This report combines the findings of research carried out by Institute of international Education on how gender, age, personality and race ethnicity are some of the leading factors that contribute to acculturative stress that are experienced by international students. A estimated figure of around 613 international students enrolled in the United States university were interviewed on an online survey. The outcome revealed that there was only one case of penalty type known as neuroticism that was significantly connected to acculturative stress, the study also showed that neuroticism was also a major contributor of perceived discrimination, fear, home sickness and also it was a major contributor of hate and rejection that are a major factor to acculturative stress. The report also compares European students with Asian/ Pacific Islander, African and the Middle East students and revealed that European students coped well with acculturative stress than the other International Students.
Education is among the global phenomena that contribute to Multi cultural societies. Millions of international students seek education and professionals skills away from home to seek greener pastures. Most of the international students come from different part of the world and they come along with their diversity and multicultural learning with them (Institute of International Education, 2010).
This report will examine the relationship between the personality characteristics in relation to their demographic location and information and their level of sustainers of acculturative stress. Previous reports indicate that their was a strong relation between acculturative stress and one’s personality. This report will also enhance on the relationship between individual traits and various factors that are related to acculturative stress among an identified number of international students. In this report It will feature on expanding the base of research between different personalities in relation to agreeableness, extraversion, neuroticism, conscientiousness and openness. Special emphasis was also considered on the part of race and ethnicity as some of the major factors that contributed to accumulative stress among international students.
Interested groups studied the relation between race ethnicity, age, gender and acculturative stress among some of the international students and found out one concluding factor i.e neuroticism was unassumingly a major factor in acculturative stress. This research was consistent with an earlier research that was carried out by Duru and Poyrazli (2007) which featured Turkish international students. This reports can convincible conclude that students who have high levels of neuroticism are most likely to experience negative emotions that may affect how he copes with the situation.
Table 1. Bivariate correlations among variables, mean, and standard deviations.
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Note. Consc. = Conscientiousness, PDisc = Perceived discrimination, CShock = Culture shock, PHate = Perceived hate/rejection, Homesick = Homesickness, Misc. = Miscellaneous, ASSIS = Total acculturative stress scale score. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01.
The research carried out revealed that their was a significant correlation between home sickness and openness. This was suggested as being the main cause of students who opened up to new experiences and the level of interactions between the host cultures.
Other analyses indicated that there are differences in the experience of acculturative stress among different Racial-ethnic groups. African students had the highest levels of acculturative stress followed by Asian/Pacific Islander, Middle Eastern, and Latino students, and European students had the lowest levels of acculturative stress. In addition, post-hoc comparisons showed that compared to the European students, African, Asian/ Pacific Islander, and Middle Eastern students reported having significantly higher levels of acculturative stress. These results are similar to Yeh and Inose’s (2003) study, which found that the European students are least likely to experience acculturative stress as compared to Asian and African students. These results may speak to the impact of socio-race and racism in that the extent to which an international student is exposed to racism might directly be related to the levels of acculturative stress he/she may potentially experience. It may be difficult for some of the U.S. individuals to host or accept individuals who are not from the Caucasian race. Europeans may appear very similar to non minority groups in the U.S., and this might make it easier for them to be easily accepted by the individuals in the host culture. As previous research indicates, individuals are more likely to make friends with someone of the same race and ethnicity than with someone who differs in race and ethnicity (Clark and Ayers, 1992). As a result, European students may be more readily approached by Caucasian U.S. individuals, which will increase their chances of forming social relationships and might minimize their level of acculturative stress.
Gender, age, race-ethnicity and acculturative stress
Sexual orientation, age, race-ethnicity and acculturative anxiety
There is a restricted measure of examination identified with sexual orientation and acculturative anxiety. This constrained examination delivered conflicting results. Poyrazli, Arbona, Nora, McPherson & Pisecco (2002) discovered sex contrasts in experience of depression, a subcategory of acculturative anxiety. In the study, male graduate understudies reported encountering higher sentiments of depression than did female graduate understudies. In any case, Sodowsky & Plake (1992) did not discover any sexual orientation contrasts in acculturative anxiety. Subsequently, it is vital that the sexual orientation contrasts are kept on being investigated.
There have been a couple considers on age and acculturative anxiety and the outcomes are not unmistakably indisputable either. Ye (2006) found that more established Chinese global understudies reported having larger amounts of acculturative anxiety than more youthful Chinese universal understudies. More seasoned understudies experienced more dread, saw discrimination, and contempt than more youthful understudies. The outcomes were predictable with the scientist's prior study on acculturative anxiety and Internet use by East Asian universal understudies in 2005. In any case, a study by Yeh and Inose (2003) found that age was not altogether identified with acculturative anxiety for global understudies. So also, Poyrazli et al. (2004) found no critical connection amongst age and acculturative anxiety. Considering these blended exploration results, it is critical to keep on studying how age may be identified with acculturative anxiety to illuminate.
The report showed that international students should have counselors and educators to help them undergo their personality as pertains the traits of high traits of acculturative stress. The need for special consideration for students who show high influence of neuroticism or students who don’t come from an European background. Students who show high levels of stress can be helped or provided with psych educational services that will help them cope with the current situation and adjust to the new culture. As indicated by Roeshch et al. (2006) students who show high levels of stress always avoid coping with the current situation. While physiotherapists and counselors facilitate the ground for change students should be willing to take steps to accept the current situation and adopt to changes in their environment. For those students who are radically or ethnically challenged they are more likely to observe rejection and discrimination from their host culture.
International students could also be taught how effectively to deal with discrimination, they could be given examples of how minority groups cope and deal with discrimination. This in turn will help them to further understand professional and personal relationships as practiced in the western region. This will help the students to understand both the non verbal and verbal communications in an effort to address the misguided understanding of the western culture’s and their beliefs.
Gross culture activities can also help in shaping up and understandings of how other cultures can blend in with the host countries. This can help internationals and host students to interchange their traditions and acculturation cultures. In these modern times globalization is an inter cross cultural interaction that encompasses different cultures for a better working environment for all to thrive in (Kawakami et al., 2007).
The report suggested that their were a specific number of students who were likely ot experience high level of acculturative stress. It was also established that high levels of neuroticism was much higher in Asian/ Pacific Islander than European counterparts. It was noted that the acculturation process should be made mandatory for higher education institutions which has an higher number of international students and make protective interventions for all students including the international students. Cross cultural festivals could also help in taming stress experience by international students who come from a different cultural environment from their host.
Institute of International Education (2010). Record numbers of international students in U.S. Higher Education. Retrieved on February 17, 2010, from http://www.iie.org/Content/NavigationMenu/Pressroom/PressReleases/OpenDoors09_InternStudents.htm .
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