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The Relationship between the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR) and the Sustainable Development Goals

Akademische Arbeit 2017 52 Seiten

Politik - Internationale Politik - Thema: Int. Organisationen u. Verbände

Leseprobe

Table of Content

1. Introduction

2. The International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights
2.1. History and Development
2.2. Brief Overview
2.3. What are Economic, Social and Cultural rights?

3. The Sustainable Development Goals
3.1. History and Development
3.2. Brief Overview
3.3. What is Sustainable Development?

4. Comparison of the Content in Respect of Human Rights
4.1. Decent Work and Employment
4.2. Adequate Living Standard and Social Welfare
4.3. Family protection
4.4. Health
4.5. Education
4.6. Cultural Participation and Scientific Progress
4.7. Conclusion - Do the Sustainable Development Goals Contain Economic, Social and Cultural Rights?

5. The Covenant and the Implementation of the Sustainable Development Goals
5.1. The Indivisibility and Coherence of the UN Human Rights System and the Position of the SDG
5.2. Indicators and Standards for the Implementation of Human Rights in the ICESCR
5.3. Suitable Indicators and Standards for the Implementation of the Sustainable Development Goals
5.4. Conclusion

6. Impact of the Sustainable Development Goals on the ICESCR

7. Conclusions

Bibliography

1. Introduction

Facing global challenges like armed conflicts, climate change and scarcity of resources, the UN as a platform for the international cooperation and global peace still is of majour significance. During the last decades, the focus of its work has shifted to legally non-binding agendas, most recently the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG), which stand in the focus of their time and address sustainability. The greatest weakness of the work of the United Nations is its poor enforcement due to legally non-binding documents. This is also a weak point of the Sustainable Development Goals. As the agenda is contained within a legally non-binding UN Resolution, it is at the specific state’s discretion whether and to what extent the SDG are implemented. In these terms, the Goals show a deficit compared to binding human rights treaties within the UN human rights system. This system is based upon the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) and the International Covenant on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights (ICESCR), which is together known as the Bill of Rights and celebrated its 50th anniversary in 2016. The question arises, whether and how existent legally binding UN sources could support the implementation of the non-binding Sustainable Development Goals. As the Goals also address issues of individual’s economic, social and cultural life, the ICESCR could be a suitable guideline for implementation, assuming that the SDG focus on the same content as the Covenant, which are economic, social and cultural rights. In turn, the question arises whether the Sustainable Development Goals as a contemporary and modern work of the United Nations, could impact the long-established covenant.

In order to examine these questions, this thesis will analyse the interelationships between the ICESCR and the new Sustainable Development Goals.

2. The International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights

2.1. History and Development

The International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights together with the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights forms the International Bill of Human Rights. The two pacts are also called the “human rights pacts”, as they incorporate the core principles of human rights including their legal protection[1]. After the adoption of the Universal Declaration on Human Rights, the rights enshrined in the declaration needed to get transformed into legally binding treaties, a process, which lasted from 1949 until 1966.[2] The pacts together with the declaration constitute the core of the international human rights system[3] that intended to provide the basis for a peaceful, fair and free world after the Second World War[4]. The wording of the Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights is in many ways strongly orientated on the language used in the preamble of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, if not the same[5], which reflects the strong link between them.

The Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights was adopted by the General Assembly on 16 December 1966, but it came into force one decade later, on 3 January 1976. It is a multilateral treaty that creates legally binding international obligations to all States that have ratified it. Notably, a prominent state that still has not ratified the Covenant, are the United States of America, though they signed the Covenant on 5 October 1977.[6] The implementation of the rights enshrined in the ICESCR is monitored by the treaty body called the Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, which was established in 1985.[7] The Committee is not a primary body established by the treaty itself, but a subsidiary body of the ECOSOC.[8] According to articles 16 and 17 of the ICESCR, states are required to submit reports on the measures adopted and the progress made in intervals, which are defined by the UN Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC).[9] A central pillar of the working mechanism of the ICESCR are the General Comments and Statements of the Committee, that outline its views and highlight general aspects.[10] On 20 December 2008, the General Assembly adopted the Optional Protocol to the ICESCR, that allows individuals to file claims if their rights under the Covenant have been violated.

2.2. Brief Overview

The International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights is divided into the preamble and five parts which contain the 31 articles.

The preamble is almost identical to the preamble in the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and “clearly places the Covenant in the Context of the UN Charta”[11]. It recalls the obligations by the Charta and the Charta’s intention to promote and implement freedom, justice and peace. Moreover, the preamble intends to create an ethical foundation for the Covenant by declaring that the rights of the Covenant are founded in the inherent dignity of the human person.[12]

Part one comprises solely article one, that proclaims the right of all people to self-determination, which also includes the right freely to pursue their economic, social and cultural development and freely to dispose of their natural wealth and resources.

Part two covers articles 2 until 5, which contain general clauses that apply to all substantive rights under the Covenant.[13] Article 2.1 hereby defines the general nature of state party obligations, article 2.2 promotes the principle of non-discrimination, article 3 specifies on equal rights for men and women and articles 4 and 5 deal with general limitations.

Part three constitutes the “heart of the Covenant”[14], outlining in articles 6 to 15 the rights to be protected. These are broadly the right to decent work and employment (articles 6,7,8), the right to an adequate living and social welfare (articles 9 and 11), the right to the protection of the family (article 10), the right to health (article 12), the right to education (articles 13 and 14) and the right to cultural participation and scientific progress (article 15).

The subsequent part four, including articles 16 until 25, focuses on international implementation and the system of supervision, and part five with its articles 26 until 31 contains the final provisions relating to modalities of ratification and entry into force.

2.3. The Nature and Scope of Economic, Social and Cultural rights?

“Through millions of years, people sought their own sustenance without thought of assistance from a political entity“.[15] Human history was driven by the individual struggle for basic needs like food, water, housing, and clothing.[16]

Life‘s essentials could be found by every individual and distribution of resources was not organised.[17] During modern times, this changed remarkably and resulted in most individuals being dependent on organised societies.[18] “These radically changed circumstances have led inevitably to international human rights law placing a burden on states to ensure the physical survival and well-being of their people“.[19]

The ensurance of physical survival and well-being is linked to an individual’s economic, social and cultural situation and incorporated into economic, social and cultural rights.

Thus, economic, social and cultural rights are human rights, that target the economic, social and cultural livelihood of human beings. These rights were accepted on an international level before civil and political rights did.[20] In the second half of the nineteenth century, the overall recognition grew, that the improvement of working conditions at a national level required international cooperation and coordination.[21] The origin of these rights thus can be traced back to the growth of socialist ideals in the nineteenth century and the rise of the labour movement in Europe.[22] Due to this distinct history and their origin, economic, social and cultural rights are often named “second generation rights”.[23] In contrast, there are “second generation rights” and “third generaton rights”. On the one hand, political and civil rights are called “first generation rights”, as they are associated with the eighteenth-century period of enlightenment and the very beginning of the development of a concept of human rights.[24] On the other hand, “third generation rights” encompass the rights of peoples or groups, like the right to development or the right to self-determination.[25]

Economic, social and cultural rights substantially constitute three “interrelated components”[26] and include the right to work, the right to an adequate standard of living including minimum requirements like food, housing and clothing, the right to physical and mental health, the right to social security, the right to a healthy environment, and the right to education.[27] Ideologically, these rights are seen as targeting social policy benefits and welfare, resulting in the perception that an inadequate application is a social injustice rather than a violation of rights.[28]

Today, the most comprehensive treaty pertaining economic, social and cultural rights is the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights.[29]

3. The Sustainable Development Goals

3.1. History and Development

On 25 September 2015, the General Assembly of the United Nations has agreed on the Agenda 2030 with the forward-thinking title “Transforming our World: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development”. Central elements of the agenda are the 17 Sustainable Development Goals with their 169 targets. The aim is clear, but challenging, though. As the SDG exceed the Millennium Goals in their scope, many critics state that they are too extensive and therefore unobtainable[30], bearing in mind the outcome of the millennium goals, which were not obtained completely[31]. However, the Goals create a vision towards how the world community should work, clearly acknowledging that the targets ahead are strongly interlinked.

The new agenda builds up the new overarching United Nations plan after the Millennium Goals from the year 2000. Different than its predecessor, the new agenda does not focus on poverty only, but envisions a sustainable future thoroughly. Whereas the Millennium Goals and its key concern to eradicate poverty were addressed to the efforts by developed countries, the new Agenda 2030 and the Sustainable Development Goals firstly address both developing and developed states.[32] This constitutes a new global partnership based on equality. In the past, developing countries were mostly exempt from duties pertaining environmental protection due to their lack of development. In this respect, the Sustainable Development Goals form a new stage, by integrating the whole world in the attempt to create a sustainable future.

In addition, the developing process of the SDG demonstrates a significant difference contrasted with the Millennium Goals.[33] Instead of being formulated by staff of the United Nations and a few other international organisations that had developed the Millennium Goals, there was “outreach, transparency, and openness”[34] in the creation of the SDG. The valuable inputs were unprecedented like the efforts for consultations by the United Nations. Several working groups and platforms were established, to create a synergetic effect of a global conversation and involve people around the world, like “A Million Voices: The World We want” and the “My World” Survey.[35]

The development of the SDG in the UN was initiated with the Rio Conference in 1992, which is officially called United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) and often referred to as the Earth Summit. This conference represents a milestone, as global sustainability issues were discussed firstly on a global level.[36] Ten years later, the World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD) took place in Johannesburg, South Africa, which is also known as the Rio+10 Conference.[37] This Conference reaffirmed the significance of environmental issues for the global community but strengthened the connection between human rights issues like poverty and environmental protection.[38]

This connection was then reaffirmed at the Rio+20 Conference in 2012 in Rio de Janeiro, which outcome was used as the basis for the development of the Sustainable Development Goals.

3.2. Brief Overview

The Sustainable Development Goals contain 17 goals with 169 targets, that are a specification of each main goal. They are incorporated into the UN Agenda 2030, which begins with a preamble and a declaration. The preamble draws special attention to the issues people, planet, prosperity, peace and partnership. Subsequently, the declaration emphasises and describes the common vision, that the agenda should contribute to. In turn, the declaration is subdivided into an introductory part and the sub-chapters “our vision”, “our shared principles and commitments”, “our world today”, “the new agenda”, “means of implementation”, “follow-up and review” and “a call for action to change our world”. In the sub-chapter “our world today”, a reference is drawn to the predecessor, the Millennium Goals. The next part in the agenda are the Sustainable Development Goals. The SDG are not divided into intersections, focussing on a specific field. Instead, every goal stands on its own.

The SDG are centred upon poverty, hunger, health, education, gender equality, water and sanitation, energy, economic growth and employment, infrastructure, inequality within and among countries, city development, consumption, climate change, marine ecosystems, terrestrial ecosystems, peaceful and inclusive societies and global partnership.

Afterwards, several issues that promote the implementation of the SDG are addressed. Among these financing, technology, capacity-building, trade and systemic issues. Concluding the agenda, terms of implementation on regional, national and global level are addressed.

3.3. What is Sustainable Development?

Sustainable development is a rather contemporary dynamic[39] concept, that works towards a future, that meets present socio-economic needs without compromising the ability of future generations and the environment. Thus, it attempts to reconcile the seemingly contrasting paradigms of lasting economic growth and development on the one hand and the effective protection of natural resources and our environment on the other hand.[40] Promoting sustainable development means to work towards a holistic societal change on a social, economic and ecological dimension. These dimensions are known as the three pillars of sustainable development.[41] The social dimension is linked to human values, relationships and institutions, the economic dimension concerns the allocation and distribution of scarce resources and the ecological dimension involves the contribution of both the economic and social dimension and their impact on the environment and its resources.[42]

However, the approaches to sustainable development are not coherent.

What has become to represent a mainstream concept about the relationship between development and environment is the Brundtland formulation of 1987.[43] The Brundtland formulation on sustainable development was published in the report “Our Common Future” by the World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED) in 1987.[44] As the commission was chaired by Gro Harlem Brundtland, the Norwegian prime minister, the report is also known as “The Brundtland Report”.[45] The now famous and much popularised Brundtland definition of sustainable development is a “development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs”.[46] “The Bruntdland concept is global in its view and makes the link between the fulfilment of the needs of the world’s poor and the reduction of the wants of the world’s rich.”[47] Today, it is a common acknowledgement that the promotion of sustainable development in the third world has to be undertaken in parallel actions directed at implementing human rights and development goals.[48] Especially third world countries have to overcome multiple obstacles, that are strongly interlinked among each other[49] and do also pressurise human rights. Climate change for example is expected to increase the vulnerability of the poor by increasing water stress and food security,[50] which is an issue of the human right to housing, food, and – in the end – the right to life. Thus, climate change also threatens human rights. On the other hand, initiatives and actions to tackle climate change and enhance the environment can in return strengthen the resilience of weak communities to climate change and simultaneously enhance their human rights.

Thus, sustainable development is a holistic approach of economic, social and environmental issues of our time.

4. Comparison of the Content in Respect of Human Rights

In order to be a suitable guideline for the implementation of the Sustainable Development Goals, the question arises whether and to what degree the SDG contain human rights and specifically economic, social and cultural rights just like the ICESCR. Thus, the next chapter will compare the specific content pertaining human rights in the fields of decent work and employment (1.), adequate living standard and social welfare (2.), family protection (3.), health (4.), education (5.) and cultural participation and scientific progress (6.) between the ICESCR and the Sustainable Development Goals. As the essential part three of the Covenant, outlining the specific rights, sets this division on its own, the arrangement into these points of comparison is reasonable.

4.1. Decent Work and Employment

In the Covenant, human rights covering decent work and employment is enshrined in the articles 6, 7 and 8. Interestingly, the topic is split up into three parts: article 6 covers the right to work in its individual sphere, whereas article 7 focus solely on decent conditions and article 8 obliges the parties to allow the formation of trade unions as well as the right of trade unions to function freely – a group right, covering the communal sphere. Thus, the ICESCR deals more comprehensively with this right than any other instrument.[51]

By referring the right also to gaining a living, the Covenant recognises that work “forms an inseparable and inherent part of human dignity“[52]. In these terms, article 6 truly stands in a deep connection with the Charter of the United Nations[53], but “provides greater detail on each of the elements of the right to decent work.“[54]

The right to work in the Covenant must be a decent one. As the CESCR has speicified this in its comment number 18, this includes the recognition of fundamental rights of the human person, conditions of work safety and remuneration as well as providing an income that ensures a living standard as outlined in article 7.[55]

The “just and favourable“ work conditions of article 7 ICESCR are tied by the CESCR general comment nummer 23 in paragraph 2 and 3 also to discrimination and inequality. Thus, a connection and interdependence to other human rights is drawn.

Specifically, article 7 states under decent work conditions a remuneration that consists of fair and equal wages (article 7a i) and that allows a decent living for workers and their families in guidance with other ICESCR provisions (article 7a ii). Furthermore, article 7 defines safe and healthy working conditions as an integral part of decent working conditions (article 7b), as well as equal opportunities (article 7c) and holidays and limitations of working hours (article 7d). By referring to the individual‘s right to freely choose work, the ICESCR also pays attention to the fact that an individual’s dignity is expressed through the freedom of the choice of work.[56]

Though articles 6, 7 and 8 do not explicitly forbid slavery or forced work, it can be derived from article 6 and is reaffirmed by the general comment nummer 18 paragraph 9 with reference to further UN documents. Article 6 is truly a socio-economic right by not only focussing on the pure right to work but stating that the work can be freely chosen and by granting it as a right to gain a living by work, which focusses on the economic situation of an individual.

In the Sustainable Development Goals, goal 8 has the title “Promote sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment and decent work for all”. This overarching goal compromises of 12 further targets.

Targets one to four centre upon the first part of the goal, namely a sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth. What is desired is an overall economic growth, specified with numbers regarding the economic growth rate, increasing productivity, growth in the job market and consumption efficiency. This first part of the goal does not target human rights at all, not in its content nor does its language.

The second part of the goal, full and productive employment, is formulated in targets 8.5 and 8.6. According to target 8.5, it is the aim to achieve full and productive employment and a decent work for all women and men by 2030. This includes also young people and disabled people. Though especially the sheer economic situation is emphasised, target 8.5 relates to a minimum extent of human rights by referring to equality among men and women.

However, it does not show a specific and clear link to inequality at the work place like the Covenant does.

The third part of the goal, decent work for all is specified by targets 8.7 to 8.8.

Target 8.7 tackles specifically the eradication of forced labour, modern slavery and human trafficking as well as child labour and child soldiers. According to target 8.8, labour rights and safe and secure working environments shall be protected and promoted, especially for women. The following targets concentrate upon strategies for increasing economic conditions, like promoting eco-tourism, promoting access to financial services and fighting youth unemployment.

Unlike the ICESCR, as a human rights treaty, the sustainable development goal 8 does not show a strong human rights language. Though the content of the third part of the goal, decent work for all, specified in targets 8.7 and 8.8 can be seen as economic, social and cultural human rights content, the sustainable development goal does not completely refer to it explicitly as human rights.

In target 8.7, the goal does not mention the phrase “rights” at all. Target 8.8 stipulating the promotion of labour rights and decent work environments for all and in particular women migrants, does in fact refer to “labour rights”, though it is left unclear what is meant by it explicitly.

Unlike the ICESCR, the Sustainable Development Goals here do not specify and explain “decent work” extensively. Furthermore, the significant aim of fighting inequality among working conditions is only broached by the SDG in target 8.5 by stating “men and women” and referring to equal pay and disabled individuals. Thus, the Covenant draws a more heavy and important link to discrimination and inequality regarding economic rights.

What is completely omitted in the SDG in target 8 is the right or any reference to union rights, which means that the social component or pillar of work is left out.[57]

4.2. Adequate Living Standard and Social Welfare

Adequate living standard and social welfare is covered by the ICESCR in its articles 11 and 9. Article 9 is dedicated to social security by stating that the state parties recognise the right of everyone to social security, including social insurance. The outstanding significance of the right to social security is emphasised by the CESCR in general comment nummer 19 by stating that is a cornerstone in “guaranteeing human dignity for all persons when they are faced with circumstances that deprive them of their capacity to fully realize their Covenant rights“.[58] The CESCR in this comment also emphasises the role of social security in the prevention of social exclusion and the promotion of social inclusion.[59] According to the CESCR, the right to social security involves the right to access and maintain benefits in order to secure protection in the case of lack of income, an unaffordable access to health care and an insufficient family support.[60] The CESCR also points out the components of a social security system according with article 9. In order to meet the requirements of article 9, a social security system needs to be available, and it should provide for the coverage of nine fundamental social risks, which are health care and sickness, old age, unemployment and unemployment injury, maternity, family and child support, disability and survivors and orphans.[61] Furthermore, states are obliged to ensure that social security is available, adequate and accessible.[62]

Article 11 deals with the right of everyone to an adequate standard of living for himself and his family and comprises two paragraphs. According to article 11 paragraph 1, this includes adequate food, clothing and housing, and the continuous improvement of living conditions. As the general comment on article 11 by the CESCR emphasises, there can be several rights deprived from the right to an adequate standard of living, which are the right to adequate food, adequate clothing and housing.

The right to food is, according to the CESCR, realised, “when every man, woman and child, alone or in community with others, have physical and economic access at all times to adequate food or means for its procurement“[63]. The right to adequate food is emphasised by the CESCR as a right that ensures the enjoyment of all other rights.[64] Thus, paragraph 2 centres upon this right, naming it the “fundamental right of everyone to be free from hunger“. Paragraph 2 requires states to take needed measures to improve methods of production, conservation and distribution of food (paragraph 2a) by taking into account the problems of both food-importing and food-exporting countries (paragraph 2b) and to ensure an equitable distribution of world food supplies in relation to need (paragraph 2b).

As the right to food is an integral component of human life, the CESCR requires that the right should not be „interpreted in a narrow or restrictive sense which equates it with a minimum package of calories, proteins and other specific nutrients“[65]. Moreover, the CESCR establishes the concept of „Adequacy and sustainability of food availability and access [66] . Here, adequacy can be ensured by taking into account a number of factors in determining whether particular foods or diets is the most appropriate.[67] The concept of sustainability implies, that food must be accessible both to present and future generations and is deeply linked with food security.[68]

Moreover, in order to fulfil the provisions of article 11, food must be free from adverse substances, meaning that any contamination through adulteration and through bad environmental hygiene or inappropriate handling at different stages throughout the food chain must be prevented.[69]

According to the CESCR, accessibility includes in addition to physical accessibility economic accessability, too, implying that economic weak or vulnerable individuals and groups need assistance through special programms.[70]

The right to food encompasses the right to water as well, as the CESCR stated in its general comment Number 15, paragraph 7. Though it is not explicitly stated in the Covenant, the right to water is implicitly protected.[71] The same applies for the right to sanitation, that is not mentioned explicitly, either. As it is understood as an essential component of the right to an adequate standard of living, the CESCR has linked it in its Statement on the Right to Sanitation to the right to health and to the right to housing, enshrined in article 11 of the Covenant.[72]

Similarly, the Goals deal with an adequate standard of living in goals 1, 2, 6 and 11. The aim of goal one is to “End poverty in all its form everywhere” and comprises seven targets. Pursuant to target 1.3, nationally appropriate social and protection systems and measures should be established, also for poor and vulnerable individuals. This target corresponds with the direct provision of the Covenant’s article 9. Target 1.4 demands states to provide equal rights to economic resources, ownership and control over land, property, inheritance and natural resources. Thus, this target attempts to fight poverty by ensuring a stable economic base for individuals. Target 1.5 attempts to ensure an adequate living standard and to make it last. This target requires to build the resilience of poor and vulnerable individuals not only in regards to environmental situations, but also in regards to economic and social shocks and disasters.

[...]


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[4] M Craven The International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights A Perspective on its Development (1998) 1.

[5] Dură & Mititelu (2013) European Integration - Realities and Perspectives 131.

[6] M Ssenyonjo Economic, Social and Cultural Rights 39.

[7] 40.

[8] 40.

[9] 39.

[10] 42.

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[12] 22.

[13] M Ssenyonjo Economic, Social and Cultural Rights 39.

[14] Craven The International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights 22.

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[16] Robertson (1994) 16 Hum. Rts. Q. 693.

[17] Robertson (1994) 16 Hum. Rts. Q. 693.

[18] Robertson (1994) 16 Hum. Rts. Q. 693.

[19] Robertson (1994) 16 Hum. Rts. Q. 693.

[20] A Eide & A Rosas “Economic, Social and Cultural Rights: A universal Challenge” in A Eide, C Krause & A Rosas (eds) Economic, Social and Cultural Rights a Textbook (2001) 3 14.

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[23] 8.

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[28] M Ssenyonjo Economic, Social and Cultural Rights 5.

[29] M Ssenyonjo Economic, Social and Cultural Rights 36.

[30] Anonymous “The 160 commandments” (26-03-2015) The Economist <https://www.economist.com/news/leaders/21647286-proposed-sustainable-development-goals-would-be-worse-useless-169-commandments> (accessed 26-01-2018).

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[51] CESCR General Comment 18 para. 1.

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[53] CESCR General Comment 18 para. 3.

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[55] CESCR General Comment 18 para. 7.

[56] CESCR General Comment 18 para. 4.

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[58] CESCR General Comment 19 para. 1.

[59] CESCR General Comment 19 para. 3.

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[61] CESCR General Comment 19 para. 10-21.

[62] CESCR General Comment 19 para. 22-27.

[63] CESCR General Comment 12 para. 6.

[64] CESCR General Comment 12 para. 1.

[65] CESCR General Comment 12 para. 6.

[66] CESCR General Comment 12 para. 7-13.

[67] CESCR General Comment 12 para. 7.

[68] CESCR General Comment 12 para. 7.

[69] CESCR General Comment 12 para. 10.

[70] CESCR General Comment 12 para. 13.

[71] M Ssenyonjo Economic, Social and Cultural Rights 481.

[72] CESCR Statement on the Right to Sanitation para 7.

Details

Seiten
52
Jahr
2017
ISBN (eBook)
9783668735316
ISBN (Buch)
9783668735323
Dateigröße
750 KB
Sprache
Englisch
Katalognummer
v429642
Institution / Hochschule
Universität Stellenbosch
Schlagworte
relationship international covenant economic social cultural rights icescr sustainable development goals

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Titel: The Relationship between the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR) and the Sustainable Development Goals