Background of the Study
Statement of the Problem
Purpose of the Study
Objectives of the Study
Significance of the Study
Education Level of the Respondents
Effects of SBLP on Teachers’ Planning For Instruction
Effects of SBLP on Teachers’ Lesson Content Delivery
Summary of the results findings
Effects of SBLP on teachers’ planning for instruction
Effects of SBLP on teachers’ lesson content delivery
The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of School Based Learning Programmes on teachers’ effectiveness in Molo Subcounty. School Based Learning Programme is a mode of study undertaken by teachers who are already in the teaching profession. This programme is offered during the school holidays in April, August and December and in the evenings and weekends. The programme affects the teachers’ performance in their respective secondary schools either positively or negatively. This study was guided by five main objectives: To determine the effect of School Based Learning Programme on teacher’s effectiveness on planning for instruction, on lesson content delivery, teacher’s evaluation skills, on development of Student-Teacher relationship and finally to examine the effect on their use of teaching- learning resources on their teaching. The study employed descriptive survey design. 356 teachers, 36 head teachers, one Quality Assurance and Standards Officer which formed a target population of 393 respondents. To obtain the sample size a purposive sampling was used to target teachers who have undergone or undergoing School Based Learning Programme. Sub-county QASO and Head teachers whose schools had SBLP teachers were interviewed. Stratified purposive sampling was used to select two teachers per school who were observed considering gender where applicable. All teachers who had undergone and those undergoing School Based Learning Programme in the sub-county secondary schools filled the questionnaire. Data was gathered by use of a questionnaire, an interview schedule, an observation guide and documentary analysis. The data was subjected to both qualitative and quantitative analysis. The study was based on the model of Effective Schools by Lesothe (2001) who posited the seven correlates of effective schools that includes instructional leadership, high academic success, monitoring of students progress and opportunity to learn. The data analysis was done using both descriptive (means, frequencies and tables) as well as inferential statistics (correlation). A statistically significant positive relationship between the dependent variable school based learning programme and effective teacher planning for instruction at a coefficient of 0.571 (p=0.00˂0.05), positive relationship with teachers’ lesson content delivery at a coefficient of 0.682(r=0.682 p<0.05), positive relationship with teachers’ student evaluation at a coefficient of 0.611(r=0.611 p<0.05); positive relationship with teachers’ development of Student -Teacher relationship at a significant coefficient of 0.622(r=0.622 p<0.05) and a positive relationship with teachers’ use of Teaching-Learning resources at a significant coefficient of 0.692(r=0.692 p<0.05).The study recommend consented efforts of the Government, School Principals ,Universities in ensuring proper rolling and management of the school based learning programme in order to benefit more teachers. Universities need to follow up their products (alumni) in the form of surveys, SBLP research and interaction and assess their performance in view of the training their alumni received. Further studies are recommended to establish the sources of fees for the Teachers under SBLP in the Universities and challenges thereof, which university has high number of MED students and why as well as which gender is of high population in SBLP and to find reasons why.
Background of the Study
School Based Learning Programme (SBLP) enables teachers to acquire new concepts and models of overcoming emerging challenges of imparting knowledge to the present generation. Wenger, McDermott and Synder (2002) stress teachers’ learning and practice are like two sides of the same coin, where learning is the engine of practice, and practice is the history of that learning. Ideally, improvement of practice must take place in the work place with competence development forming part of a continuous learning process within the organization environment.
Teachers and the quality of their teaching are now widely recognised as the most critical of the many important factors that combine, to create overall quality of education (Darling, 2005). This is because school based teacher professional development programmes plays an important in developing, supporting and maintaining the quality of the teacher as a means to effective education.
Stielau (2007) assumes a broader approach than vertical learning, addressing a cross-section of knowledge and blending information from different fields to achieve new levels of understanding. This process enables teachers to work and learn together, by tackling real issues and reflecting on their actions in a way that allows them to acquire knowledge, through real actions and practice in learning rather than through traditional instructions.
There is a wide consensus amongst researchers and practitioners that teachers are the most important factor in delivering quality education in schools, and therefore it is significant to support the professional development of teachers as a key contribution towards improving educational systems and the learning outcomes of students (Stielau 2007).
In early 1980’s, the Kenyan Government sought technical assistance from USAID to establish the Correspondence Course Unit (CCU) through the institute of Adult Studies of the Nairobi of University to train Unqualified Teachers (UQT). The Government through the Ministry of Education collaborated with the college of Education and External Studies to create distance learning programmes so that teachers can continue teaching while undertaking studies. The in-service training of school teachers through distance learning has become a permanent feature of teachers training in Kenya. Court and Ghai (2011) noted that the teachers who successfully completed the correspondence course compared well academically and professionally with those who had the formal teacher training from the university colleges.
Statement of the Problem
The Government of the Republic of Kenya recognizes the importance of teacher education as one of the important levers of accelerating the attainment of Education For All (EFA) and Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). An effective teacher education program enhances a country’s social-economic growth and political stability. The Government, through the sessional paper No. 1 of 2005, a policy Framework on Education, Training and Research recommended development of a comprehensive teacher-education and service standard guidelines (MOEST, 2005). This is because effective teaching is critical to the provision and maintenance of quality and relevant education at all levels.
Nakuru County and in particular Molo Sub-County, has not been left out. Many teachers have graduated and are enrolled in the School Based Learning Programmes in various universities. According to the Nakuru County Education Magazine of June 2014 the start of Mount Kenya University, Kisii University and Egerton University at Kabarnet, a good number of teachers have enrolled in the SBLP (Korir, 2014). However, despite the evident increase in number of teachers pursuing school based learning in Molo Sub-County, the effect of this School Based Learning Programme on teachers’ effectiveness has not been ascertained. It is against this backdrop that this study was designed to fill the knowledge gap.
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of School Based Learning Programmes on teachers’ effectiveness in secondary schools in Molo Sub-County.
Objectives of the Study
The specific objectives of this study were:-
(i) To investigate the effect of School Based Learning Programmes on teachers’ planning for instruction.
(ii) To examine the effect of School Based Learning Programmes on teachers’ lesson content delivery.
The study sought to answer the following questions:-
(i) What are the effects of School Based Learning Programmes on teachers’ planning for their instructions?
(ii) What are the effects of School Based Learning Programmes on teachers’ lesson content delivery?
This study was based on the hypothesis:
Ho1: There was no significant relationship between School Based Learning Programmes and teachers’ effectiveness in secondary schools in Molo Sub-County.
Significance of the Study
The Ministry of Education would understand the need to strengthen school-based teacher programme in country through suggesting areas of the curriculum to be strengthened and amended by the Kenya Institute of Curriculum Development (KICD). The study would aid the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology to formulate policies that would dedicate School Based Learning Programmes in the national catalogue for professional development of teachers.
This research would contribute significantly to the existing knowledge in the world of academics as well as bridging the gap left by other researchers on School Based Learning Programme or in-service training.
The school administration would undertake a strong and visible leadership stance on pedagogical development in schools and actively support creativity, innovation and quality development of teaching and learning process.
The study would be significant to policy makers to come up with strategies and policies geared towards strengthening school-based teacher programme in Molo Sub-County and the entire nation at large.
It would also help parents get to know the effects of School Based Learning Programmes on their children’s academic performance so as to bridge any gap created through employment of more teachers under their financial support popularly referred as B.O.M teachers.
Teachers would find this information useful in understanding the need to invest in quality training which would in forth lead to quality instruction to their learners; and them with knowledge and skills to enable them cope up with.
It would enable universities and other training institutions to formalize and institutionalize School Based Learning Programme as a complimentary component to the continuing training courses, while establishing a solid pedagogical teachers training, where university education alternatives with classroom training.
The Students would also benefit in that teacher will be well trained on the best ways of instruction leading to better teaching services and curriculum delivery designed for the learners hence posting better academic and moral development. By learners attaining right and quality education would endeavour the country in achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and the vision 2030 on education sector.
This study was based on the model of effective schools by Lezotte (2001). According to Lezotte, there are seven correlates of effective schools namely strong instructional leadership, clear and focused mission, safe and orderly school environment, climate of high expectations for success, frequent monitoring of student progress, positive home-school relationship and opportunity to learn and study time on task. All the correlates of effective schools, proposed by Lezotte are critical to the effective schools because they represent the leading organizational and contextual indicators that have been shown to influence student learning positively through student achievement. The seven correlates of Effective Schools are the aspects effective teachers are expected to enforce to realise better student’s academic performance.
Effective school management and teaching contribute greatly to improved academic performance through clear and focused instructional leadership. Clear and focused mission articulate the overall school effectiveness. Every school stakeholder has a shared sense of purpose, understanding and core values to attainment of effective teaching and learning. Classrooms are warm and inviting and learning activities are purposeful, engaging and significant. Personalized learning environment are created by increase positive relationship amongst students and between students and teachers (Lezotte, 2001).
Frequent monitoring of students progress enables the teachers to use the results of the assessment to adjust instructional and to cater for their varied students’ capabilities. Positive home-school relations foster parents understanding, support and involvement as part of the collaborative team as parties in the education of their children leading to discipline which is the factor to good academic performance.
Opportunity to learn and student time on task guide the teacher to allocate a significant amount of time to instruction in the essential curricular areas such as the compulsory subject such as Mathematics, English, Kiswahili and Science. Students tend to learn most things purposively to time spend on it.
In summary, the Correlates of Effective Schools provide school improvement teams and student with comprehensive framework for identifying categorizing, and solving the problems the teams face in development of effective schools through effective teachers. Head teachers and teachers are pivotal in development of effective schools thus, they require training to enable them acquire new concepts and models of overcoming emerging challenges of imparting knowledge to the present generation and to meet the emerging dynamics like technological, constitutional and behavioural changes.
The study sought to find out the effect of School Based Learning Programme on teacher’s effectiveness in undertaking their professional duties in Molo Sub-County in Nakuru County. Figure 1 presents the conceptual framework of the study.
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Fig.1: Conceptual framework showing relationship between schools based learning programme and teacher effectiveness.
Figure 1 shows how School Based Learning Programmes influences teachers’ effectiveness. School Based Learning Programmes offer relevant courses including how to effectively plan for instructions, lesson content delivery, assessment, development of student-teacher relationships and better use and improvisation of teacher-learning resources. The teachers who have received these courses were expected to perform better in their teaching profession. The intervening variables of the study includes features such as the type of the school, teachers’ teaching experiences, teachers’ qualification, school management and school culture. Academic performance by the students is an indicator of effective teaching and learning. This performance can be ascertained through documentary analysis which includes principal’s appraisals, awards, annual reports, QASO reports and school academic progress records.