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Quality Management in Environment, Workplace Culture and Management

Fachbuch 2015 101 Seiten

BWL - Unternehmensführung, Management, Organisation



Principles of Quality Management
The Role of Society in Sustaining Quality Practices
1. Government
2. Citizens/Consumers
3. Civil Society
4. Employees
5. Management
6. Stakeholders (Anybody who has interest)
7. Media
Impact of Quality Services on Institutions/Society

Environmental Policies on Quality Management
Environmental Management Systems
Business and Environment
Basic Concepts of Environmental Management
ISO 14000 Family of Standards
Benefits of Implementing ISO 14000 EMS

Culture and Quality Paradigm
Workplace Culture and Quality
Importance of Culture to Quality Management
History of Quality Management Paradigms
Workplace Ergonomics and Quality

Legal aspects in enforcing quality practices
Business laws governing supply of goods and services
Quality and Product Liability
Enforcement of Quality Laws

Systems Approach to Quality
Effects of Complex Systems on Management of Quality
Integrating organization structure and quality
Quality Management and Organizational Productivity


Self Perception and Quality
Self Esteem

Quality and Competitiveness
Quality Chains
Managing Quality Processes
Commitment and Policy in Quality Management

The Evolution of Quality Management
The Elements of Total Quality Management
Total Quality Management Gurus
Juran's Quality Trilogy
Crosby's Cost of Quality
Crosby's Four Absolutes of Quality

CHAPTER 10: The Future Quality Management

About the Author



“What is quality management?” Something that is best left to the experts is often an answer to this question. But this is avoiding the issue, because it allows executives and managers to opt out. Quality is too important to leave to the so called ‘quality professionals’; it cannot be achieved on a company-wide basis if it is left to experts. Equally dangerous, however, are the uninformed who try to follow their natural instincts because they ‘know what the quality is when they see it’. This type of intuitive approach will lead to serious attitude problems, which do no more than reflect the understanding and knowledge of quality that are presented in an organization.

Although quality and quality management does not have a formal definition, most agree that it is an integration of all functions of a business to achieve high quality of products through continuous improvement efforts of all employees. Quality revolves around the concept of meeting or exceeding customer expectation applied to the product and service. Achieving high quality is an ever changing, or continuous, process therefore quality management emphasizes the ideas of working constantly toward improved quality. It involves every aspect of the company: processes, environment and people. The whole workforce from the Chief Executive to the line worker must be involved in a shared commitment to improving quality. Therefore, in brief, quality and quality management in particular can be defined as directing (managing) the whole (total) production process to produce an excellent (quality) product or service according to Juran, J.M.(1989).

It differs from other management techniques in the attitude of management toward the product and toward the worker. Older management methods focused on the volume of production and the cost of the product. Quality was controlled by using a detection method (post production inspection), problems were solved by management and management's role was defined as planning, assigning work, controlling the production. Quality management, in contrast, is focused on the customer and meeting the customer's needs. Quality is controlled by prevention, i.e., quality is built in at every stage. Teams solve problems and everyone is responsible for the quality of the product. Management's role is to delegate, coach, facilitate and mentor.

Principles of Quality Management

Quality management is becoming increasingly important to the leadership and management of all organisations. It is necessary to identify Quality Management as a distinct discipline of management and lay down universally understood and accepted rules for this discipline.

The ISO technical committee working on the ISO9000 standards had published a document detailing the quality management principles and application guidelines. The latest revision (version 2008) of ISO 9000 standards are based on these principles.

Definition of Quality Management Principle

"A quality management principle is a comprehensive and fundamental rule / belief, for leading and operating an organisation, aimed at continually improving performance over the long term by focusing on customers while addressing the needs of all other stake holders".

According to Oakland, J S and Followell, R. F. (1990), many of the ‘gurus’ appear to present different theories of quality management. In reality they are talking all the same ‘language’ but they use different dialects. The basic principles of defining quality and taking it into account throughout all the activities of the business are common. Quality has to be managed, it does not just happen. Understanding and commitment by senior management, effective leadership and teamwork are fundamental parts of the recipe for success.

The eight principles are:

1. Customer-Focused Organisation
2. Leadership
3. Involvement of People
4. Process Approach
5. System Approach to Management
6. Continual Improvement
7. Factual Approach to Decision Making and
8. Mutually Beneficial Supplier Relationships.

Principle 1 - Customer-Focused Organisation:"Organisations depend on their customers and therefore should understand current and future customer needs, meet customer requirements and strive to exceed customer expectations".

Steps in application of this principle are:

- Understand customer needs and expectations for products, delivery, price, dependability,
- Ensure a balanced approach among customers and other stake holders (owners, people, suppliers, local communities and society at large) needs and expectations
- Communicate these needs and expectations throughout the organisation
- Measure customer satisfaction & act on results, and
- Manage customer relationships.

Principle 2 - Leadership:"Leaders establish unity of purpose and direction of the organisation. They should create and maintain the internal environment in which people can become fully involved in achieving the organisation's objectives."

Steps in application of this principle are:

- Be proactive and lead by example
- Understand and respond to changes in the external environment
- Consider the needs of all stake holders including customers, owners, people, suppliers, local communities and society at large
- Establish a clear vision of the organisation's future
- Establish shared values and ethical role models at all levels of the organisation
- Build trust and eliminate fear
- Provide people with the required resources and freedom to act with responsibility and accountability.
- Inspire, encourage and recognise people's contributions.
- Promote open and honest communication.
- Educate, train and coach people.
- Set challenging goals and targets, and
- Implement a strategy to achieve these goals and targets.

Principle 3 - Involvement of People:"People at all levels are the essence of an organisation and their full involvement enables their abilities to be used for the organisation's benefit".

Steps in application of this principle are:

- Accept ownership and responsibility to solve problems
- Actively seek opportunities to make improvements, and enhance competencies, knowledge and experience
- Freely share knowledge & experience in teams
- Focus on the creation of value for customers
- Be innovative in furthering the organisation’s objectives
- Improve the way of representing the organisation to customers, local communities and society at large
- Help people derive satisfaction from their work, and
- Make people enthusiastic and proud to be part of the organisation.

Principle 4 - Process Approach:"A desired result is achieved more efficiently when related resources and activities are managed as a process."

Steps in application of this principle are:

- Define the process to achieve the desired result
- Identify and measure the inputs and outputs of the process
- Identify the interfaces of the process with the functions of the organisation
- Evaluate possible risks, consequences and impacts of processes on customers, suppliers and other stake holders of the process
- Establish clear responsibility, authority, and accountability for managing the process
- Identify internal and external customers, suppliers and other stake holders of the process,
- When designing processes, consider process steps, activities, flows, control measures, training needs, equipment, methods, information, materials and other resources to achieve the desired result.

Principle 5 - System Approach to Management:"Identifying, understanding and managing a system of interrelated processes for a given objective improves the organisation's effectiveness and efficiency."

Steps in application of this principle are:

- Define the system by identifying or developing the processes that affect a given objective
- Structure the system to achieve the objective in the most efficient way
- Understand the interdependencies among the processes of the system
- Continually improve the system through measurement and evaluation, and
- Estimate the resource requirements and establish resource constraints prior to action.

Principle 6 - Continual Improvement:"Continual improvement should be a permanent objective of the organisation."

Steps in application of this principle are:

- Make continual improvement of products, processes and systems an objective for every individual in the organisation
- Apply the basic improvement concepts of incremental improvement and breakthrough improvement
- Use periodic assessments against established criteria of excellence to identify areas for potential improvement
- Continually improve the efficiency and effectiveness of all processes
- Promote prevention based activities
- Provide every member of the organisation with appropriate education and training, on the methods and tools of continual improvement such as the Plan-Do-Check-Act cycle, problem solving, process re-engineering, and process innovation
- Establish measures and goals to guide and track improvements, and
- Recognize improvements.

Principle 7 - Factual Approach to Decision Making:"Effective decisions are based on the analysis of data and information."

Steps in application of this principle are:

- Take measurements and collect data and information relevant to the objective
- Ensure that the data and information are sufficiently accurate, reliable and accessible
- Analyse the data and information using valid methods
- Understand the value of appropriate statistical techniques, and
- Make decisions and take action based on the results of logical analysis balanced with experience and intuition.

Principle 8 - Mutually Beneficial Supplier Relationships:"An organisation and its suppliers are interdependent, and a mutually beneficial relationship enhances the ability of both to create value."

Steps in application of this principle are:

- Identify and select key suppliers
- Establish supplier relationships that balance short-term gains with long-term considerations for the organisation and society at large
- Create clear and open communications
- Initiate joint development and improvement of products and processes
- Jointly establish a clear understanding of customers' needs
- Share information and future plans, and
- Recognize supplier improvements and achievements.

The Role of Society in Sustaining Quality Practices

Quality should always be everybody’s responsibility within the society. Each institution therefore should be an agent that advocate for better quality goods and services in order to create better living standards. Each group within the society has a distinct role in developing and sustaining a quality system. Some of the specific institutions include:

1. Government

Being the appointed authority to provide services to citizens, the business of the government of the day is having the interest of citizens at heart. Their main role includes:

- Providing legislative framework that creates a system roving quality services
- Establish and empower institutions that are to enforce quality improvements/Protection efforts
- To promote the use of quality practices in production of goods and services in an economy.
- To set up institutions that monitors and promotes the development of new technologies in product service provision
- To encourage the use of quality oriented technologies by setting up special entities that promotes such practices
- To enforce rules and regulations that advocates for quality utilization of natural resources

2. Citizens/Consumers

Being the biggest entity in the society and the consumer of goods and services produces in an economy, they are entrusted with the following roles:

- To demand for better quality goods and services at all times
- To provide the necessary information about their quality preference to the government and producers of goods and services
- To propose new approaches to the government and producers on quality improvement and value enhancement
- To make informed quality based decisions regarding the product and services that they consume e.g. low cholesterol diet foods.

3. Civil Society

This is a social entity that advocates for the vulnerable in the society. Being an advocate, they are required to mobilize social interest so as to fight for their rights. Their role includes:

- To act on behalf of the vulnerable group to protect their interest and rights
- Organize for effective representation at the various levels of decision making
- To educate the public on the importance of quality products and services and the use of quality practices.
- To mobilize resources in order to support programs directed towards better quality


Being members of a business entity, employees are required to play the following roles:

- To act at all times with full interest to provide quality products and services
- To work with the management towards improving their work environments
- To support the organization by contributing ideas and creativity that leads to production of better quality goods and services
- To endeavor to improve their skills by acquiring the necessary knowledge and expertise through continuous training and empowerment
- To inhibit any unethical practices used by the organization and always advocate for quality practices

5. Management

Based on the authority entrusted on the management, they are required to play the following roles:

- To adopt management practices that advocate for quality systems and procedures e.g. Adoption of ISO certification such ISO 14000 for Environment Management System
- To provide the necessary leadership that is quality focused
- Allocate resources towards the development and enhancement of practices that support quality
- To be a leader of change by setting roles that are quality oriented and improvement focused
- To develop and enhance quality culture within the organization by providing the necessary cultural framework that is built on quality.

6. Stakeholders (Anybody who has interest)

Being the group that has direct/indirect interest in the entity, their role in quality enhancement will include the following:

- To impose on the entity the need to use ethical and quality practices
- To provide ideas and information to the management board that promotes the use of quality practices
- To ensure that quality sustainability interest are put ahead of financial gains
- To demand for accountability in quality services by business organization.

7. Media

Being an information provider and source of knowledge, the media should play the following roles:

- Disseminate information that supports quality systems
- To provide information on new technologies
- To educate the public on their rights regarding quality of products/services they consume
- To adequate and unbiased information about quality issues
- To expose any non-quality/non-ethical practices.

Impact of Quality Services on Institutions/Society

Quality is a strategic factor that works through cycles and systems with its effect self evident on institutions within the society. Good/poor products/service will have a direct impact on entities through several ways including:

a) The Organization/Business

- Increased customer satisfaction
- Enhances profitability
- Lower costs
- Enhanced competitiveness
- Improved responsiveness to organizations environment and customer requirements
- Reduces legal liabilities
- Improved reputation of the organization
- Less wastage

b) Employees

- Increased morale
- Increased productivity
- Enhances their interest on the job
- It provides them with an avenue of being good corporate citizens
- Provides and promote a positive culture and responsibility

c) The Society

- It allows procreation of better quality goods and services
- Better utilization of resources
- Improved quality of life
- Protecting the society against harmful practices
- Enhances value creation
- Creation of employment

d) The Consumer

- They will receive better quality goods and services
- Better living standards
- Higher value for money
- Protection against exploitation and harm
- Protection against harmful environmental hazards


Environmental Policies on Quality Management

The intent of an environmental policy is to state the organization’s commitment to continuous improvement in environmental performance. A strong, clear environmental policy can serve as both a starting point for developing the Environment Management System and a reference point for maintaining continuous improvement. The policy should be evaluated regularly and modified, as necessary, to reflect changing environmental priorities. The policy should function in two ways: (1) within the company, the policy should focus attention on environmental issues associated with company activities, products, and services; and (2) outside the company, the policy is a public commitment to addressing environmental issues and continuously improving environmental performance. The environmental policy must address:

- Commitment to compliance with relevant environmental legislation and regulations
- Pollution prevention
- Continuous improvement

Tips for Developing an Environmental Policy :

1. Develop a policy that reflects perspectives of various employees within the company (for example, line worker, owner, wastewater treatment operator, quality inspector, compliance/legal manager, production manager).
2. Display the policy statement in view of all employees; the policy should be available to the public and customers if requested and be printed in languages other than English, as appropriate.
3. Include top management signatures on the policy to demonstrate understanding and commitment.


Environmental Policy

The Export Processing Zones Authority (EPZA) is an investment promotion agency responsible for catalyzing export oriented investments in economic zones and recognizes responsibility for protection of the environment.

To meet this commitment, the EPZA:-

- Controls its services and operational activities in order to minimize negative environment impacts
- Comply with relevant applicable environmental laws and other requirements that apply to the activities of the organisation
- Set up and strive to achieve its environmental objectives and targets. These targets shall be monitored and periodically reported for review
- To train and motivate members of staff to carry out tasks in an environmentally responsible manner
- Continuously improve environmental performance by minimizing pollution, adopt waste management best practice, and minimize water and energy use
- Achieve these by establishing, implementing and maintaining effective processes for environmental management as required by ISO 14001:2004 Environmental Management System

Environmental Management Systems

Environmental Management: Environmental Management is not, as the phrase could suggest, the Management of the environment as such but rather the management of man's interaction with and impact upon the environment. The need for environmental management can be viewed from a variety of perspectives. Environmental management is therefore not the conservation of the environment solely for the environment’s sake but rather the conservation of the environment for human kind’s sake. As with all management functions, effective management tools, standards and systems are required. An 'environmental management standard or system or protocol attempts to reduce environmental impact as measured by some objective criteria. The ISO 14001 standard is the most widely used standard for environmental risk management.

Business and Environment

All kinds of businesses are directly or indirectly related with the environment. It is generally agreed that environmental sustainability must be build on long-term economic and social sustainability and that the challenge of sustainable development requires integration of economy and environment in all sectors and at all levels. The objectives of private sector led economic growth in a globally competitive world are not necessarily compatible with the state and community led objectives of social equity and environmental protection. If one can properly apply the environmental management system in business, the business could be benefited by several ways. Such as:

- Cost savings.
- Minimized commercial risks and liabilities
- Improved competitive advantage
- Improved employee satisfaction

Basic Concepts of Environmental Management

Man-made changes in the environment have continued through most historical epochs. However, the last two centuries following the industrial revolution have witnessed accelerated environmental changes due to the exploitation of natural resources on an unprecedented scale. Extensive burning of fossil fuels, release of various chemical pollutants into the air, the water and soil, clearing of forests for agriculture and extensive exploitation of all natural resources are now threatening to destroy the very environment on which human existence depends.

Fortunately, awareness of environmental problems is growing in most countries of the world. It is felt by many people that to continue development patterns that cannot be sustained in the long term is a recipe for disaster. Governments are now listening more to the advice of environmentalists and increasingly enacting legislation aiming at protecting the environment from the negative impacts of economic activities. However, the enforcement of environmental legislation is proving to be difficult in most cases.

A new approach to environmental protection is now available thanks to the development of new international standards on environmental management, in particular, ISO 14001. This approach relies less on command-and-control dictates from the Government and more on proactive efforts by all workers in the company.

The implementation of the environmental management system prescribed by ISO 14001 can lead to good compliance with environmental legislation and tangible, continual improvement in the environmental performance of enterprises thanks to the commitment and evolvement of top management and all workers. Widespread implementation of these standards can go a long way toward improving the environmental performance of industry and promoting sustainable development in the countries of the world.

ISO 14000 Family of Standards

ISO 14000 is a group of standards covering the following areas:

- Environmental Management Systems (14001,14002, 14004)
- Environmental Auditing (14010, 14011, 14012)
- Evaluation of Environmental Performance (14031)
- Environmental Labeling (14020, 14021, 14022, 14023, 14024, 14025)
- Life-Cycle Assessment (14040, 14041, 14042, 14043)

ISO 14001 is the only standard intended for registration by third parties. All the others are for guidance. ISO 14001 is a management standard, it is not a performance or product standard. The underlying purpose of ISO 14001 is that companies will improve their environmental performance by implementing ISO 14001, but there are no standards for performance or the level of improvement. It is a process for managing company activities that impact the environment.

Some unique and important characteristics of ISO 14001 are:

- It is comprehensive: all members of the Organization participate in environmental protection, the environmental management system considers all stakeholders, and there are processes to identify all environmental impacts
- It is anticipative: it focuses on forward thinking and action instead of reacting to command and control policies
- It is a systems approach: it stresses improving environmental protection by using a single environmental management system across all functions of the Organization.

The Environmental Management System contains the following elements:

- Identification of environmental aspects and significant impacts.
- Identification of legal and other requirements.
- Environmental goals, objectives, and targets that support the policy
- An environmental management program
- Definition of roles, responsibilities, and authorities
- Training and awareness procedures
- Process for communication of the EMS to all interested parties
- Document and operational control procedures
- Procedures for emergency response
- Procedures for monitoring and measuring operations that can have a significant impact on the environment
- Procedures to correct nonconformance
- Record management procedures
- A program for auditing and corrective action
- Procedures for management review

Benefits of Implementing ISO 14000 EMS

Environmental Management System (EMS) is the foundation of the ISO 14000 group of international environmental management standards. An EMS can be registered as meeting the ISO 14001 EMS standard.

Since the ISO 14001 EMS includes everyone in the Organization and all aspects of the Organization that affect the environment, it can improve an organization's environmental performance in many ways. This improved performance comes at a cost to the Organization, a cost that can be recovered by aggressively seeking benefits.

The benefits of an EMS and registration of the EMS to ISO 14000 are organized into the following categories:

- Increased Profits
- Operations
- Marketing
- Regulatory Compliance
- Social

The benefits gained in each category are briefly described below.

Increased Profits

Implementing ISO 14001 today can provide a basis for implementing the other standards in the ISO 14000 series. This incremental approach can reduce overall costs to implement ISO 14000 because of lessons learned in each phase. The quantity of materials and energy required for manufacturing a product may be reduced, thereby reducing the cost of the product, material handling costs, and waste disposal costs. Some companies have found that it costs more to run a compliance-driven system than an EMS:

- An EMS can help reduce incidents of pollution and the associated expense of recovery.
- Recycling manufacturing waste and unused inputs could increase revenues. Recycling need not be within the same facility, but with another one that can use the waste as input to their production.
- Employee health and safety can be improved, thereby improving productivity, decreasing sick days, and reducing insurable risk.
- Insurance claims may be reduced, thus reducing the costs of coverage and settlements.
- Meeting the standards of different countries can be expensive. ISO 14000 can reduce this effort by providing one standard


- The EMS standards can define "best practices" and create a foundation for the next level of improvement
- An EMS integrated with all other business systems improves management's ability to understand what is going on in their Organization, determine the effect on the company, and provide leadership
- The standards build consensus throughout the world that a common terminology for environmental management systems is needed
- A common terminology for all locations of a multinational Organization will increase efficiency of communication and improve results. An EMS can identify instances of redundancy in day-to-day efforts for regulatory compliance. These can be eliminated, thus making the Organization more efficient. An EMS includes procedures and metrics for measuring and evaluating wastes and the costs of environmental emissions. This information can help organizations implement the best practices and determine their results
- The environmental staff can help employees and management understand and use environmental systems to improve organizational performance and benefits
- A management system can lead to more reliable and predictable environmental performance, which can reduce or limit the severity of incidents. ISO 14000 requires a common terminology, which improves the communication of goals, procedures, impacts, and solutions
- Improved communications can mean greater efficiency in decision making. For example, the severity of an environmental impact can increase with time, so an efficient notification system can reduce the time it takes to respond and thus the impact, risk and liability to the Organization. ISO 14000 provides feedback on the operations of the Organization that can be used for daily action and to determine the appropriateness of pollution prevention strategies. Problems that could be expensive to resolve and damaging to the environment can be identified earlier. Early management awareness of problems would offer the best opportunity for efficient resolution
- Management awareness of environmental impacts provides the opportunity for planning to reduce negative impacts. As ISO 14000 is accepted internationally, organizations will need to meet only one standard, thus simplifying environmental management
- A unified approach to environmental management provides the opportunity for sharing ideas among facilities. This can increase the efficiency and benefits of an EMS
- Spreading environmental responsibility throughout the Organization places it with those directly associated with environmental impacts and pollution prevention. This improves the effectiveness and efficiency of pollution prevention programs


- When environmental risks are reduced, the company becomes a more attractive investment to potential and current stockholders. Three factors contribute; corporate environmental management, environmental performance, and environmental communications. Establishing a strong environmental image can help attract environmentally conscious customers and create pressure on competitors. This image must be carefully marketed to receive these benefits
- Employees see ISO 14000 as good for their Organization and for them personally. Companies can receive credit for existing systems and accomplishments
- Customers might favor companies with an EMS. These customers could be the ultimate consumer or industrial customers
- As large, multinational manufacturers register to ISO 14000, they may favor suppliers with ISO 14000 registration
- Community support for a facility could be increased by demonstrating concern for the local environment through an EMS. Workers may be attracted to a company with a plan to protect the immediate work environment and the surrounding community
- A company's products may appeal to customers seeking green products
- ISO 14000 registration demonstrates that the EMS meets international standards. Since registration requires third party auditing, it validates the EMS and the claims made by the Organization

Regulatory Compliance

ISO 14000 requires evidence of working processes to maintain compliance with laws and regulations. These processes can help companies identify where they are out of 6compliance and take action. Regulators may favor organizations with an ISO 14000 registered EMS. Improved compliance with legislative and regulatory requirements could reduce penalties and redemption costs. An ISO 14000 EMS demonstrates to regulatory agencies that the organization is proactive about reducing pollution and committed to continual improvement.


ISO 14000 helps create:

- A common language and way of thinking about environmental aspects which can help companies, communities, governments, and organizations communicate and work together
- Cleaner air, waters, and soils
- Longer resource life through reduced usage
- Progress toward a sustainable culture.


Protecting the environment by coming into compliance or, ideally, going beyond compliance reduces waste and reduces costs and inefficiencies. It preserves natural resources and reduces the cost of finding new and more resources. It makes greater use of materials already purchased and reduces purchasing costs. It makes for cleaner emissions and reduces the severity of spills, leaks, and other accidents. Reducing these events reduces permitting costs, remediation costs, worker comp costs, insurance costs, lawsuit costs and fines, and many other costs and fees. Protecting the environment involves purchasing smaller amounts of materials or purchasing less toxic materials. These choices improve worker safety and morale, leading to more productive workers. Purchasing less hazardous materials reduces the need for and the costs associated with the need for special equipment, special training, and specially designed storage areas. These purchasing practices also reduce the cost of disposal. Protecting the environment by going beyond compliance helps keep regulators and inspectors out of the plant.


Culture and Quality Paradigm

There are many different definitions of corporate culture. Culture is defined as ‘the way we do things around here’. The way employees actually behave, think and believe determines the culture. Culture is the personality of the organization. Culture is what employees do when no one is watching. It is a ‘walk the talk’. Consistent talking and actions matters much. Culture is the basic pattern of shared beliefs, behaviors, attitudes and assumptions acquired over time by members of an organization. Attitude shows the outlook and thoughts from which the work habits emerge. It reflects attitudes and practices related to quality systems application. Formal policies, procedures, behaviors and habits operate as the ground rules and guidelines. Vision, mission, values, goals and strategy are the guiding principles of a corporation and culture culminates from them. Corporate culture is changing fast. Everyone is expected to move at much faster speed. Operational principles for the corporations are ‘Slim, Speed and Simple’. Corporate culture is people in action. Quality culture refers to the degree of awareness, commitment, collective attitude, and behavior of the organization with respect to quality.

Quality culture is basically incorporation of quality in the overall system of an organization which leads to a positive internal environment and creation of delighted customers. A changed mindset at all the levels of management is the basic tool for implementation of such a culture. As the process of initiating quality culture starts with managers who understand the value of the system's view and also believe in its implications. So in order to create such a culture a changed mindset was important. It can be achieved either through self realization at the top level or through trainings and workshops or following of benchmark organizations.

Enemies of Quality Culture:

- It’s the best we can do
- There is not enough time
- There is not enough money
- There are not enough people
- It is not in my budget
- It is not my responsibility
- Let someone else worry about it
- It is too late to change it
- The customer does not understand-It is not really a problem
- It is not my fault
- The quality control only applies to manufacturing
- It is as good as it can be
- Relax, we hit the goal

Friends of Quality Culture:

- The customer is first
- Continual improvement is essential to the success
- Quality does not take time, it saves time
- What gets measured gets managed
- Problems are opportunities in disguise
- The only bad mistake is a hidden mistake
- Training saves money
- It is the process, not the people
- Better is better than best

In the quality culture environment focus is on customer and quality becomes everyone’s responsibility. Employees are empowered to do their job. Customer expectations are exceeded and customer gets delighted. Creative quality culture involves:

- Pursuit of solving unidentified problems
- Surprising and delighting customers
- Goal of customer loyalty instead of satisfaction only
- Changes with stability and control
- Process focus

Workplace Culture and Quality

In order to inculcate quality culture at the workplace:

1. Effective Communication: People in organizations typically spend over 75% of their time in an interpersonal situation; thus it is no surprise to find that at the root of a large number of organizational problems is poor communications. Effective communication is an essential component of organizational success whether it is at the interpersonal, intergroup, intragroup, organizational, or external levels.
2. Changing Mindset.
3. Better to better: Always endeavor to make thing better.” Chinese proverb, “Be not afraid of going slowly, be afraid only of standing still.”
4. Creativity.
5. Management Commitment.

It is just purely a management system that will help us to run our business in a more organized and systematic manner which will lead to a more consistent quality of the service that we deliver to customers.

- The quality of any organization is determined by the satisfaction of its customers who get the services. We should not only focus on external customers, but also focus on internal customers.
- Any quality improvement is achieved by improving the processes of an organization.
- It is a continuous activity in which we have to search for a much better way.
- It focuses more on opportunities for improvement, rather than waiting for a problem to reveal opportunities.
- Elimination of a problem will reduce any future occurrence, thus improve the processes of an organization.

Importance of Culture to Quality Management

Supportive work culture has been associated with a variety of benefits most of which are associated with the final products/service:

- High level of commitment to the organization
- High level of job satisfaction
- Low level of industrial stress
- Less conflict between employees and management
- High level of output and efficiency
- Ease of embracing new technologies and minimal resistance to change

A quality culture which is important to any serious organization will be manifested in the following ways:

- Customer driven excellence
- Valuing employees and partners
- Management by facts
- Clear and focused leadership
- Preventive/pro-active approach
- Continuous improvement
- Team approach
- Quality based and recognition systems

History of Quality Management Paradigms

The Evolution of Quality Approaches

The shift to Quality Management may be revolutionary for many managers because the tenets of the new paradigms are so radically different from past managerial practices. It will require both a thought revolution and a behavioral revolution. Approaches to quality have evolved through a series of gradual refinements over the last century. The shift seems dramatic and revolutionary to many managers because they have not kept up with the evolving approaches over the years. However, they have not defined their managerial roles in terms of the latest advancements or they feel skeptical about its success.

Four Major Quality Eras

1. Customer-Craft OR the Inspection Era

Until the nineteenth century, skilled craftsmen manufactured goods in small volume. They handcrafted and fit together parts to form a unique product that was only informally inspected. Population growth and industrialization brought about production in larger volume. Manufacturing in the industrialized world tended to follow this craftsmanship model till the factory system, with its emphasis on product inspection, started in Great Britain in the mid-1750s and grew into the Industrial Revolution in the early 1800s.

The factory system, a product of the Industrial Revolution in Europe, began to divide the craftsmen’s trades into specialized tasks. This forced craftsmen to become factory workers and forced shop owners to become production supervisors, and marked an initial decline in employees’ sense of empowerment and autonomy in the workplace. Quality in the factory system was ensured through the skill of laborers supplemented by audits and/or inspections. Defective products were either reworked or scrapped. In the 1800s, increased specialization, division of labor, and mass production required more formal inspection. Parts had to be interchangeable. Inspectors examined products to detect flaws and separate the good from the bad. They used gauges to catch deviant parts and make sure parts fit together at final assembly. The gauging system made inspections more consistent than those conducted solely by eye, and gave inspection a new respectability.



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Titel: Quality Management in Environment, Workplace Culture and Management