Iran nuclear threat continues to bring the world tension over the harshness and aggressiveness of the nation. The country has often made efforts to start a war within the region, and with it as a source of worlds energy through oil, it is a concern when it continues to threaten the peace and stability of the entire world. A large number of treaties have been put in place to attempt to help the situation such as the signing of various deals over the years to ensure peaceful co-existence, but the present action by the US government to withdraw from the Iran Deal threatens the continued stability within the region after several years. Iran has been able to threaten several countries within the area including stating an explicit threat to US allies such as Israel. The threat negatively indirectly influences the US as the country relies on Iran as a source of energy. Therefore, attempts to understand the role of US and other nations within the region towards eliminating the threat of Iran nuclear requires a deep understanding of the Iran nuclear program, the impact of US withdrawal from the JCPOA agreement and measures to deter the country from the acquisition of nuclear weapons.
Iranian Nuclear Program
The Iran nuclear program has been a matter of concern to the global peace for several centuries. Its nuclear technology can be traced back to the provision of technical assistance to the Shah of Iran through the US Atoms for a Peace initiative in the 1950s.1 The program began slowly with the assistance from the United States that was later fueled by the HEU (highly enriched uranium). However, the country was able to make the intensive investment within the field of nuclear program and even acquired a stake in strategic industries across the world including the RTZ uranium mine in Namibia, South Africa sold them a 700-million-dollar uranium yellow cake and that of Eurodif’s Tricastin in France2. Iran continued accelerating its effort to acquire nuclear technology between 1989 to 2003 as it was involved in signing agreements on nuclear cooperation with China and Pakistan. However, the nuclear program within Iran had several undeclared facilities that were revealed by the National Council of Resistance of Iran in 2002. A resolution was yet adopted and changes made through suspending enrichment and signing of the Additional Protocol in 2003 by the International Atomic Energy Agency Board of Governors3. The sanctions placed within the thirteen years from 2002 to 2015 led to the creation of the JCPOA (Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action). Iran met most of the deals until the lift of all sanctions in 2016 as part of the response to its efforts to achieve substantial metrics within the agreement. However, U.S. President Donald Trump reported that they would no longer be part of the implementation of the JCPOA leading to re-imposing the sanctions relating to nuclear possession to Iran. Iran claimed to be less concerned by the move by the US government and agreed to continue with the efforts alongside other members of the P5+1.
U.S. Withdrawal from the JCPOA Agreement
The withdrawal of the US government from the JCPOA agreement presented a dangerous aspect to the world peace, especially within the region. It involved the efforts of other European leaders to help the situation upon withdrawal. The JCPOA agreement is deemed to fail without the collaboration of the US since it played a significant role in making it a success. The impact of the withdrawal involves putting on hold deals by international companies on trade and investment with Iran4. The impact of violations of US sanctions is often hefty and unprecedented. The efforts put across by US President Donald Trump to break the deal is challenging to interpret. Trump administration is reluctant on signing a new deal and is adamant to keep out of the deal as it also avoids direct talks with the country. Therefore, the failure of the deal would result in proliferation within the region and would force its neighbors such as Saudi Arabia to demand dual-use of nuclear technology5. If Iran feels the need to retaliate to the sanctions placed by the US, then it would lead to conflicts within South Asia and the Middle East. The current support offered to militias in Iraq by Iran has created additional tensions alongside having links with Taliban factions. There is also a possibility of political and diplomatic retaliation that would lead to the cease of democratic governance within the country when the "Conquest" party takes power.
Deterring Iran from Acquiring the Nuclear Weapon
1 Nuclear Threat Initiative. 2018. "Iran's Nuclear Program Timeline and History | NTI." Nti.Org. https://www.nti.org/learn/countries/iran/nuclear/.
2 Nuclear Threat Initiative. 2018. "Iran's Nuclear Program Timeline and History
3 Nuclear Threat Initiative. 2018.
4 Slavin, Barbara. 2018. "The Dangerous Consequences of US Withdrawal from The Iran Nuclear Deal." Atlantic Council. https://www.atlanticcouncil.org/blogs/new-atlanticist/the-dangerous-consequences-of-us-withdrawal-from-the-iran-nuclear-deal.
5 Slavin, Barbara. 2018. "The Dangerous Consequences of US Withdrawal from The Iran Nuclear Deal." Atlantic Council.
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