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Development of an Adaptive Piezoelectric Harvesting System for Wireless Remote Power Supply

Masterarbeit 2015 69 Seiten

Ingenieurwissenschaften - Energietechnik


Table of contents



1 Introduction
1.a Background of the project
1.b context and background
1.c importance
1.d example method to overcome problems
1.1 project objectives
1.2 overview of the project
1.2.a utilization of the direct piezoelectric effect
1.2.b application oriented solutions
1.2.c data monitoring
1.2.d product monitoring
1.3 outlining of energy harvesting

2 Power harvesting theory

3 literature review
3.1.a solar
3.1.b fluid flow
3.1.c temperature difference
3.1.d radio frequency
3.2 vibration
3.3 energy harvesting methods
3.3.a electromagnetic transduction
3.3.b electrostatic transduction
3.3.c piezoelectric transduction
3.4 vibration transduction
3.4.a vibration sources
3.4.b importance of resonant frequency and mass
3.4.c push for MEMS energy harvesting
3.5 transduction mechanism
3.5.a piezoelectric generator
3.5.b electro generator
3.5.c electromagnetic generator
3.6 piezoelectric harvesting system
3.6.a fundamental concept
3.6.b appendixes
3.6.c semiconductor components
3.6.d diodes and rectifiers
3.7 direct current impedance matching
3.7.a direct current impedance matching
3.7.b DCIM circuit design and operation
3.8 synchronous electric charge extraction circuit
3.8.a circuit design and operation
3.8.b max harvested power
3.8.c brief advantages
3.9 electrical circuits
3.9.a depending on excitation frequency
3.9.b power storage and circuitry
3.9.c storage device ....
3.9.d charge /discharge efficiency
3.9.1 Model equivalent circuit
3.9.1.a internal series resistance . .
3.9.1.b leakage resistance
3.9.1.c power loss efficiency
3.9.2 Experimental validation .

4 design of the circuit
4.a piezoelectric element
4.b capacitor
4.c ac-dc rectifier circuit
4.1 dc-dc step up converter
4.1.a features
4.1.b pin description .
4.2 project design
4.3 experimental procedure ..

5 implementation
5.1 testing and results

6 project management
6.1 project schedule
6.2 risk management
6.3 quality management

7 circuit appraisal

8 conclusion
8.1 achievement
8.2 recommendations for future work

9 student reflections



Increasing energy consumption in modern electronic systems has allowed energy harvesting materials to grow at a rapid pace. Environmental energy harvesting, in particular vibration based, have developed as a viable technique to supplement battery supplies. This project develops a sustained operation to power an electric system. Piezoelectric materials allow to convert mechanical energy into electrical energy. This can be done though solar, vibrations, heat, strain, etc. This energy can also be stored for later use. It is also varying the voltage and adjust the amplitude piezoelectric harvesting components and storage devices (such as batteries, super capacitors, etc.) Can have different types of Voltage and Current characteristics. These should be matched with each other in order to meet energy requirements to maximize efficiency. An adaptive control method for DC-DC converters can be used to continuously execute the optimal power conversion theory, and maximize the power stored in a capacitor.

In this project, develop a low cost, reliable, environmentally friendly and portable a solution by using the piezoelectric method. Piezoelectric materials have many applications in real-life, such as generating electrical energy from moving objects, trains, bicycles, etc., and low power electronics devices, wireless technology being developed, and we have placed at any place. This technology used in many applications , like monitoring, robotics, military etc. , however, wireless technology is consists their own particular power supply which much of the time, in the traditional electromechanical battery, if a limit power supplies are discharged, the sensor battery has to be changed. it will become very expensive, these issues are easy to bear by using harvesting technology, and they can easily converts mechanical energy in to electrical energy, piezoelectric equipment’s are perfection conversion devices for mechanical stress to electrical power without using any extra power The experimental results of storage device and a harvesting system operation is shown in below.


Firstly I would like to express my sincere gratitude to my first supervisor Mr Samir Khan who has put lot of efforts in guiding me throughout the project. I was getting feedbacks and improvements for both report and practical work. Without his support, I would not be able to complete this project work successfully.

I also thank my parents and my fiancé who have understood and trusted my vision of studying in abroad, supported me financially and emotionally to cope up with the different life. Without their moral support, I would not be able to concentrate on my studies and achieve my dreams. “Thank” would be just a mere work to express my gratitude, it would take my life time to show my thankfulness to them.

It was a real pleasure and a great travel with the University, all the students, staff members, and library assistants were supportive.

Finally I thank the almighty for giving me good health and power to work on the difficult tasks And guided me in achieving my life ambition

1 Introduction

The concept of harvesting energy to power electronics devices is not a new idea, but it is got a lot of attention recently, research on harvesting technology is become large intensity compare than self-powered electronic devices, that intensity is being made in wireless innovation and low power gadgets devices, remote technology being created, and we have placed at any place. This technology used in many applications , like monitoring , robotics, military etc , however wireless technology is comprise their own energy supply which much of the time in the routine electromechanical battery, if a limit power supplies are discharged, the sensor battery has to be changed. That will become very expensive, these issues are easy to bear by using harvesting technology, and it can converts mechanical energy in to electrical energy, piezoelectric devices are ideal conversion devices for mechanical stress to electrical power without using any extra power. The piezoelectric block diagram is as shown in below figure.

B. Scrosati (2011)

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Fig 1:- Schematic diagram of the piezoelectric harvesting system.

Vibration-powered generators are sorts of transducers that change over vibrational vitality into electric vitality. Various studies have been led on walking so as to reap vibration vitality, from fuelling hardware to charging a battery and vibrations from an auto. A vibration vitality gatherer incorporates the transducer and hardware important to convey energy to the objective gadgets. Vibration transducers are believer vitality in three instruments, electromagnetic, electrostatic, and piezoelectric. The piezoelectric impact is only the accumulation of charge in light of mechanical anxiety in certain strong materials. Those mechanical vibrations are driven by amplitude and frequency, to develop the power flow in to the storage device.

G. Moore 1965

Energy harvesting or the process of acquiring energy from the surrounding environment has been a continuous human endeavor throughout history. Piezoelectric materials, such as the lead zirconate titanate (PZT), are great candidates for energy harvesting using vibrations from the surrounding environment.

B. Scrosati (2011)

Vibration energy harvesting is application specific and it needs careful optimization for efficient energy conversion. Proper characterization of the source vibration the transducer takes into consideration tuning with a specific end goal to accomplish reverberation. Most true applications unite broadband signs and nonlinear vibration affect that stray altogether from sinusoidal signs, and Wireless corrosion monitoring systems.

R. Patel, S. McWilliams and A. A. Popov

This paper initially describes a normal mode of piezoelectric harvesting system transducer and next rectifier was added to the mode used to describe the point of the flow of power in to the piezo element. This paper also introduces the ideal force course through the utilization of a change mode DC TO DC converter and also presents experimental results, values. (R. Patel, S. McWilliams and

A. A. Popov)

1. Background to the Project

1.a Context and background:

Modern devices are not having any outside force have gotten to be ordinary in numerous developments. Due to hazardous problems and wireless equipment failures customer or consumer device failures are taken prevent from those consumers are building self-contained designs. These devices are having limited in their abilities, size, and weight by the force supply, normally electromechanical batteries. Batteries are large, naturally dangerous and requires frequent charging or replacement. To make the restrictions of capacitor, the power demand of the equipment should be decreased or outside energy sources should be executed. A developing distinct option for batteries is to outfit vitality from the encompassing environment, an idea called as vitality of the best example or method for energy harvesting; using vibrations we have also generates electricity. Energy Harvesting is the method of arrest of energy from one or more produced by these environmental vitality sources, amassing them and putting away them for future utilize. Hudak, N.S. and G.G.


1.b Importance:

Vibration energy harvesters anything usable from discarded waste vitality from mechanical vibrations to stimulate low power electronic gadgets. This process needs only mechanical vibrations, these are converts in to electrical. This necessary free vitality source, when composed and introduced correctly, is available maintenance-free and presently these are accessible all through the long-time of the application. Such systems can be reliable while comparing with wall plugs or batteries. Note that all these vitality sources are adequately boundless and basically free, if they can be arrested at location.

Henry A. Sodano and Daniel J. Inman

1.c One of the method for Overcome the problems:

Nowadays, an energy harvesting method from vibration is one of the most and showing signs of future success of technologies. However, according to the current researches contained 10 mw to 100 mw power, which has only finite applications in self-powered sensors and less-power electronic devices.

(J. Inman)

The primary impediment of this collecting framework is in their interface hardware. In this piezoelectric harvesting system method, a more efficient, active switch-only rectifier is proposed. By replacing the conventional full bridge rectifier with the cross-coupled active one in the passive switch-only rectifier, together with simple and effective control circuits, the proposed rectifier shows both good power extraction and power conversion capability. The proposed an active switch-only rectifier improves upon the extractable power and efficiency by 1.9 times and 1.5 times, respectively, compared to the conventional one; and improves upon the efficiency by 1.5 times compared with the passive switch-only rectifier.

(J. Inman)

1.1 Project Objectives

- To understand the how the piezoelectric system works
- Analyse the piezoelectric design of the system & using device data sheets were necessary
- To understand the real life applications
- To understand the behaviour of the piezoelectric system on load to compare the results

1.2 Overview of This Report

The word piezoelectric vitality gathering framework alludes to the era of power from sources, for example, surrounding temperature, vibration or wind current. Changing over the accessible waste vitality from the earth recognizes an independent vitality supply for low scale electric loads, for example, remote sensors or radio transmitters.

The Piezoelectric effect is known as Kinetic energy can be converted to electrical energy. From vibration energy into electrical energy by Piezo elements.

(GmbH in Lederhose)

1.2.a Piezoelectric Effect Utilization

Mechanically distorting a piezo precious stone with strain or weight creates electrical charges that can be measured as voltage on the on the terminals of the piezo segment. (GmbH in Lederhose)

1.2.b Application-Oriented Solutions

Any vitality collecting arrangement should be adjusted independently to the separate application. Thus, energy converters, energy stores and hardware are conformed to the vitality prerequisites of the vitality client and the vitality excitation conditions.

(GmbH in Lederhose)

- Condition and Structural Health Monitoring (SHM)

A normal application illustration is the observing of segments in not flexible frameworks, for example, plane wings. Piezo transducers express a progression of capacities; they calculate disfigurements, additionally supply transmitters with vitality for remote information transmission. (GmbH in Lederhose)

1.2.c Data Monitoring and Data Transmission

Power supply to sensors and radio transmitters, for case in, warming, circulating air through and cooling development for watching the temperature or the wind current in channels.

(GmbH in Lederhose)

1.2.d Product Monitoring During Transport

In the event that vehicle vibrations are utilized for creating vitality, items can be consistently observed amid transport without the comparing sensors must be associated with a force supply or furnished with capacitors. This is helpful if temperatures must be noted inside shut holders, for INS.

(GmbH in Lederhose)

1.3 Outlining an Energy Harvesting Solution

The outline of vitality collecting arrangement relies on upon the attributes and prerequisites of the natural system. For the vitality source, for instance, one needs to recognize constant, beat movements. In addition, the states of the electric client should likewise be thought seriously about: The basic parameters fuse the obliged voltage, the power and the data impedance, i.e., capacitive or resistive.

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Fig Outline energy harvesting system

(GmbH in Lederhose)

Using this information it is conceivable to outline and measurement the transducer and capacity gadgets, counting the mechanical framework.

PI Ceramic has much information, long-time of involvement in creating redid answers for harvesting applications.

2 Methodology

In these days, vitality is an extremist need of the world. For which different strategies for the vitality era are produced. Be that as it may, strategies used for these reasons for existing are extravagant, space expending, and material expending and perilous to the environment. Power plants require a huge measure of an area for which deforestation and the restoration of settlements is to be done .Which thus influences the whole biological community and the whole social framework. Additionally, these force era prompts exhaustion of assets. Thusly there is a vacuum for option effective eco amicable force asset. Along these lines, the piezoelectric force era can be a decent option for fossil energizes. It is spotless, non-unsafe, simple implementable, cheap and eco inviting wellspring of vitality. There is no reflection of sound in this force era. It possesses less space and is effortlessly convenient. We can execute this piezoelectric impact in different approaches to create vitality. This framework can be utilized at local level and also at the high mechanical level. ( Srivastava, Abhijeet Gorey, Ashish Gupta, Parag Parandkar, Sumant Katiyal)

The piezoelectric impact is an immediate change of mechanical vitality into electrical vitality. Piezoelectricity was found by Jacques Curie and Pierre Curie in 1880 they watched that certain valuable stones respond to weight by secluding electrical charges on repudiating faces and named the wonder as piezoelectricity. In composing, a couple design of natural system have been investigated to expand the delivered power from mechanical vibration to electrical yield using piezoelectric material.

Jacques Curie and Pierre Curie

So to continue to do that project I have consulted the project supervisor and he selected that the project and he chooses that project guide to me. In the first meeting I have consulted my supervisor. Before 2 days of the 1st meeting, the supervisor gave me some article to read regarding the project, and I did research in online and took some more articles from online and took guidance from my supervisor.

3 Literature Review/Theory

3.1 Energy harvesting sources:

Energy can be harvested from a wide variety of sources, like solar, fluid flow, temperature difference, radio frequency, vibrations. Solar and wind are capable of providing power grid scale, but in wireless sensor nodes only for a small amount of power on the order of microwatt to mill watts .The smaller scale sources of harvesting energy such as temperature difference, radio waves and mechanical vibrations are also considered for deriving the small amount of useful energy required by sensors.

Peter de jong

3.1.a Solar:

There are two ways of converting light energy converts in to electrical energy on a large scale. The Solar thermal process concentrated radiation from the sun to heat a working fluid; alternatively the energy of a photon can be used to evaluate the energy state of an electron in a semiconductor material from the valance electron band to the conduction band allowing current flow. So the solar the thermal energy is not suitable for high scale energy, but photovoltaic cells have been used, on small scale power to power calculation from indoor and source of harvesting energy for wireless sensor nodes.

Jingxian Wu; Akingeneye, I.; Jing Yang

3.1.b Fluid flow:

In fluid flow, such as windmills and water wheels have been used for centuries. Those above-mentioned methods are not suitable for harvesting, but smaller scale harvesting from HVAC ducts and similarly sized flows has been explored as a way to power building health and control system

Wireless sensors. While good performance has been gathered, the applications are finite of dual work where flow rates are >2ms-1 is found.

Jingxian Wu; Akingeneye, I.; Jing Yang

3.1.c Temperature differences:

Temperature difference from waste energy heat sources are also be used to harvesting a small amount of energy. The temperature difference method is using Peltier element. It can use to directly converted temperature to electricity. The performance and electrical input is proportional to temperature differences that can be maintained across a thermos electric recent years, a large amount of research has focussed on the new nanoscale thermos electric materials.

(Jingxian Wu; Akingeneye, I.; Jing Yang)

3.1.d Radio frequencies:

It is mainly used at urban areas, where there are signals from cell phones networks, TV transmitters, and satellites, has gained some traction. Commonly broadband is must where large frequency is necessary, but narrow band harvesting has been shown to work for certain situations, where the power on signals inversely proportional to the square of the distance from the input device. A wireless sensor nodes powered from RF signals is developed in urban areas. RF signals are May applicable to extremely low power applications unless the development allows for a very large antenna.

(Jingxian Wu; Akingeneye, I.; Jing Yang)

3.2 Vibrations:

The source of interest for this method, mechanical vibrations is converted into electrical energy, in this process we are using transducer. Transducers are converts mechanical stress in to electrical energy.

(Peter de jong)

The concept is only applicable for where need low power densities continue limit. The best method of converting vibration energy into electrical energy is the piezoelectric harvesting concept. The circuit diagram of the piezoelectric device with ac-dc rectifier is shown in below.

(Peter de jong)

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Fig 3.The piezoelectric element model with ac-dc rectifier with a load

In piezoelectric material an applied mechanical force will generate a voltage, vice versa. An applied voltage will deform the material. If a fluctuating voltage is connected to the material will vibrate , using these vibrations of the piezoelectric device will produce electricity, that generated electricity is stored in the capacitor, so that capacitor stores the energy, increasing vibration can increase storage of electricity in capacity. And that capacitor is connected ac-dc rectifier it helpful to maximize the power flow, then it is connected to the load.

(geffey k. ottman, heath, hofmann)

3.3 Energy harvesting methods:

Energy harvesting is also called as power harvesting. The activity of harvesting describes a less amount of power for low power electronics devices. The methods of energy harvesting devices are presented below

3.3.a Electromagnetic transduction:

A wave produced by the oscillation of an electric charge. Electromagnetic devices utilise faraday’s law of induction, which states, the induced electromagnetic force is equal to the rate of change of flux. This was proved by the moving coil through a fixed magnetic field. The basic diagram of electromagnetic transduction is represented below ( Krakow )

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Fig 4.the schematic diagram of electromagnetic transduction

The magnetic field at a point P at a detachment r from an on and on long conductor passing on a trading current with peak plenitude of Io and repeat,

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

The extent of magnetic flux following up on a loop with N turns, cross sectional zone, a set with its plane opposite to the attractive field

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

That induced voltage is because of the rate of progress of flux.

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

From the above equation magnetic field increment relatively with recurrence, no of turns and range, its declines relatively with the separation. (krakow)

3.3.b Electrostatic transduction:

Electrostatic converters capacitive structures. These are having 2 plates separated by air or vacuum or dielectric material. A moment between 2 plates which is generates a capacitance variations then electric charges. These devices are having 2 basic modes of operations, switched and continuous. Further exchanged transducer can be grouped into 2 principle sorts, settled charge and altered potential. In a parallel plate arrangement with a variable partition, consistent charge, the vitality thickness of electron field autonomous of detachment. An electric partition increments doing mechanical work alternate extremes, the alluring power. Extra vitality put away in the expanded volume of electric there is an increment in put away electrical vitality in light of the fact that the electric field quality increments with the diminishment in plate cover. In constant voltage operation, if the plate separation is increased with a stable overlap, the electric field was falls down if the plates are moved with steady division and changing cover, the strength of the field constant but current is again a flow in to the source, because the field volume is decreased. So in both processes the mechanical work is happened and it is changed over into extra electrical potential vitality in the voltage source.

(S. Boisseau, G. Despesse, B. Ahmed Seddik)

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Fig 5.The schematic diagram of Electrostatic transducer

(S. Boisseau, G. Despesse, B. Ahmed Seddik)

For both methods the charge equal to the capacitance that is Q=CV and saves energy is

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

3.3.c piezoelectric transducer:

Piezoelectric transducer can have an energy density up to 35.4 µmm-3 compared to 44 µmm-3 for electrostatic transducer and 24.8 µmm-3 for electromagnetic transduction Piezoelectricity classified in to 2 types

(Stephen Evanczuk)

1. Direct

2. Converse

Converse piezoelectricity is used to describe the method where the applied voltage across the material induces mechanical strain. A charge separation was causes to the strain in piezoelectric material direct piezoelectricity produces a voltage across the material while it is under the pressure. This method is utilized in vibrational energy harvesting devices.

(Stephen Evanczuk)

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Fig 6 diagram of piezoelectric transducer

Stephen Evanczuk

Piezoelectric materials give an immediate transduction mechanical to convert signals from mechanical to electrical and vice versa. These are high energy density materials are suitable miniaturization. So it is increasing interest in piezoelectric thin films for micro electromechanical system applications.

(Stephen Evanczuk)

An electrical potential over specific appearances of a gem when it is suitable to mechanical strain on the other hand when an electric field is connected to the one of the characteristics of the precious stone , it experiences mechanical mutilation.

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Fig 7.The basic diagram of the piezoelectric effect in quartz (Bryan Nickel’s)

Due to the deflection of the lattice electric charge displacement is taken place in piezoelectric quarts. (Bryan Nickel’s)

Silicon represents on large circles and oxygen represents on small circles.

(Bryan Nickel’s)

3.4 Vibration transduction:

3.4.a Vibration sources:-

Low level ambient vibrations are all over the world appliances and building structures have been considered as possible sources for vibration harvesting and vibrations from motion of the body, aeronautical systems, and vehicle traffic, many others have been explored. Industrial and manufacturing vibrations are of the greatest interest for conditions and monitoring applications (ICT research)

3.4.b The Importance of resonant frequency and mass:

Vibration transduction is established with internal device that can be modelled as a mass spring and damper system for a linear device. The internal structure is needed to create some motion to drive the transduction mechanism. For a linear inertial device with sinusoidal base excitation, whenever the frequency of the base excitation same the resonant frequency of the device. The relative motions between the mass and base is provided. For practical vibrational harvesting needs the resonance frequency of the transducer match of vibration frequency because inertial structures having narrow band width? If there is any light mismatch of 5HZ between vibration frequency and the resonant frequency, there is no any relative moment.

(Sheng Zhao; Ramadass, Y.; Lang, J.H.; Jianguo Ma; Buss, D.)

The functional mass of transducer obviously large because basically the input is multiplied with power in the transducer of inertial mass, acceleration multiplied with the relative velocity of the functional mass. The power takeout by the transducer is always proportional to the moving mass of the device.


3.4.c Push for MEMS energy harvesting:

Micro electromechanical systems are small devices with feature size or length scale measured in micrometres, by using semiconductors, fabrication techniques, they are usually created.

(vigna 2003)

The largest size of the MEMS devices are maximum square centimetres and the smallest size of mems harvester limits their potential power generations capabilities. The most interesting or attentions argument for the MEMS device is maintaining device cost is lower with economy of scale arguments similar to those of the integrated circuit industry, but vibrations harvesting is difficult of estimating to the millions of devices are solding yearly to achieve the cost saving, because harvesting frequency was must match with the frequency of vibrations so it is difficult to get a universal vibrational source, with the same analogues.

(vigna 2003 )

3.5 Transduction mechanism

3.5.a the piezoelectric generator:

Piezoelectric generators are having crystal structures that will change their electric Polarization when subjected to mechanical stress. The similar effect causes a mechanical Stress if the material is subjected to an appropriate electric field.



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Titel: Development of an Adaptive Piezoelectric Harvesting System for Wireless Remote Power Supply