Lade Inhalt...

A Handbook for Small Scale Egg Production

Wissenschaftliche Studie 2015 22 Seiten

AdA Land- und Forstwirtschaft, Gartenbau

Leseprobe

Table of Contents

LAYER BREEDS
Factors to consider when choosing a breed

BROODING
HOUSING REQUIREMENTS
Brooder hygiene

REARING PULLETS
Housing requirements
Deep litter system

NUTRITIONAL REQUIREMENTS

WATER REQUIREMENTS
Ration changes
Midnight feedings
Light stimulation
Lighting programs To achieve good early Egg size

MANAGEMENT OF POINT OF LAY HENS
HOUSING AND EQUIPMENT FOR P.O.L HENS
Floor space
EQUIPMENT FOR 200 BIRDS
Laying nests
Feeders
Waterers
Perches
House climate
Lighting
Feeding

EGG COLLECTION AND PACKAGING

STORAGE OF EGGS DURING THE LAYING SEASON

MARKETING OF EGGS
Direct Marketing

POUTRY DISEASES
VIRAL DISEASES
BACTERIAL DISEASES
INFECTIOUS RESPIRATORY DISEASE
PARASITIC DISEASES
NEOPLASTIC DISEASES

PREFACE

This handbook provides useful information on how to keep layer hens profitably. It sheds light on factors to consider when selecting layer breeds, brooding and all critical management practices from day old up to marketing of eggs. Farmers need to grasp this hand book so that they will be able to produce a healthy flock. I recommend farmers to make use of this book without reservations because information and experience offered in this book is valuable. Farmers and inspired readers can make use of this hand book as a foundation to carry out researches as well as generating new ideas.

Wish you the best of all luck in egg production.

LAYER BREEDS

1. Leghorn
2. Ancorna
3. Mincorna

Most of the commercial breeds that are on the market were probably hybrids from the aforementioned breeds for example black crest and harvest.

Factors to consider when choosing a breed

1. Number of eggs laid for the whole production period.
2. Peak production age.
3. Body weight at the end of the laying period.
4. Quality of meet at the end of production period

Comperative analysis of the viability of black crest and harvest basing on the aforesaid selection criterion

illustration not visible in this excerpt

BROODING

Brooding is the care given to young chickens from day old up to the forth week. Successful brooding needs the best care and the most attention since it is the pre-requisite to expeditious growth rate and handsome profit.

Housing requirements

A good brooder house must protect the birds against all sorts of external shocks such as adverse climate conditions and predators. Tight and well programmed bio-security measures are very imperative

On the first day of arrival the recommended temperature of the brooder house ranges from 330C to 350C. The temperature is relatively high because the small body mass of chicks cannot generate heat to cope with high rate of heat loss through their relatively big body surface area. Temperatures should be reduced gradually but not below 230C by the end of the 4th week down to the level of ambient temperature. The brooder house should be far away from other chickens because other chicks can pass diseases to young chicks.

The brooder house must be well ventilated to discourage the development of a humid micro-climate condition which promotes development and speedy spread of diseases. To catalyze biochemical reactions, ample water must be provided all the times to the chicks. Chicks must have a free access to correct and optimum food in order to grow fast as well as producing eggs at the right age.

Brooder hygiene

Cleanliness is the most important and integral part of brooder management programme because it affects growth of chicks as well as profits. To maximize profits farmers are recommended to formulate an exceptional hygiene programme. The surroundings of the brooder must be clean to avoid spread of diseases. Make sure you avoid damp conditions to discourage built up of coccidiosis. Always keep water and feed troughs clean to avoid contamination of water and feeds. Culling and isolating ill-health birds also avoid spread of diseases. Provision of space is also imperative because sufficient space enable chicks to move freely and enhance circulation of air.

As a general guide, about 30 – 40 chicks/m2 can be stocked up to the age of 2 weeks. The stocking density can be lowered to 10 -15 chicks/m2 between 2 – 3 weeks.

REARING PULLETS

Rearing of layers require more time and relatively huge capital injection so farmers are advised to practice infallible management from day 1 up to the end of production period.

Strategic feed management is important in layer chicks production. They need optimum feed for high productivity. Correct feeding stimulates genetic potential of the breed. Each layer requires 120g of feed each day and this reduce incidence of overweight. If layers become overweight they will not be able to lay many eggs.

Housing requirements

To make egg production enterprise fruitful, farmers must ensure that poultry houses are clean, comfortable and healthy. Stresslessness make layer type chick to produce well later.

Poultry keepers must be aware of the standard space for pullets up to 18 weeks old as a way of keeping them under stressless environment. At least 1 square metre of floor space is needed for five pullets.

illustration not visible in this excerpt

Feeding and watering space should be 100mm and 25 mm per bird respectively.

A standard housing for pullets must have the following features:

1. A solid and strong wall up to height of 1m to protect birds from external factors like predators or strong winds.
2. A wire mash for the remaining 100cm to allow sufficient ventilation.
3. An impenetrable and impermeable roof to protect the birds from predators and water leakage during rainy season.

Deep litter system

Deep litter system is the most appropriate housing system for small scale or backyard egg production. It is cost effective because it can be used from brooding up to the end of production period. Floor requirements should change with the age of the birds. Litter should be 200mm deep and is usually removed and replaced at an interval of 17 to 21 days to reduce dampness and smells spread of various poultry diseases.

Advantages of deep litter system

1. The mixture of litter and birds excrement provides valuable manure for plants.
2. The system save space as it requires a small area as compared to battery cage system.
3. Birds have room to move freely in the run. The movements burn fates and improve productivity.
4. High stocking is possible. Light can be easily provided and this enables birds to feed at night.

NUTRITIONAL REQUIREMENTS

Good feed management is essential when producing layer birds since it is the pre-requisite to production of strong and productive pullets. Day old chicks eat chick starter mash up to eight weeks. From nine to eighteen weeks pullets eat growers mash or pellets. From week eighteen layer hens eat layers mash. The table below shows types of feed and their fat and protein composition.

Table 1: nutrient requirements

illustration not visible in this excerpt

Farmers can also use concentrates to feed layer birds. The mixing ratio for concentrates and maize is stated below:

- 2 parts chick mash concentrate to 3 parts maize meal.
- 1part growers mash concentrate to 1 part maize meal.
- 2 parts layers mash concentrate to 3 parts maize meal.

The amount of feed required by layer chicks increase with the increase in age. The table below shows the feed requirements for 200 layer type chicks, pullets and hens.

Table 2: feed consumption for the whole production cycle (200 birds)

illustration not visible in this excerpt

In a nutshell, each layer hen requires about 120g per day.

The quantity of feed in the aforementioned table is adequate for high productivity. It allows farmers to exploit full genetic potential of the breed.

WATER REQUIREMENTS

Water is the most readily available essential ingredient of all poultry feeds. The table below shows the amount of water required by birds in different age groups.

Table 3: quantity of water required by birds daily (200 birds)

illustration not visible in this excerpt

Ration changes

Feed rations can be changed in terms of duration not feed concentration. Do not move to the next ration until the pullets have attained breeder target weight for the appropriate age. Starter rations maybe extended until 8 or 9 weeks and grower’s rations maybe fed until they goes on to pre-lay. This is especially true during high heat and depressed consumption. During periods of flock handling for bacterin infections, increase the density of the feed for some days to offset the reduction in intake. This can be accomplished by simply going from a grower’s ration to a starter ration for a week to compensate for the anticipated nutrient intake reduction.

[...]

Details

Seiten
22
Jahr
2015
ISBN (eBook)
9783668055377
ISBN (Buch)
9783668055384
Dateigröße
481 KB
Sprache
Englisch
Katalognummer
v306294
Note
Schlagworte
Hens Eggs Egg Production Egg Marketing Handbook layer hens layer breeds brooding

Autor

Teilen

Zurück

Titel: A Handbook for Small Scale Egg Production