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Advertising and Customer Values. To what extend does one influence the other?

Hausarbeit 2015 14 Seiten

Medien / Kommunikation - Public Relations, Werbung, Marketing, Social Media

Leseprobe

Table of Content

1 Abstract
1.1 Definition of advertising

2 Customer values in the U.S.
2.1.1 Historical background of U.S. cultural values
2.1.2 Recent research on U.S. cultural values
2.1.3 American dream and U.S. cultural values

3 How advertising influences customer values
3.1 New view on the process of segmentation, targeting, positioning (STP)
3.2 Advertising normalizes what it endorses
3.3 Advertising appeals mainly to extrinsic values

4 Conclusion and limitations
4.1 Conclusion
4.2 Limitations

5 Source directory
5.1 Bibliography
5.2 Internet sources
5.3 Other sources

List of figures

Figure 1: Hofstede's value profile for the U.S.

Figure 2: traditional view of the role of advertising

Figure 3: alternative view of the role of advertising

Figure 4: Virtuous cycle of the relationship between advertising and customer values

List of tables

Table 1: Intrinsic and extrinsic values

1 Abstract

“The truth is that marketing raises enormous ethical questions every day—at least it does if you’re doing it right. If this were not the case, the only possible explanations are either that you believe marketers are too ineffectual to make any difference, or you believe that marketing activities only affect people at the level of conscious argument.” [1]

This is what Rory Sutherland, in his former role as President of the Institute of Practitioners in Advertising (IPA) wrote in 2010. One important aspect in this ethical debate about advertising is its influence on cultural values. With the topic “Advertising and customer values”, this paper is working out a clearer view on the relationship between advertising and consumer values in the U.S. The following question will be approached: (How) Does advertising influence customer values?

In the course of developing an answer, secondary research will be conducted in the form of analysis and interpretation of literature, journal articles, reports and studies. The paper is set up as follows: Chapter 2 will precisely define and discuss the terms employed, and provide an in-depth look at U.S. values and their history. Chapter 3 will elaborate the mechanisms by which advertising influences various constructs on behalf of its audience, complemented with two studies related to the topic. Chapter 4 will conclude by bringing together the values treated in chapter 2 and the effects of advertising discussed in chapter 3.

1.1 Definition of advertising

This paper refers to advertising as a paid, mediated form of communication from an identifiable source, designed to persuade the receiver to take some action (i.e. to make a purchase decision).[2] The message is conveyed through various media such as internet, television (including product placements), radio, print media, cinema, etc. For the topic of this paper, merely the message content and the intrusive impact of its transportation media are of concern.

2 Customer values in the U.S.

Customer values are defined as consumer values in in this paper – which excludes business customers. Business markets will not be treated as they are less relevant for public advertising. What are customer values? Historical sources, recent research and the idea of the “American Dream” are elaborated in this chapter, to help understand consumer values in the U.S.

2.1.1 Historical background of U.S. cultural values

Cultural values develop over hundreds of years and are often rooted in the early history of a culture. So looking at where a culture comes from, helps understanding its values.

A significant group among the first settlers in North America were the Puritans, who left for New England mostly in the years after 1630. It is widely believed that they have significantly influenced today’s American economic values.[3] Puritans had two callings: one to serve Jesus Christ, and one to be successful in their profession.[4] Motivated by a particular interpretation of the Calvinist theology, they believed that “each person was called by God to a vocation, and diligence in the vocation might provide evidence, but never proof, that one was among God’s elect.”[5] Thus, the Puritan ethic is characterized by individualistic values and features compatibility with open market economics.[6]

Benjamin Franklin emphasized the importance of individual effort in working with a religious background: “God helps those who help themselves”[7]. At the same time, he secularized the Puritan ethic. In other words, he separated the Puritan market-friendly values from their religious foundation, which meant they were universally applicable without requiring knowledge about the Puritan ethic.[8]

Alexis de Tocqueville notices the following traits among Americans:[9]

- Individualism
- Quest for wealth
- Equality
- Lack of respect for traditions

He describes Americans as hard working and individualistic.

2.1.2 Recent research on U.S. cultural values

Contemporary cultural research is widely in accord with the historical judgments of U.S. culture. Geert Hofstede finds the following scores for the U.S.[10]

illustration not visible in this excerpt

Figure 1: Hofstede's value profile for the U.S. [11]

The U.S. shows one of the world’s highest scores for “Individualism”. Thus, in the U.S. as an individualistic society, “people are only supposed to look after themselves and their direct family.”[12] Also the “Masculinity” score is relatively high, indicating that “the society will be driven by competition, achievement and success, with success being defined by the ‘winner’ or ‘best-in-the-field’.”[13] Hofstede combines the high scores in individualism and masculinity assuming that Americans try and “show their masculine drive individually.”[14] Another meaningful dimension for this paper is the Americans’ below-average level of “Uncertainty avoidance”. This results from the general attitude of optimism and openness for innovation, be it in technology or in business, for instance.[15] It also indicates a positive relationship to risk-related entrepreneurship.[16]

[...]


[1] Sutherland, R. (2010), p. 59

[2] Cf. Shimp, T. A.; Andrews, J. C. (2013)

[3] Cf. Frey, D. E. (1998), p. 1573; cf. lecture

[4] Cf. lecture notes

[5] Frey, D. E. (1998), p. 1574

[6] Cf. Frey, D. E. (1998), p. 1573; cf. lecture notes

[7] Cf. lecture notes

[8] Cf. lecture notes

[9] Cf. lecture notes

[10] Cf. Hofstede, G. (publication date unknown), http://geert-hofstede.com/ (status as of: 2015-03-20)

[11] Found in: Hofstede, G. (publication date unknown), http://geert-hofstede.com/ (status as of: 2015-03-20)

[12] Cf. Hofstede, G. (publication date unknown), http://geert-hofstede.com/ (status as of: 2015-03-20)

[13] Cf. Hofstede, G. (publication date unknown), http://geert-hofstede.com/ (status as of: 2015-03-20)

[14] Cf. Hofstede, G. (publication date unknown), http://geert-hofstede.com/ (status as of: 2015-03-20)

[15] Cf. Hofstede, G. (publication date unknown), http://geert-hofstede.com/ (status as of: 2015-03-20)

[16] Cf. lecture notes

Details

Seiten
14
Jahr
2015
ISBN (eBook)
9783668009691
ISBN (Buch)
9783668009707
Dateigröße
808 KB
Sprache
Englisch
Katalognummer
v302628
Note
1,1
Schlagworte
Advertising Values Culture Business Ethics U.S. United States American Dream Extrinsic Values Intrinsic Values Customers Consumerism Materialism Consumers Marketing Consumer Research Intercultural Management

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Titel: Advertising and Customer Values. To what extend does one influence the other?