permissible limit. High concentration of sulphate is due to the discharge of industrial effluents and sewage from households.

Sodium & Potassium: The recorded values for sodium in pre and post monsoon season are in the range of 265-1089 mg/L and 240-1067 mg/L respectively. All values except R1 and R2 were found under the desirable limit of 250 mg/L in post monsoon season. For values of potassium the pre and monsoon range were found to be 50-546 mg/L and 45-510 mg/L respectively. The values at station R4, R5, R6 and R7 were found violating the maximum acceptable limit.

Calcium & Magnesium: They impart hardness to the water. The values for calcium were in the range of 134-789 mg/L and 102-752 mg/L in pre and post monsoon respectively. At all sampling stations the values exceed the desirable limit of 75mg/L also stations like R4, R5, R6 & R7 violated the maximum acceptable limit of 200mg/L. For magnesium the pre monsoon range was observed to be 98-467 mg/L and for post monsoon season it was 89-421mg/L. All stations except R1 exceeded the permissible limit of 100 mg/L. Values for calcium were higher than that for magnesium.

Heavy Metals: They impart toxicity to the water. The values for Zinc, lead, chromium and cadmium were in the range of 20-42 and0.08-0.39, 0.068-0.14 and0.04-0.12 mg/L respectively in the pre-monsoon and in the range of 16-34, 0.05-0.23, 0.032-0.095 and 0.025-0.096 mg/L respectively in post-monsoon pre and post monsoon respectively. At most of the station sampling stations the values exceed the desirable limit according to CPCB and WHO standards, also stations like R4, R5, R6 and R7 violated the maximum acceptable limit.

CONCLUSIONS

As per the physiochemical, biological and heavy metal analysis of the ground water and surface water samples collected from various sites depicts that DO at R4 & R7 were found to be zero, and at other locations it was less than 1 showing the extent of pollution. These values slightly increased in post monsoon season. BOD & COD were found to be in the range of 200-400 mg/L, maximum value at R4 which was downstream of confluence of Meerut drain which carry slaughter house waste River was found to be highly contaminated by heavy metal as lead, chromium, cadmium and zinc were found well above limits at all sampling locations, which decreased slightly in post monsoon season. The river water is classified as Class E according to CPCB standards as values for all parameters were found exceeding limits. Shallow private hand pumps must be abandoned as they are discharging water unfit for human consumption with respect to heavy metals, BOD, COD, TDS and EC. Pollution in the River Kali (East) is directly linked to the contamination of aquifers which are underlying Kali River’s catchment. It is recommended for groundwater contamination by River Kali pollution load that industries should set up appropriate effluent treatment plants depending on their discharge composition and volume. Use of chemicals and pesticides must be controlled in fields. Solid waste dumping into the river must be controlled by establishing proper solid waste management plan for village or town.

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Details

Seiten
18
Jahr
2014
ISBN (Buch)
9783656821106
Dateigröße
1 MB
Sprache
Englisch
Katalognummer
v281559
Institution / Hochschule
Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee – IIT Roorkee
Note
8.5
Schlagworte
kali meerut prabhakar shukla mukesh kumar singhal roorkee

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Titel: The impact of the polluted river Kali (east) on the groundwater of Meerut