The construction sector in Pakistan has employed More than four million workers. This is due to rapid construction in past few years. Unluckily, there have been slight or no serious efforts taken to improve the safety condition of the worker, especially in Lahore. Behavior-based safety (BBS) is a word describes the stoppage of accidents, loss in the workplace and Injuries. An effective BBS program depends on attraction to the attractive worker to be aware of in what way unsafe Behavior leads to injuries and by what means to reduce them form workplace. The research was carried out by performing a detailed evaluation of existing lectures on the topic and carried out a pilot study to verify the cogency of the model and also inspect BBS program in a different construction site in Lahore Pakistan.
Key words: BBS (Behavior Based safety)
Pakistan Construction sector is categorized third amongst the most harmful sector with high injuries rate. Previously research displayed poor safety culture with insufficient safety management system. The Construction sector has an undesirable safety recording 2002 the bureau of Labor statics recorded 7.1 non fetal injuries per 100 worker It recorded 1121 fatalities showing a fatality rate of 12.2 per 100,000 workers employed which was third only to mining and agriculture (Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2005).Construction sector is well-thought-out one of the most hazardous parts of industry. Construction is at all times hazardous for the reason that of outside activities, work at height, machinery and equipment. Misfortunes happened because of a mixture of many factors. Conservatively they are categorized into unsafe condition and unsafe behavior. HSE decided that the behavior of separate is involved in approximately 80% of proceedings. Numerous studies have confirmed that workers unsafe behavior more than unsafe conditions are involved in accidents. Conversation is that if there are unsafe conditions, labors accommodating the risk related with work will carry on usual doings of construction. In such a state the construction site accidents cannot be credited only to unsafe behavior. While safety leftovers an anxiety for a lot of firms, mostly in Pakistan there are firms which are show outstanding development in safety act. These are appointment expert employees to run their safety programs. They are providing that physical activity to the employees and in detail are record good results. Instead, this is a very indeterminate state. There is a very extraordinary chance for gratification in these companies. More than a few companies on a fixed basis perform safety check up or have fixed meetings; work-related safety now appears to be fast moving ahead from being a hate target to being an object of ridicule.
Therefore, the Construction industry necessities main changes in the way it methods safety improvement. It needs a method which will be able to aim both ends of the quagmire. It needs to appearance at the methods used by other industries and get used to some of the popular methods, correct them permitting to its own needs. More than a few tactics have been applied in the industry, each having their own benefits and limits. It would be problematic to right that just one of them would be developed than others. Guastello (1993) carried out a complete review of dissimilar occupational accident prevention programs and summarized the assessment data. He stumbles upon ten types of programs in his research:
- Employees selection
- interference of Technological
- modification in Behavior
- promotions of Poster
- Quality loops
- Workout and pressure management
- Near-miss accident recording
- Finnish nationwide program
- Global Safety Rating System
- Complete ergonomics programs
Amongst these methods Guastello detected that (BBS) displayed the best effects (59.6%), shadowed by complete ergonomics (51.6%) but the extensively popular near-miss reporting method showed poor effects (0%). The achievement of BBS interfering is not astonishing and can be clarified well. Even though most of these methods have note down good achievement rates, one of the most significant standards which should be taken into care while observing for the best method to address care issues is the thinking of the human at work. This “Human Factor” is comprehensibly a contributor in all injury. Thus a behavioral approach turns out to be especially significant in deal with safety problems. The NSC information that human behavior is the reason of 94% of all damages and disorders .This has highlighted the significance of come together on worker behavior as a dangerous element in achieving better safety values. BBS interfering emphasis on what workforces do on the job (behavior) and on the unforeseen event of shoring up that lead to safe behavior.
The foundations of human behavior are related with arrogance, motivation, character and memory composed with those mental and physical features which arrangement a person and his environment. Behavior Based Safety (BBS) is a procedure that reductions unsafe behaviors that can lead to occasions happening in the workplace. Pakistan is an emerging country and has knowledgeable fast growth in construction events throughout the previous few years with extra than 3 million workers in employment by the manufacturing (Pakistan Bureau of Statistics 2010). Unluckily, there have been slight or no thoughtful efforts used to develop the safety situations of the workers. Like most other emerging countries, there are many problems and tasks that Pakistan is facing to better implement safety code of practice inside the industry .The fundamental safety values now Pakistan are not particular to the construction sector and are ruled by the “Factories Act, 1934”, “Workmen’s Advantage Act, 1923” and “MWO, 1961” .These acts mostly address the work-related safety and health problems of factory workers. The nationwide rules and regulations addressing work-related (OSH) are frequent nonetheless in line for to their segmented outline, straight request of these laws to building protection is thought-provoking. The feeble regulatory framework is not the only unruly; by means of present are many socio-economic features after this lowly manufacture safety recital that essential to be give a talk with an active method.
The absence of proper preparation for all the undertaking capitalist in the nationwide bounds is also a main problem in respects to proper safety putting into practice. There is very little consciousness about the part that each investor could play to develop the well-being circumstances within the industry. Currently there are only three recorded institutions provided that some kind of working out and suggested services exactly give a lecture concerns in construction, viz. Center for the Development of In work Situations and Employment, Work-related Teaching Institute (OTI) and Work-related Safety and Loss Anticipation (OSALP). Acknowledging BBS has been extensively acknowledged in other industries it cannot be straight used “as is” in the construction industry. It needs to be modified to suit the demands of the Construction Industry. It is very problematic to devote a large amount of cash on whole safety programs like Behavior-based safety. Applying new packages such as BBS need continuous direction by skilled personnel making it even more thought-provoking for small or medium-sized corporations as they cannot have enough money to appoint extremely paid advisers. The construction sector so needs a method which will help them in perform the moral principles of BBS minus demanding to spend excessively money on skillful personnel. As construction companies may not with no trouble afford to hire advisors to implement BBS in their companies, this research aimed at as long as a tool which would allow safety personnel / companies to straight implement BBS at their places.
This research following objective which is
- Focuses on employee Behavior which is key source of harms and disorder.
- Safety is not the organization duty but also the employee duty so encourage employee involvement in safety.
- To focus possible problem which construction contractors are about to face all through the carrying out of BBS.
Reliability of study and validity of conclusions are directly affected by method of collecting data (Fellows and Liu, 2008). Approach applied to research, or gathering data be contingent to type of data (quantitative, qualitative, or both) that are required and obtainable. Principally, re are two approaches to collect data or conduct research (Naoum, 2007).
Two main research practices applied to gar data are:
- Postal questionnaire
- Personal interview
One of most frequently employed qualitative methods is Interviews (Crouch and McKenzie, 2006).
Results : Analysis and results obtained by questionnaire review have been described in this chapter. As questionnaire consisted of four parts hence following is description of results of all questionnaires from 4 parts.
Data Analysis Technique:
Following tests were carried out for data analysis
For inside reliability, Cronbach’s alpha be situated calculated for each scale. Cronbach’s alpha for 33 samples was composed as 0.971. Therefore the results show internal construct consistency and reliability of the data. Cronbach’s alpha value range from 0 to 1 with 0.971 being well thought-out the most sensible value.
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Method to use for data analysis
Correlation analysis is classifying the strength among different variables. Its value varies from -1 to +1 which indicates strong negative means less interdependency among the variables where as strong positive relation shows how variables are interdependent in order to achieve the final output of results. On the other hand significant value of 0 indicates no relationship among the variables. Spearman rho test is carried out to classify the strength of association among the variables. First the relationship between safety commitment and safety awareness the table is attached. There was a positive correlation between the two variables, r = 0.634, n =105, p = 0.002.” Overall, there was a strong, positive correlation between safety commitment and safety awareness’Increases in safety commitment was correlated with increases in rating of safety awareness.
Table 1.1:Correlation of safety commitment and safety awareness
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Second one is the correlation between safety behaviour and stress recognition it’s also a positive relationship between these two variables where r=0.630, n=105, p=0.002.
Table 1.2: Correlation between safety Behaviour and stress recognition
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Now the correlation between safety Behaviour and safety awareness using SPSS 21 the correlation table is showing below this also show positive correlation between these two variables. There was also positive relationship between the two variables, r = 0.492, n =105, p = 0.002.” Overall, there was a strong, positive correlation between safety Behaviourand safety awareness’Increases in safety behaviour was correlated with increases in rating of safety awareness.
Table 1.3:Correlation between safety Behaviour and safety awareness:
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This thesis investigated Behaviour based safety approach in construction industry at Lahore Pakistan. Accomplishing the aims of this study the following conclusions are suggested
- Poor levels of training - or having no formal training for the work carried out.
- Employment Arrangements - not having a fixed contract, and working for an employment organization.
- Having Good Supervision - the foremen in this study were poorly trained for their job. The effects if transience - where due to moving around a lot workers have less exposure to the positive influences on safety, such as a good safety culture, management commitment and a sense of belonging to an organization.
- Poor Safety Culture Management Commitment - management committed to safety has been shown as having the strongest influence on workers Behaviour, the absence of this commitment would have many knock on effects for the culture and subsequent Behaviour of the employees.
- It is also explored that there was not enough trend of safety on construction sites and no importance was put down on safety against major courses of accidents, first aid, PPEs, accident reporting mechanism and housekeeping.
- Only multinational companies were meeting the terms with necessary health and safety regulations. The most of the local companies in Lahore stated that they are not having capitals to maintain health and safety at construction sites.
- This result also showing that The Labour& Human Resource Department Punjab and department of environmental protection agency was not capable to apply HSE laws, rules and regulation because they were not having an suitable amount of resources and personnel to fulfill essential inspections of construction projects.
- Result also shown that worker have low level of education which is a big issue in making them to understand and educate.That is the basic reason in which they don’t understand the guidelines and recommendations.
- Results strongly indicate management has confidence in individual Behaviour is an accident causation factor of significance. The majority identified unsafe Behaviour by the injured party as being the biggest responsible factor to accident causation in their organization.
- Result also show Poor Supervision and Poor levels of safety training.
- Medium construction companies in Lahore did not have health and safety officer and therefore they have poor health and safety policies.
- 71% of senior manager, site engineers and section head answered that there is no training of workers about safety training.
On conclusion of this thesis following recommendations’ are made:
- The Safety inspections are conducted at regular intervals in construction companies.
- To improve workers safety culture and safety climate that may possibly lead to better awareness and act more safely.
- Promote safety awareness of construction workers over and done with training programs and by following the safety rules and techniques.
- Punjab government safety regulations department place significant pressure on all firms, large and small, to protect the construction workers.
- The unknowns Activities of the work place in construction sector are carefully scheduled and risks are minimized.
- All the required PPEs like safety shoes, helmets, goggles, gloves, etc. are always obtainable on construction site.
- Penalties for safety defilements would cause workers to work more safely.
- Department of Labour and human resource of Pakistan and department of environmental protection agency Pakistan must be able to enforce HSE laws, rules and regulation.
- The responsibility of the GOP to make compulsory arrangements/regulations for all employees of the construction companies to go through HSE training to create safety awareness at all levels and companies should provide sufficient funds for this purpose.
- The duty of the construction companies to provide some form of formal/informal education to the labor force on construction site.
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