Table of Contents
1.1 Literature Review:
1.3 Research Questions:
2.2 Data Collection:
2.3 Data Analysis:
3. Findings or results:
In the end of 19th century direct method in language teaching class is used which ends the use of mix languages in language teaching class (Crook, 2001). From this point the word code-switching arouses. Native language is used in class but its use is limited in language class. This change raises many questions. Which function of native language should be used in class? Which language should not to use? Where code-switching is used and where not to use? As we know in Pakistan less attention is given to bilingual classrooms and now it’s time to give more attention to this area. Therefore, the purpose if the paper was to explore teachers’ belief about use of L1 in Language Teaching Class. Which language is preferred? Why it is important and how it will affect the students for learning L2?
1.1 Literature Review:
There are several researchers who have shed light on the use of L1 in foreign language classrooms in their works. The present study further explores new facets in this area.
Gulzar (2010) asserts that teachers frequently move back and forth between L1 and L2 while changing the topic. They employ L1 partially or fully while repeating the previously uttered sentences to make the students understand fully. He further posits that English language teachers in Pakistan are the native speakers of Urdu, Sindhi, Punjabi, Balochi, Pashto, etc. Sometimes teachers lack competence in target language and cannot recall the required word in target language, in such situations; they have to use the vocabulary of L1.
Tariq, Bilal, Abdas and Mahmood (2013) postulate that teachers employ L1 in the foreign language classroom to create a friendly environment. Socializing with students in their mother tongue, motivate them and outcomes will be in the form of their positive results.
Pablo, Lengeling, Zenil Crawford and Goodwin (2011) are of the view that teachers utilize L1 according to their students’ language level. The frequency of first language use varies from beginning level to higher. Teaching L2 at the beginning level requires more use of mother tongue whereas there is a less use of L1 at higher level.
Kayaoglue (2012) opines that teachers employ the mother tongue of the students while teaching grammatical rules of the target language particularly in the beginning level.
While shedding light on another reason because of which teachers switch back to L2 learners’ mother tongue, Edstrom (2009) posits that teachers utilize L1 when students get confused and are unable to understand the concepts in the target language so they need clarification. To clarify the concepts, teachers use their mother tongue on the part of target language.
Mufeed and Hasan (2010) put forward that using L1 for the purpose of translating difficult terms and grammatical points of foreign language is essential. When teachers employ translation, L2 learners also become able to notice the differences and similarities between their mother tongue and FL.
While sharing the point of view of Mufeed et al. (2010), Gomathi and Kiruthika (2013) assert that when L2 learners face difficulties in understanding the vocabulary items, teachers utilize translation as a pedagogical tool to make them understand. They translate the vocabulary of target language into their mother tongue. So L2 learners feel less nervous.
Meyer (2008) opines that students who are diffident get upset and frustrated in the environment of language classroom when they are unable to understand fully so teachers employ code-switching to make learning meaningful. Use of students’ mother tongue proves helpful in making foreign language classroom a more comprehensible place and such sort of environment assist to lower affective filters.
Nation (2001) is of the view that use of mother tongue in foreign language classrooms is effective without any doubt but it should be only employed when it is needed and also should not be overdriven. Overutilization of L2 may affect gravely the L2 learners’ performance in achieving their goals of proficiency in target language. So it should be used moderately.
The topic of Code-Switching has significant role in Teaching L2 now-a-days. This study is important because it will explain different views shared by teachers. As we know, little attention is giving to English in our academic areas this study will help to find out different methods use by teachers in classroom for English Language Teaching.
1.3 Research Questions:
In light of all the research supporting the use of the L1 in L2 classrooms, this study will attempt to answer the following questions:
1. Strategies used by the Teachers to teach L2 learners in classroom at school level?
2. Strategies used by the Teachers to teach L2 learners in classroom at University level?
3. Whether there is any difference in employing teaching strategies t school and university level?
Research Method is a very critical part of a research because it directly influences our conclusion section. It is very important to choose a research method that can be used easily and is in limits on what researchers can do in a given time. The method used in this study is purely Qualitative.