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The Realization of the Bologna Process in Austria and Hungary. Case Studies of the University of Vienna and Eötvös Loránd University

Hausarbeit 2015 20 Seiten

Pädagogik - Schulwesen, Bildungs- u. Schulpolitik

Leseprobe

Inhaltsverzeichnis

1. Introduction

2. Theoretical and methodological bases
2.1 Theory
2.2 Research questions and hypotheses
2.3 Methods

3. The Bologna process and its history

4. The University of Vienna and the Eötvös Lorand University
4.1 The University of Vienna
4.1.1 The history of the University of Vienna
4.1.2 The implementation of the Bologna Process
4.1.3 The three-cycle system
4.2 The Eötvös Lorand University
4.2.2 The implementation of the Bologna Process
4.2.3 The three-cycle system
4.3 Similarities and differences between the University of Vienna and the Eötvös Lorand University

5. Conclusion

1. Introduction

Austria and Hungary are neighbouring countries. Their history interweaved for a long time. After the victory of the Osman Empire in 1526, Hungary got split up into three parts. The Western part was ruled by the Habsburg Empire, then after the expulsion of the Turks, whole of the Hungarian Kingdom got part of the Habsburg Empire. With the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 the Austro-Hungarian Empire got created, which existed till 1918. After World War II., Hungary came under the influence of the Soviet Union and socialism was realized which lasted till the end of Communism in 1989.

Austria became a neutral country by an act of parliament in 1955. During the second half of the 20th century a steady growth was characteristic for this country. Today Austria belongs to Europe's most advanced states. The socialist conceptions/ ideas negatively influenced the development of the intellectual and economic life in Hungary and thereby the country fell behind Austria in every aspect. After the end of Communism, Hungary still had to deal with a lot of difficulties. It joined the European Union in 2004, Austria nine years earlier in 1995.

This seminar paper examines the Bologna Process in Austria and Hungary. First it is useful to define what this process exactly is about:

"The Bologna Process is a collective effort of public authorities, universities, teachers, and students, together with stakeholder associations, employers, quality assurance agencies, international organisations, and institutions, including the European Commission. The main focus is: the introduction of the three cycle system (bachelor/master/doctorate), strengthened quality assuranceand easierrecognition of qualificationsand periods of study."[1]

The Bologna Declaration was signed in 1999 and brought huge changes into higher education. The importance of the Bologna Process can be seen from the fact that many institutions and scholars deal with it: starting from the EU, through national and international organizations till scholars, from the field of education, sociology and so on. An investigation of the introduction and realization of the Bologna Process and the comparison of it between Austria and Hungary can lead to interesting outcomes because the two countries'past interweaved for a long time, followed by immense differences regarding the developments during the 20th century.

Due to the fact that looking at and comparing all universities in the two countries, in regard to the Bologna Process, would be a too big task for this seminar paper, just two significant universities, namely the University of Vienna and the Eötvös Lorand University in Budapest, will be examined. Both universities have a long history and are general universities, situatedin the capitals of the two countries. There are many connections between the University of Vienna and the Eötvös Lorand University: scientific research, Erasmus exchange programmes and so on.One main scientific collaborations happened in 2012.[2] The title of this collaboration was "Source investigation in libraries and archives in Budapest" (Hungarian title: Forráskutatás budapesti könyvtárakban és levéltárakban). It was a collaboration between the Institute of Literary Studies of the Eötvös Lorand University and the Institute of European and Comparative Language and Literature Science of the University of Vienna. The students of both universities,who participated, went first to libraries in Vienna and then in Budapestin order to find out more about research opportunities.

In the case of these two universities, the three-cycle system will be investigated, because this is one of the most significant parts of the Bologna Process and the two universities show in this field differences which got necessary due to the national specificities. There will be a historical overview, which will deal with three things: the history of the two universities, the history of the Bologna Declaration and the implementation of the Bologna Process in the case of the two universites.

2. Theoretical and methodological bases

2.1 Theory

The theory used in this seminar paper will be path dependence. According to Mahoney (2000) "path dependence charaterizes specificallly those historical sequences in which contingent events set into motion institutional patterns or event chains that have deterministic properties" (Mahoney 2000: 507). There are two types of sequences.[3] The first one is the self-reinforcing sequence. This type of sequence is characterized by the creation and reproduction of a specific institutional pattern. It often demonstrates what many people call "increasing returns." With this, the institutional pattern, which has been taken over,gives more and more advantages by continuing using it. However, after a while it is very difficult to change the pattern or to choose things which were available earlier, even if those would be more effective.

The second type of sequence is the reactive sequence. These sequences are "chains of temporally ordered and causally connected events" (ibid: 509). The sequences are reactive because every event within the sequence is a reaction to previous events. This means that every step depends on earlier steps.

After these, the research questions of this seminar paper can arise.

2.2 Research questions and hypotheses

Within the frames of this seminar paper two research questions will be tried to answer. The first one is: What effect did the Bologna Process have in the case of the University of Vienna and the Eötvös Lorand University? The second research question is: How did the two universities keep their characteristics and traditions?

This seminar paper has two hypotheses: In Austria the introduction of the Bologna Process happened more freely and smoothly than in Hungary. The University of Vienna and the Eötvös Lorand University both kept some of their characteristics.

2.3 Methods

In order to be able to answer the above mentioned questions, this seminar paper will use the following methods. As already mentioned, the focus will be on the Bologna Process implementation in the case of the University of Vienna and the Eötvös Lorand University. Due to the fact that there are just two cases, this seminar paper will be a small-N cross-national comparison.

Within the comparative historical analysis, the nominal strategy will be used. This strategy "mutually exclusive (cases cannot be classified in terms of more than one category) and collectively exhaustive (one of the categories applies to each case)" (Mahoney 2003: 339) categories are used. During the investigation of the topic, as already mentioned, this strategy will be used, for example, to find out in which degree programmes the Bologna Process was introduced and in which one's it was not.

Another strategy which will be used is the within-case strategy. While elaborating the topic of this seminar paper, the two universities will be examined separately before comparing them with each other.

Within the frames of the within-case strategy, process tracing can be done. Process tracing "is defined as the systematic examination of diagnostic evidence selected and analyzed in light of research questions and hypotheses posed by the investigator" (Collier 2011: 823). In this seminar paper process tracing will be done in the case of the history of the Bologna Process, its implementation at the two universities and in the case of the history of the two universities.

3. The Bologna process and its history

Before analyzing the situation at the University of Vienna and the Eötvös Lorand University, it is useful to look at the Bologna Process in general and its history.[4] Regarding the Bologna Process, first it is worth mentioning the context in which the idea emerged. Since the end of the 20th, higher education became a private domain (earlier it used to be a public domain) but at the same time "international trade in education services" (Reinalda/ Kulesza 2005: 99), like student mobility, increased. These kinds of developments show that the education market should be seen as an international institution. Apart from this, the developments contribute to modify the market's structure. By this, a growth in worldwide competition can be revealed. Education plays an important role in supporting economic progress. Due to this is can be expected that governmentswill take initiatives which will promote education, especially higher education. It is hard to say if "domestic or international politics dominated [the minister's] decision to fundamentally change the structure of higher education in Europe by introducing a policy of harmonization. But it must be noted that domestic problems with their higher education systems have indeed played a role in their initiative" (ibid: 100). A domestic problem was, for example, the spread regarding the numbers of students.

The Bologna Declaration has two predecessors. The first one is the Magna Charta Universitatum from 1988. This declaration has been signed in the city of Bologna by the heads of certain European universities. In the Magna Charta essential principles can be found regarding the role of universities: "the university is an autonomous institution; teaching an research in universities must be inseparable; freedom in research and training is the fundamental principle of university life; […] a university is the trustee of the European humanist tradition" (ibid: 7).Another important thing mentioned in this declaration is the mobility of students and teachers. In May 1998, so ten years after the Magna Charta, the Sorbonne Declaration was signed by ministers of education. Here the focus was on mobility and cooperation between European universties.

The Bologna Declaration was signed in June 1999 by 29 ministers of education. By accepting this declaration, "European countries, both EU and non-EU members, have commiteed themselves to achieving the creation of the European Area of Higher Education as a key way to promote citizen's mobility and employability and the continent's overall development" (ibid: 8). The Bologna Declaration cosists of three main goals, which are employability, mobility and international competitiveness. Apart from these there are six "action lines":

"1. adoption of a system of easily readable and comparable degrees;
2. adoption of a system essentially based on two cycles (undergraduate and graduate);
3. establishment of a system of credits (such as ECTS);
4. promotion of mobility by overcoming obstacles;
5. promotion of European cooperation in quality assurance; and
6. promotion of the European dimensions in higher education" (ibid: 21).

The 29 ministers of education, who signed the declaration, to meet again after two years in order to measure the progress and to discuss further steps.

That meeting happened in 2001 in Prague. Three new things were added to the "action line": "lifelong learning; involvement of students and promoting the attractiveness and competitiveness of the European Higher Education Area to other parts of the world" (ibid: 25). Here the 29 ministers again agreed that they would meet after two years to review the development made and decide on further directions and priorities towards the European Higher Education Area.

In 2003 the ministerial meeting took place in Berlin where seven new members were accepted, among others Russia, Andorra and Albania. The ministers decided to have a tenth "action line": include the doctoral studies as the third cycle and the cooperation of the European Higher Education Area (EHEA) and the European Research Area (ERA).

After two years the education ministers again met, this time in Bergen in the year 2005. Here five new members in the Bologna Process were welcomed: Ukraine, Georgia, Armenia, Moldova and Azerbaijan. The education ministers "confirmed their commitment to coordinating their policies through the Bologna Process to establish the European Higher Education Area by 2010" (ibid: 31). Also some of the previously agreed and accepted "action lines" were discussed, such as the doctoral studies, quality assurance and lifelong learning.

The next ministerial meeting took place in London in 2007.[5] Again a new country was welcomed as a member: the Republic of Montenegro. Here the ministers stated that they have come closer to the realisation of the EHEA (European Higher Education Area). They also stated that they want to expand the compatibility and comparability of the higher education systems. During this ministerial meeting the topics of mobility, degree structure, recognition, qualifications framework and lifelong learning came up among others.

Leuven and Louvain-la-Neuve were the cities in which the ministerial meeting was held in 2009.[6] At that time there were already 46 countries in the Bologna Process. Here, the ministers talked about the plans which they want to realize till 2020. They set also certain priorities, such as focus on quality, equitable access and completion and international openness.

In 2010 the ministers of education met in Budapest and Vienna[7] in order to launch the European Higher Education Area, as it was written down in the Bologna Declaration. Again a new country was welcomed as a member: Kazakhstan. This Budapest-Vienna Declaration on the European Higher Education Area states that the "Bologna Process and the resulting European Higher Education Area has raised considerable interest in other parts of the world and made European higher education more visible on the global map" (Budapest-Vienna Declaration). According to the ministers the academic community (researchers, teachers, institutional leaders and so on) has a key role in realizing the EHEA. To foster an inspiring learning and working environment and to promote student centred learning play an important role in this declaration.

The next ministerial meeting was in Bucharest in 2012.[8] Here it is mentioned that the Bologna Process has changed a lot within the higher education in Europe. It is also mentioned that higher education is now more comparable and compatible but further steps need to be made in order to achieve more progress. The priorities set are, among others, strengthening policies in regard to access and enhancing employability.

The last meeting till now took place in Yerevan in 2015.[9] Here they state that there has been a lot of progress within Europe, where there are right now 47 countries within the EHEA who cooperate with each other and have shared goals. It is also stated that there are still problems such as in the case of the structural reforms, which implementation is uneven. There are also social and economic crisis and also unemployment and migration are issues which need tob e solved. A set of goals is also mentioned, like the need for more inclusive systems and the introduction of structural reforms.

In regard to the Bologna Process it is worth mentioning the European Union and its contributions as well.[10] The European Commission is a member of the Bologna Process. One of its first "commitments […] to the emerging Bologna Process […] were financial contributions to the general rapporteur to the Prague meeting" (Reinalda/ Kulesza 2005: 42). For the European Union education plays an important role. This can be seen from various meetings of the European Council, such as in Lisbon and Nice. In the Lisbon meeting in March 2000 the members of the European Council agreed on strategic goals fort he coming 10 years and pointed out that the establishment of the European Area of Research and Innovation would be very important. A few months later, in December, the members of the European Council met again, this time in Nice. Here two topics were discussed: research and innovation and mobility of teachers and students.

4. The University of Vienna and the Eötvös Lorand University

4.1 The University of Vienna

After mentioning the history of the Bologna Process, it is useful to have a look at the two universities in regard to the implementation of the Bologna Process, specifically the three-cycle system. First, the situation at the University of Vienna will be analyzed.

4.1.1 The history of the University of Vienna

It is useful to begin with the university's history[11] and the study structure before the Bologna Process. The University of Vienna was founded in 1365 by Duke Rudolph IV. after the exampleof the Sorbonne in Paris. During the Reformation by Martin Luther, from 1520 onwards, the university, as being a papal institution, heavily lost its prestige. Due to the occupation of Vienna by the Osman Empire in 1529, epidemics and economic problems,among others, the number of students decreased. King Ferdinand I. tried to do something against this with the help of reforms and started to elaborate the university as a Catholic stronghold. In order to do so, he invited the Jesuits to Vienna, and gave the convent the control over two Theology Chairs. As a consequence, there were power struggles between the Jesuits and the university. In 1623 Emperor Ferdinand II.proclaimed the Sanctio Pragmatica. Thereby the Jesuits were given the control over the Theological and Philosophical Faculties. The number of students increased. For the next 150 years the Jesuits retained their dominant position.

Empress Maria Theresia decreased the influence of the Jesuits. Emperor Joseph II. continued the Theresian reforms. Due to his tolerance legislation, Protestants could inscribe themselves for the first time at the university in 1778. In 1782, Jews were allowed to study medicine and law.

In 1884, emperor Francis Joseph I. opened the main building of the university in the Ring Street. 1897 was the first year in which women were admitted to the University of Vienna but first just at the Philosophical Faculty. During World War I. and II.the university went through a very difficult time. The main building got quite destroyed due to bombs. In the 1970s, the free university access resulted in an education boom and the expansion of the university. The number of students increased a lot and due to this new building were built.

As a consequence of the university law of 2002, the university was transformed into an autonomous institution. In 2004 the Faculty of Medicine became a separate university. Today the University of Vienna is made up of 15 faculties and four centres.

Before the implementation of the Bologna Process, the duration of the study programmes differed a lot from each other.[12] The programmes, such as history and philosophy, within the humanities/ arts field of study were for a duration of eight semesters, means four years. IT and architecture, within the engineering field of study, were for a duration of ten semesters, means five years. The teacher training programmes were for a duration of nine semester, so 4,5 years. The medical studies programme was for twelve semesters (six years). The programmes in the natural sciences study field were for eight (such as geophysics), nine (like pharmacy) or ten semesters (for example molecular bionics). Law and sociology, among others, were for a duration of eight semesters and theology (such as evangelic and catholic) was for ten semesters.

After finishing one of these programmes, it was possible to do a PhD.[13] The doctoral studies were for a duration of two years, so four semesters.

4.1.2 The implementation of the Bologna Process

After the history of the University of Vienna and the study programmes before 2000, it is useful to have a look at the implementation of the Bologna Process.[14] Four main phases can be identified. Phase one can be named "The launch of the European Higher Education Area I Project." In 2000 an office (European Higher Education Area Project) was created which dealt with issues regarding the envisioned EHEA. First, just one person was responsible for this project, the Bologna-representative of the university. There were a few issues. One of these was that this representative worked in a kind of isolation, because he did not have "structured exchanges with other offices equally affected by the Bologna changes" (Baldinger 2009: 167). Another issue was related to the curricular development. Two organizational spheres were responsible for it: Rectorate and Senate. The problem was that they had different stakes and interests. Here the Bologna Process showed a lack of communication. This situation had many consequences, such as that for some, the functions of the EHEA I Project were limited in regard to dimensions. Despite all the difficulties, this project managed to get Bologna into the university.

The second phase is the "European Higher Education Area step II Project." This corresponded with the arrangements fort he Development Plan in 2005, which introduced "the Bologna Reforms as a key strategic priority" (ibid: 168). Followed by this, the EHEA Project soon expanded, which also meant that the university hired two new people to work on issues regarding the Bolonga Process. These new employees actively established national as well as international contacts.

The third phase is about the formation of the "EHEA Project Group." This project dealt with information policy: "it scanned deficits in knowledge and structure and consequently attempted to provide already agreed-on solutions" (ibid: 168). The Project Groups was actively involved in the implementation of the Bologna Process. Among the groups tasks were to draft concepts for the decision-making bodies and to assist and monitor the reform processes. Apart from these the Project Group also worked on course typologies, e-learning strategies, the development of curricula models and so on. This group had a wide range of members, such as representatives of the Senate, Bologna-relevant units and students.

The fourth phase isabout the Bologna Office. Since 2005 the Bologna Office assisted the Project Group. Again many people were employed by the university, who worked as Bologna Advisors. The Bologna Office "provided made-to-measure services to the host of curricula designers at the University of Vienna" (ibid: 173). It also organised many events as well as networking activities and like this provided a decisive link to many national and European activities. By 2008 "the shift to Bologna-conform study programmes was by and large completed" (ibid: 166).

4.1.3 The three-cycle system

Now it is worth to investigate the three-cycle system at the University of Vienna, which is the main focus of this seminar paper. Today the University of Vienna offers a wide range of study programmes[15], like before the implementation of the Bologna Process. Most of the old programmes got split up into Bachelor and Master degree programmes.

There are currently close to 60 Bachelor programmes at the University of Vienna. These programmes have a duration of six semester, so three years. It is possible to study for instance humanities/ arts (like history, languages and media science), engineering (such as IT and economic computer science) and natural sciences (for example biology, chemistry and physics).

The number of Master programmes is really high, more than 100 and their duration is two years (four semesters). These include Master programmes of the mentioned Bachelor programmes, as well as very specific studies. Among these are genetics and developmental biology, chemistry and technology of materials, ecology and ecosystems and zoology.

Like earlier, today it is also possible to do a PhD, for which the student needs a Master degree in a specific field. All the PhD programmes are for three years.

In the case of the University of Vienna, there are four programmes, which have not been changed in the Bachelor-Master structure and stayed as they were before the implementation of the Bologna Process. These are the so-called diploma programmes (in German: Diplomstudien): pharmacy (nine semesters), law (eight semesters), catholic theology (ten semesters) and some parts of the teacher training programme (nine semesters).

After the description of the old and new study programme structureat the University of Vienna, it can be said that the path dependence theory, which was mentioned that the beginning of this seminar paper, can be applied. This can be seen from the fact that the University of Vienna kept some of its characteristics.

4.2 The Eötvös Lorand University

4.2.1 The history of the Eötvös Lorand University

After the description of the situation at the University of Vienna, it is now useful to do the same in the case of the Eötvös Loran University. Here also first the universities history will me mentioned.[16] The university was founded by Archbishop Péter Pázmány in 1635 in Nagyszombat. It was led by the Jesuits, and was made up of the Theological and Humanities Faculties. In 1667 the Faculty of Law and in 1769 the Faculty of Medicine were established. During the 18th century the university got more and more under the control of the state.

In 1777 the university moved to Buda, later, in 1784, to Pest (at that time Buda and Pest were two separate cities). The courses were held in Latin till 1844. Around the end of the 19th, new buildings and the library were built. During this period, the university became the most important scientific centre in Hungary. In 1895 women were allowed to inscribe themselves to the university.

After World War I., in 1921, the university's name became "Royal Hungarian Péter Pázmány University of Sciences" (in Hungarian: Királyi Magyar Pázmány Péter Tudományegyetem).

In 1949 the Faculty of Natural Sciences was separatedfrom the Faculty of Humanities. Some faculties became own institutions, such as the Faculty of Roman Catholic Theology in 1950, which became a separate Academy and the Faculty of Medicine in 1951, which became a separate university. In the same year, the university's name was changed: its new name bwas "Eötvös Lorand University of Sciences" (in Hungarian: Eötvös Lorand Tudományegyetem).

In 1983 the university was extended by the Teacher Training College. After 2000, the faculties of Information Technology, Pedagogy and Psychology, Social Sciences. Currently, there are four faculties.

Before the implementation of the Bologna Process, there were five faculties and a wide range of study programmes was offered.[17] There were Bachelor, Master and PhD programmes at the university. The Bachelor one's, for example law, were usually for ten semesters, so five years. It was possible to study one subject, such as English or biology, at once or two subjects at once, like aesthetics and philosophy.Not all the programmes were for a duration of ten semesters: one exception was the Social Insurance programme, which was for eight semesters.

The teacher training programme was quite interesting. If a person wanted to become a primary school teacher, then he/ she had to go to the university's College Chair (in Hungarian: főiskola) and study two subjects at once. The duration of programme was four years (eight semesters). The university had also other college chairs, not just the one for the primary school teachers. One more is the College Chair for kindergarten educator's/ teacher's.

If a person wanted to become a secondary school teacher, then he/ she had to go to the univerity itself and study two subjects at once, like in the College Chair's case. These programmes were for 10 semesters, so five years.

In order to continue the studies, Master programmes were offered for a duration of two years. It was possible to choose a subject or subjects from a wide range of fields, like during the Bachelor programmes. After this came the PhD programmes, which were for three years.

4.2.2 The implementation of the Bologna Process

Next, it is interesting to have a look at the Bologna Process implementation in the case oft he Eötvös Lorand University.[18] In 2000 the credit-decree, about the introduction of the credit system, was published. The Bologna committee was established in the 2004. This was followed by the acceptance of a wide range of documents, about the establishment of Bachelor study programmes, and the Bachelor-decree. Around the end of 2004, the budgetary law and the government regulations about the three-cycle study structure came into existence. In 2005 documents about launching all Bachelor study programmes were accepted. Later, but still in the same year, documents regarding the establishment and launch of Master study programmes (IT and Social Sciences) got approved. In 2005 there have also been three resolutions by the rector: one about the introduction of the three-cycle system, one about the establishment of Master study programmes and one about introduction of the Master in Education (in order to become a teacher) study programme. The first BA/BSc study programme (software engineering) was launched in September 2005, which was followed by the social sciences BA/ BSc study programme in 2006. In the same year the Bologna seminar was held. In 2013, the teacher training programme was set back to the previous system.

4.2.3 The three-cycle system

Now it is worth to investigate the three-cycle system at the Eötvös Lorand University, which is the main focus of this seminar paper. Today the Eötvös Lorand University offers a wide range of study programmes, like before the implementation of the Bologna Process. Most of the old programmes got split up into the classical Bachelor (three years) and Master (two years) degree programmes.[19] The university offers more than 60 Bachelor programmes: languages, ethnography, history, political sciences, pedagogy, psychology, international relations, sociology, social work, geography, chemistry, mathematics and many more.

After the Bachelor, it is possible to do a Master. Here the number of programmes offered is more than 170. Among these are English Studies, American Studies, translator, social politics, human ecology, cultural anthropology, material sciences, geophysics, applied mathematics and andragogy.

The Master can be followed by the PhD which is for two till three years.

In the case of the Eötvös Lorand University, there are a two programmes, which do not follow the Bachelor-Master structure. One of these is law (which is still for five years). The other one is the teacher training programme. First, the three-cycle system was implemented here as well but due to several problems it got changed back into the previous system in 2013, with two exception: the Teacher Training Centre got established; today both teacher training programmes (for primary and secondary school) belong to this and both are for five years (ten semesters). One more special thing is that the College Chairs still exist and offer programmes which duration is between six and eight semesters.

After the description of the old and new study programme structure at the Eötvös Lorand University, it can be said that the path dependence theory, which was mentioned that the beginning of this seminar paper, can be applied. This can be seen from the fact that the university kept some of its characteristics or returned to the old structure.

4.3 Similarities and differences between the University of Vienna and the Eötvös Lorand University

Now it is useful to compare the University of Vienna and the Eötvös Lorand University with each other in order to find similarities as well as differences. Both universities have a long history, are situated in the capital and the Jesuits played an important role during the beginning phase of both universities. Differences are in regard to the year of their establishment: for the University of Vienna it was 1365 and for the Eötvös Lorand University it was 1635. At both universities women were atmitted, for the first time, quite late: at the end of the 19th century but here the Eötvös Lorand University was the first one (1895). In Vienna it happened only two years later. Both universities offered a wide range of study programmes. Differences are in regard to the duration of the study programmes and the structure. Thestudy structure at both universities had several stages, respectively two in the case of the University of Vienna and three in regard to the Eötvös Lorand University. At the University of Vienna the first stage lasted for four, four and half, five or six years. After this came the PhD programmes which lasted for two years. At the Eötvös Lorand University the names "Bachelor" and "Master" already existed before the implementation of the Bologna Process. Stage one was the Bachelor (five years), then Master (two years) and finally PhD (three years). Apart from these, the university also had several College Chairs which offered programmes.

At both universities the Bologna Process has been implemented. To really compare themin regard to the process of the implementation is a bit difficult due to the fact that two different kind of sources have been used for the description. In the case of the University of Vienna it was a scientific article which in depth described the four phases of the implementation, so it was more about strategies and organization. In the case of the Eötvös Lorand University, the description is from a table which can be found at the website of the university: years about when documents were accepted and so on. These are only facts but it is not possible to get to know much about the organization. However, it can be said that both universities needed several years to implement the Bologna Process.

Today, the University of Vienna as well as the Eötvös Lorand University offer a wide range of Bachelor and Master study programmes: close to 60 Bachelor and more than 100 Master in the case of the Austrian university and more than 60 Bachelor and more than 170 Master in the case of the Hungarian university. It gets visible that the Hungarian university offers a few more programmes than the Austrian one. Both universities have many PhD programmes, the difference is in regard to their duration: three years (University of Vienna) and two till three years (Eötvös Lorand University).

Another similarity is that at both universities there are study programmes which have not been changed to the three-cycle system. At the University of Vienna there are four programmes which stayed as they were: pharmacy, law, Catholic theology and some parts of the teacher training programme. In regard to the Eötvös Lorand University the law programme was not changed. A kind of special case is the teacher training programme for primary and secondary school teachers: first the three-cycle system was implemented but then the programme again introduced the old system with two modifications: both were taught at the same place (Teacher Training Centre) and are both for five years. Apart from this the College Chairs still exist. Same for both universities is that today in the case of the law programme and the teacher training programme the three-cycle system is not implemented.

5. Conclusion

This seminar paper attempted first to give an insight into the path dependence theory. This was followed by the history of the University of Vienna and the Eötvös Lorand University. Both universities were established a long time ago and had many difficulties during their history.

Before the Bologna Process, the universities offered a lot of study programmes but their structures and durations differed from each other. The implementation of the Bologna Process happened at both universities but not in the same year and not in the same speed. Nowadays, the three-cycle system has been implemented in nearly all study programme. However at both universities there are exeptions: the "diploma programmes" (pharmacy, law, Catholic theology and some parts of the teacher training programme) at the University of Vienna and the law and teacher training programme as well as the College Chairs at the Eötvös Lorand University. These show that the path dependence theory can be applied at both universities.

The first research question (What effect did the Bologna Process have in the case of the University of Vienna and the Eötvös Lorand University?) has almost been fully answered: the duration and structure of most of the study programmes changed. In order to give a complete answer, other aspects of the Bologna process, such a mobility, need to be taked into account.

The second research question (How did the two universities keep their characteristics and traditions?) has been answered as well: by not implementing the three-cycle system into all study programmes. In regard to this research question, further research is needed as well to completely answer this question, such as the exact reasons why the universities did not change those programmes.

The first hypothesis of this seminar paper (In Austria the introduction of the Bologna Process happened more freely and smoothly than in Hungary) can not be confirmed entirely due to the fact that that two different kind of sources have been used for the description: the one for the University of Vienna is a scientific artice and more about strategies and organization. In the case of the Eötvös Lorand University, the description is from a table which is about years of the acceptance of documents and so on.

The second hypothesis (The University of Vienna and the Eötvös Lorand University both kept some of their characteristics) can be confirmed in regard to the three-cycle system.

6. Bibliography

Baldinger, David (2009): Institutionalising Bologna at the University of Vienna. In: Schrittesser, Ilse: University goes Bologna: Trends in the Hochschullehre. Wien: facultas.wuv Universitätsverlag 2009. Pp. 165-176.

Collier, David (2011): Understanding Process Tracing. In: Political Science and Politics. Vol. 44, Issue 4. Pp. 823-830.

Mahoney, James (2000): Path dependence in historical sociology. In: Theory and Society, Vol. 29. Pp. 507-548.

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[...]


[1] http://ec.europa.eu/education/policy/higher-education/bologna-process_en.htm [last accessed: 04.06.2015].

[2] Main parts of the collaboration will be translated from Hungarian to English. The plan of the collaboration can be found on the website of the Eötvös Lorand University. Cf. http://konyvtar.elte.hu/hu/node/1698 [last accessed: 04.07.2015].

[3] The description of the two types of sequences is from: Mahoney, James (2000): Path dependence in historical sociology. In: Theory and Society, Vol. 29. Pp. 507-548. Here: Pp. 508-509.

[4] In the following main parts of Reinalda's and Kulesza's book will be mentioned. Cf. Reinalda, Bob/ Kulesza, Ewa (2005): The Bologna Process – Harmonizing Europe's Higher Education. Opladen/ Bloomfield Hills: Barbara Budrich Publishers.

[5] Due to the fact that Reinalda's and Kulesza's book was published in 2005, it does not contain the ministerial meetings after 2005. The important parts of the meeting in London are from: http://www.ehea.info/Uploads/Declarations/London_Communique18May2007.pdf[last accessed: 04.07.2015].

[6] The most important parts of the ministerial meeting in 2009 are from: http://www.ehea.info/Uploads/Declarations/Leuven_Louvain-la-Neuve_Communiqu%C3%A9_April_2009.pdf [last accessed: 04.07.2015].

[7] Main parts of the 2010 ministerial meeting are from: http://www.ehea.info/Uploads/Declarations/Budapest-Vienna_Declaration.pdf [last accessed: 04.07.2015].

[8] A few part of the meeting in Bucharest will be mentioned here. The complete document can be found at: http://www.ehea.info/Uploads/%281%29/Bucharest%20Communique%202012%281%29.pdf [last accessed: 04.07.2015].

[9] Some parts of this meeting will be mentioned in this seminar paper. The document itself can be found at: http://www.ehea.info/Uploads/SubmitedFiles/5_2015/112705.pdf [last accessed: 04.07.2015].

[10] Here again main parts of Reinalda's and Kulesza's (2005) book will be mentioned.

[11] The history of the University of Vienna is translated from German into English. The original version can be found at: https://www.univie.ac.at/ueber-uns/auf-einen-blick/geschichte-der-universitaet-wien/ [last accessed: 05.07.2015].

[12] Some of the study programmes will be mentioned here, which were translated from German into English. The original document, the University Studies Act (in German: Universitäts-Studiengesetz) from 1998, can be found at: https://www.ris.bka.gv.at/Dokumente/Bundesnormen/NOR12127941/NOR12127941.pdf [last accessed: 06.07.2015].

[13] The information about the PhD programme was translated from German into English. The original documents, the Federal Law Gazette for the Republic of Austria (in German: Bundesgesetzblatt für die Republik Österreich) from 1997, can be found at: https://www.ris.bka.gv.at/Dokumente/BgblPdf/1997_48_1/1997_48_1.pdf [last accessed: 06.07.2015].

[14] The description of the implementation of the Bologna Process at the University of Vienna will be according to Baldinger's (2009) article. Cf. Baldinger, David (2009): Institutionalising Bologna at the University of Vienna. In: Schrittesser, Ilse: University goes Bologna: Trends in the Hochschullehre. Wien: facultas.wuv Universitätsverlag 2009. Pp. 165-176.

[15] The names of the study programmes were translated from German into English. The complete list of programmes can be found at: http://studentpoint.univie.ac.at/vor-dem-studium/alle-studien/?no_cache=1&tx_univiestudentpoint_pi1%5Balpha%5D=a-e [last accessed: 06.07.2015].

[16] The history of the Eötvös Lorand University is translated from Hungarian into English. The original version can be found at: https://www.elte.hu/tortenet [last accessed: 05.07.2015].

[17] Some of the study programmes will be mentioned here, which were translated from Hungarian into English. The informations are from: Művelődési és Közoktatási Minisztérium [Ministry of Education] (1998): Felsőoktatási felvételi tájékoztató [Higher Education Studies Information Book]. Budapest 1997.

[18] The description of the implementation of the Bologna Process at the Eötvös Lorand University is translated from Hungarian into English. The original description can be found at: http://www.elte.hu/oktatas/bologna [last accessed: 05.07.2015].

[19] The names of the study programmes were translated from Hungarian into English. The complete list of programmes can be found at: http://www.felvi.hu/felveteli/jelentkezes/korabbi_elj_archivum/felveteli_tajekoztatok/meghirdetesek_14a/!Fft_archivum_14A/szer/szer_12.html [last accessed: 06.07.2015].

Details

Seiten
20
Jahr
2015
ISBN (Buch)
9783668040069
Dateigröße
728 KB
Sprache
Englisch
Katalognummer
v306107
Institution / Hochschule
Université du Luxembourg
Note
14/20
Schlagworte
bologna process austria hungary university vienna eötvös lorand

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Titel: The Realization of the Bologna Process in Austria and Hungary. Case Studies of the University of Vienna and Eötvös Loránd University