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Assessment level Spontaneous mutagenesis in the normal population of the Yemen Republic

Wissenschaftliche Studie 2016 6 Seiten

Biologie - Genetik / Gentechnologie

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Assessment level Spontaneous mutagenesis in the normal population of the Yemen Republic

Dr. Alariqi Aref Dael *

Abstract

The study we first calculated the level of spontaneous mutagenesis population of Yemen Republic residents, which amounted to 1,12 ± 0,09 per 100 cells. The main type of aberrations in this were single fragments (0,69 ± 0,10%), which occurred twice as often paired (0,35 ± 0,07%). Chromosomal exchanges and chromatid exchanges occurred at a frequency 0,02 ± 0,02% and 0,08 ± 0,04% at 1.96% of the population. In the analyzed material was observed dysenteric chromosomes interchromatid, interchromosomal exchanges, which may indicate the absence of the effects of radiation and chemicals above background.

INTRODUCTION:

It is now proven that the spread of chemicals in the environment leads to the formation of defects in DNA and chromosome damage. Numerous studies of recent years have shown that chemical mutagens several orders of magnitude higher than the activity of radiation, often have a much more specific and more subtle effects on cell [Basu AK DNA damage and mutagenesis. Chemical research in toxicology.2006.V.19.Issue 12. 1679p.].

Developing countries have been in the most difficult situation. Since them develop industrial production and, consequently, increases the load on the environment, increased globalization of human influence. One of such enterprises in the Republic of Yemen is the factories producing plastic and cement. This context the aim of this study was to assess the level of spontaneous mutagenesis to produce cement and plastic in cities Bajil and Taiz, Republic of Yemen.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Analysis of the level of spontaneous mutagenesis was performed on cytogenetic preparations of metaphase chromosomes of peripheral blood lymphocytes obtained from Yemen Republic citizens residing in the village of Al- Lames, Taiz government.

The group (control) included relatively healthy villagers Al Lames, Taiz government; Republic of Yemen isolated from the influence of the production area, engaged in agriculture and has no contact with chemicals. In this group of cells was analyzed 5100 (N = 51), 2500 from men (N = 25) and from 2600 women (N = 26) (Table 1).

Table 1. Characteristics of the surveyed groups

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Cytogenetic methods: Comply with the entire fence material culture and fixation. Blood samples produced from the cubical vein in a volume of 10 ml. The blood was immediately placed into vials with heparin, diluted with water to 1:20, to prevent clotting. Culturing cells in peripheral blood of persons surveyed held the conventional method described Hungerford and Moorhead. Fixation was performed on 72 hour cultivation. Stained with Roman-Games. For each person analyzed 100 metaphase spreads.

Statistical methods: Statistical analysis of the data generated by the bank carried out on a PC using the software package Microsoft Excel 2007 Company Microsoft Inc. (USA) and STATISTICA company Stat Soft Inc. (USA), version 6.0. Data processing was carried out according to standard methods of variation statistics. Were used calculate the mean values ​​(M - arithmetic mean ); error of the mean ( SM ) , standard deviation (Std. Dev.); calculation of correlation coefficients for Spearman (R); analysis of the distribution of feature Fischer (F- test) ; Comparison of average values ​​of the Student's (t - test) , and discriminant analysis.

Results of their research

Rating population level of spontaneous mutagenesis in the inhabitants of the Republic of Yemen

The study we first calculated the level of spontaneous mutagenesis population Yemen Republic residents, which amounted to 1,12 ± 0,09 per 100 cells (Table 2). This level does not exceed the maximum allowable limits described in the literature for a number of countries [Bochkov NP, AN Chebotarev, Katosova LD, Platonov, VI, 2001].

Table2. Level of spontaneous mutagenesis in healthy residents of Yemen Republic

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The main type of aberrations in this were single fragments (0, 69 ± 0, 10%), which occurred twice as often paired (0, 35 ± 0, 07%). Chromosomal exchanges and chromatid exchanges occurred at a frequency 0,02 ± 0,02% and 0,08 ± 0,04% at 1.96% of the population. In the analyzed material was observed dicentric chromosomes interhromatid, interchromosomal exchanges, which may indicate the absence of the effects of radiation and chemicals above background.

Upon further comparison indicators of mutagenesis in a healthy population with segregation by sex (Table 2) have also been established statistically significant differences on a number of factors: the frequency of aberrations (t = 2,26), the frequency of breaks (t = 2,44) and damaged chromosomes ( t = 2,60).

Comparative analysis of the frequency of occurrence of various types of aberrations among group’s smokers and non-residents statistically significant differences were found. In this regard, we compared the number of aberrations in a group of men smoking and smoking, as well as among groups of women smokers and nonsmokers. The results are shown in Table 3.

Table3. The frequency of aberrations in segregation by sex among smokers and non-smokers in the population sample of the Republic of Yemen

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Thus, the frequency of aberrations in a group of men smokers and nonsmokers and compared with a group of women smokers and non-smokers in the population sample statistically significant differences were found.

CONCLUSION

The problem of evaluating spontaneous mutagenesis is particularly relevant for a country with a developing industry and health care as the Republic of Yemen, where for many years is not actually paid attention to the environmental aspects of health and production technology does not protect the public from harmful contaminants. All the above led us to seek to conduct this study.

In our study, as in the control group and in the experimental groups were minor significant differences between the sexes on a number of factors: the amount of aberrations, frequency of breaks and chromosome damage and smoking. The main contribution to not significant and statistically reliable differences between men and women in the frequency of aberrations per 100 cells, and the frequency of damaged chromosomes, respectively, and in the frequency of breaks brought somatic factors such as smoking. These data confirm the published data on the high positive correlation of negative influence of environmental factors and the level of spontaneous mutagenesis.

Thus, as a result of the study provided data reflecting the work of the chromosomal apparatus of the cell under the harmful effects of environmental factors. Indicators of the level of spontaneous mutagenesis are important predictors of various pathologies, as well as the formation of congenital malformations.

FINDINGS

1. Unrove spontaneous mutagenesis to residents of the Republic of Yemen is 1,12 ± 0,09%. The most frequently encountered type of aberrations are single (0, 69 ± 0, 10%) and paired fragments (0, 35 ± 0, 07%).
2. Obtained data can serve as a criterion for assessing the level of spontaneous mutagenesis in the normal population of the Republic of Yemen.
3. Statistically significant differences in the mean values ​​of the level of spontaneous mutagenesis between men and women found the frequency of aberrations in general and in concreteness frequency of single fragments, the frequency of chromatid breaks and chromosome damage frequency.
4. Factor smoking has no adverse impact on the occurrence of chromosomal aberrations in healthy residents Yemen Republic, but is an additive factor for mutagenesis employees of hazardous industries.

LIST OF LITERATRY

1.Bochkov NP, AN Chebotarev, Katosova LD, Platonov, VI Database for analysis of quantitative characteristics of the frequency of chromosomal aberrations in peripheral blood lymphocyte culture of human / / Genetics. M. - 2001. - T.37, № 4, s.549-557.
2. Basu A.K. DNA damage and mutagenesis. Chemical research in toxicology. 2006. V.19. Issue12. 1679p

LIST OF ACRONYMS

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* Assistant professor in Department of biological sciences – Faculty of Education - Hodeida University -Yemen

Details

Seiten
6
Jahr
2016
ISBN (eBook)
9783668259898
Dateigröße
465 KB
Sprache
Englisch
Katalognummer
v321692
Note
Schlagworte
assessment spontaneous yemen republic

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Titel: Assessment level Spontaneous mutagenesis in the normal population of the Yemen Republic