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Challenges in the Implementation of the Performance Management System in the Ministry of Urban and Rural Development in Namibia

Forschungsarbeit 2018 99 Seiten

BWL - Unternehmensführung, Management, Organisation

Leseprobe

Contents

DEDICATION

ABSTRACT

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS

CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background to and Rationale of the study
1.2 Statement of the problem
1.3 Aim of the study
1.4 Research questions
1.5 Significance of the study
1.6 Assumptions
1.7 Limitations of the study
1.8 Definitions of terms
1.9 Scope of the study
1.10 Chapter Summary

CHAPTER II
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Performance management
2.3 PMS origin
2.4 Performance management within management theories
2.4.1 Procedural justice theory
2.4.2 Goal setting theory
2.4.3 Equity theory
2.4.4 Expectancy motivation theory
2.5 Legal guidelines for the performance management systems
2.6 Framework supporting the implementation of PMS in Namibia
2.7 The performance cycle
2.8 Constraints on the implementation of the PMS
2.9 Factors influencing the success of PMS implementation
2. 9.1. Change management factors
2.9.2 Strategic plan alignment with the organisational processes
2.9.3 Leadership and organisational culture
2.9.4 Training and creating a learning organisation
2.9.5 Rewarding good performance
2.9.6 Flexibility and simplicity
2.10 Gap in the literature
2.11 Chapter summary

CHAPTER III
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Research design
3.3 Population
3.4 Sampling technique
3.5 Sample size
3.6 Research instruments
3.7 Data collection procedures
3.8 Data presentation and analysis procedures
3.9 Ethical considerations
3.10 Chapter summary

CHAPTER IV
DATA PRESENTATION AND DISCUSSION
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Qualitative findings and analysis
4.2.1 Qualitative data collected through interviews
4.2.2 Qualitative data collected via questionnaires
4.2.3 Qualitative data key summaries
4.3 Quantitative findings and analysis
4.3.1 Response rate
4.3.2 Demographic details of respondents
4.4 Performance management system implementation
4.5 Descriptive statistics of factors in the questionnaire
4.5.1 Quantitative data key summaries
4.6 Chapter summary

CHAPTER V
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Summary
5.4 Recommendations
5.5 Recommendations for future research
5.6 Chapter summary

REFERENCES

APPENDICIES

Appendix A

DEDICATION

This project is dedicated to my lovely sister Teopolina Shilongo. I love you with all my heart Nghelo and thank you for your emotional support as well as your encouragement.

ABSTRACT

The focus of this research was to identify the challenges hindering the implementation of the Performance Management System in Ministry of Urban and Rural Development. This study adopted a ‘mixed method approach’, which utilises quantitative data supported by qualitative data. The target population of this study included Top management level (Director, Deputy Director), Middle Supervisory level (Supervisor/ Chief) and staff members at a non- supervisory level. Stratified sampling was used to divide the population in to 3 stratums. The study further used purposive sampling to draw a sample of 52 employees from the population of 272 staff members while the qualitative interviews involved 4 participants. Quantitative data was analysed using descriptive analysis run on SPSS. Results indicated that the PMS challenges that the Ministry of Urban and Rural Development is facing are as a result of lack of goal-setting, poor alignment of personal objectives with organisational goals, lack of communication and strong leadership, lack of trainings and personal development, lack monitoring, reviews and performance feedback, lack of change management initiatives and no reward for exceptional performance. Based on the findings, the researcher recommends that there should be improvement in communication, construction of employee’s awareness; top performers should be rewarded; realistic and achievable goals must be set for employees; employees should be involved in settings of their performance targets and lastly the institution should allocate sufficient budget. Finally it is recommended that further research must be conducted in the rest of OMAs in order to validate findings of this study.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

First and foremost, I would like to thank God for the gift of life, His grace and for giving me sanity of mind and wisdom throughout the duration of my studies.

My sincere appreciation goes to my supervisor, Mr Shali Dama Omwne Kapepo for providing me with guidance and constructive advice from the research proposal until the submission of this dissertation and without whom this dissertation would not have seen the light of the day.

Mr Nicodemus Angula, thank you for inspiration, guidance and your unwavering support and words of encouragement during the duration of this study. I also wish to extend my sincere thanks to my colleagues in the Ministry of Urban and Rural Development for their willingness to participate in this study. To my classmates, thank you for a wonderful experience; to my friends, without your constant support and encouragement I would never have completed this dissertation - a sincere thank you.

Last, but not least, I express my deepest gratitude to my parents Hilde and Jonas Shilongo, my siblings Teopolina, Errik, Ainah and Alfeus, my cousin Saveria and my extended family for the support and encouragement throughout the duration of my studies.

“My Lord now show you kindness and faithfulness, and I too will show you the same favour because you have done this” (Samuel 2: 6).

LIST OF TABLES

Table 1: stages of annual plan

Table 2: Critical factors influencing the successful implementation of PMS

Table 3: Sample distribution table

Table 4: Profiles of interviewed respondents

Table 5: Respondents feelings and sentiments on what they want the Ministry to change during PMS implementation process.

Table 6: Respondents opinions of main weaknesses of the PMS in MURD

Table 7: Respondents recommendations on how implement PMS successful

Table 8: Response rate

Table 9: Demographic details of respondents of the study

Table 10: Likert scales responses

Table 11: Descriptive statistics of goal-setting

Table 12: Descriptive statistics of development of personal goals in line with institutional goals

Table 13: Descriptive statistics of communication and leadership

Table 14: Descriptive statistics of training and personal development

Table 15: Descriptive statistics of monitoring, reviews and performance feedback

Table 16: Descriptive statistics of change management

Table 17: Descriptive statistics for extraordinary performance

Table 18: Mean ranking score of PMS factors

Table 19: Summary of research findings

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1: Conceptual framework of performance Management

Figure 2: PMS framework adopted by the Namibian public service

Figure 3: The performance cycle

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Backgroundto and Rationale of the study

Performance management is a crucial matter to lawmakers, inhabitants and civil servants due to the need of improving service delivery in government institutions (Dzimbiri, 2008). The public service operational Performance Management System (PMS) necessity was recognised as a crucial matter by the members of the African Union through the drafting of the Principles and Values Customer Service Charter of Public Service (African Union Commission, 2011). Subsequently, Sisa, Van der Westhuizen, and Naidoo (2015) reported that African countries such as Namibia, Botswana and South Africa have adopted and implemented the Performance Management System to enhance the quality of services across all public sector organisations.

According to the Office of the Prime Minister [OPM] (2005), Namibia introduced Performance Management (PM) shortly after attaining its independence in 1990. This system used the Merit Assessment to appraise the performance of staff members beneath the management cadre and efficiency rating to appraise staff member’s performance beyond the management cadre. The Performance Appraisal System later substituted this system in 1996. However, Performance Appraisal System was also discharged in 1998 because of the deficiency on the supportive culture of the organisation and inadequate staff capacity development in the system. In 2004, the Government of Republic of Namibia (GRN) implemented a Performance Management System following a training needs assessment conducted by the Office of the Prime Minister with help of the Centre for Public Service Training (CPST) in 1998 (OPM, 2005). PM was introduced to improve and help the public service organisations to achieve abundant customer satisfaction and high output that would ultimately enable the country to attain its national development aspirations; hence it is a vehicle to accomplish Vision 2030 (Commonwealth Secretariat, 2010). Vision 2030 is a national document in which the Government of the Republic of Namibia stipulated its approaches and programmes that will enable the country to realize its domestic objectives (National Planning Commission [NPC], 2001). The following legal framework guided the implementation of PMS in Namibia:

- Constitution of the Republic of Namibia;
- Treasury Instructions;
- The Affirmative Action Act, Act 29 of 1998;
- The Public Service Commission Act, Act 2 of 1990;
- The Labour Act, Act 6 of 1992;
- The Public Service Act, Act 13 of 1995;
- The Regulations and Public Service Staff Rules promulgated under the Act; and
- The State Finance Act, Act 31 of 1991 (OPM,2015)

The Ministry of Urban and Rural Development (MURD) was one of the government Offices, Ministries, Agencies (OMAs) selected by the office of the Prime Minister in the probationary project that was designed to implement the new PMS in the Public Service of Namibia. The Ministry of Urban and Rural Development was established to coordinate and expedite Rural Development undertakings, legislation and guidelines in order to enhance sustainable rural livelihoods, mitigate rural-urban migration, and to deliver services to the satisfaction of all communities (MURD, 2017). Since the introduction of PMS in the Namibian Public Service, the OPM (2018) report indicated that MURD is one of the ministries that have not yet to date fully implemented its PMS. The MURD’s failure to fully implement its PMS has adversely impacted its operations in terms of service delivery (MURD, 2017). Hence, this dissertation attempted to gain an understanding of what is hindering the PMS implementation in the ministry.

1.2 Statement of the problem

The Namibian public service has adopted and implemented a Performance Management System due to the public outcry on the quality of service rendered by OMAs (OPM, 2005). Armstrong (2006) defines performance management (PM) as a methodical process developed to improve the performance of the organisation, individuals and teams. Although a number of legislative directives and guidelines have been established to support the PMS implementation across all OMAs and Regional Councils (RCs) including the Ministry of Urban and Rural Development, the OPM report (2018) indicates that “although there is a significant improvement in terms of timely submission of PMS reports, to date there is no single OMA or RC which has reached a 100% rollout mark” (p. 14). This provided evidence that the Namibian public service did not until now completely implemented its PMS, hence MURD is not an exception. Accordingly, there appears to be an incongruity between theory and practice. The non-implementation of a functional PMS in OMAs could result in delays in the establishment of government projects and secondly it may result in the waste of government resources (OPM, 2018). Therefore, it is on this ground that this research sought to study the challenges that are impeding the implementation of the PMS in the MURD.

1.3 Aim of the study

This dissertation intended to study the challenges obstructing the PMS implementation in MURD.

1.4 Research questions

i. What are the challenges impeding PMS implementation in MURD?
ii. What various ways MURD can employ to mitigate these challenges in the Ministry?

1.5 Significance of the study

This study investigated challenges impeding the PMS implementation in MURD. First, it is hoped that results of this study will help MURD management to understand the challenges regarding PMS implementation and to thereby develop suitable strategies to mitigate them in future. Secondly, findings of this study are crucial to the Ministry of Urban And Rural Development as they highlight the significance of PMS to the organisation. Thirdly, outcomes and the implementation of recommendations of this study might contribute to the efficiency and effectiveness of the PMS execution in the public service of Namibia. Finally, conclusions drawn from the study and recommendations of areas for further research might help future researchers to investigate further the PMS challenges in the Public Service.

1.6 Assumptions

The following assumptions guided this study:

- The researcher will access all information required to conduct the study;
- The respondents will answer all the questions that will be posed to them honestly without bias;
- The study will be completed within the time frame; and
- The selected sample will be a true representative of the population.

1.7 Limitations of the study

There were various limitations which might have affected the credibility of this study. First, the research study was limited to the Ministry of Urban and Rural Development, leaving out twenty ministries where similar or dissimilar challenges might be prevailing. This was due to limited time frame as well as economic constraints. Secondly, findings of this dissertation are purely limited to the public service of Namibia, hence the results might not be generalised to other countries. Finally, there might perhaps be issues of bias and subjective judgements coloured by the researcher’s own experiences as she is also an employee of Ministry of Urban and Rural Development.

1.8 Definitions of terms

While the following terms might have more than one meaning, the meanings provided below denote the relative definitions of terminologies used in this dissertation:

Assumption - This refers to substantial aspect(s) hindering the accomplishment of a main outcome that is not manageable by the researcher but is certainly known to happen.

Coaching - This refers to a process by which someone who is more knowledgeable in a certain area helping the staff member(s) to improve their skills and consciousness on a certain subject matter with the aim of boosting staff member’s performance.

Department - This refers to the division geared towards the promotion of coherence and coordination between the strategy and various actors in the organisation.

Challenges - This refers to any major trend, development or shock, which has a serious potential impact on the performance of the organisation.

Civil servant/ staff member - This refers to an individual employed in the Public Service of Namibia on a contract or permanent basis.

Performance Agreement (PA) - This refers to a document/ plan signed by the staff member and his/her supervisor stipulating the staff member’s targeted level of performance.

Performance Management System (PMS) - This refers to the processes and procedures interconnected to monitor and improve the performance of the Public Service at OMAs, RCs and at individual staff member’s levels.

1.9 Scope of the study

This dissertation is organised in a way that; chapter one provides a brief background of the study, problem statement, aim of the study, research questions, significance of the study, assumptions, limitations of the study and definition of the terms. Chapter two presents the theoretical framework related to PMS and it also identifies the gap in the literature. Chapter three presents the methodology used in this study. It also presents the research design, population, sample and sampling procedures, data collection procedures, ethical considerations as well as the data presentation and analysis procedures. Chapter four focusses on data presentation methods, discussion and research finding interpretations. Chapter five summarises research conclusions and recommendations.

1.10 Chapter Summary

Chapter one which is also known as the introductory chapter, introduced the background of the study. It revealed the factors that prompted the study, the problem that the study intended to investigate, research questions guiding the study, implications of the study, assumptions, the definition of important terms this study used as well as the constraints experienced by the researcher in gathering and presentation of research findings. The next chapter deliberates on the literature review.

CHAPTER II

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 Introduction

Chapter two presented the collected works reviewed pertaining to the evaluation and execution of PMS in the public sector. It had also critically studied the existing and accessible literature on the Performance Management System. Therefore, a fruitful entry point is to conceptualize Performance Management.

According to Sisa, Van der Westhuizen and Naidoo (2015), PMS has multi definitions due to its genericity in nature which is adopted differently in various countries and was developed in different industries and adopted to serve a different purpose. On one hand, Maphorisa (2010) defined PM as a tool used in organisations to develop, manage and enhance organisational performance in order to attain the objectives of the organisation. PMS in the African context was defined by the 7th CAMPS (2011) as a universal and systematic approach for managing employees to achieve intended results as stipulated in annual plans and strategic objectives of the organisation. Similarly, OPM (2005) defined the PMS in the context of the Namibian public service as an administration tool which is designed to improve service delivery in the Namibian public service.

PMS is also defined by Armstrong and Baron (1998) as a strategic management tool aiming at improving the performance of the individuals and groups in the organisation by defining duties and responsibilities of everyone in the organisation in order to ascertain constant success of the organisation. In the same vain, performance management is defined by Armstrong (2015) as an on-going process of enhancing employee’s productivity by developing individual goals and aligning them with the overall organisational goals. Armstrong (2015) further indicates that organisations must conduct performance reviews from time to time in order to identify areas that need improvement.

Regardless of different PMS definitions and approaches, various biographers find a consensus in defining PM as an integrated, strategic and holistic approach of identifying, developing and measuring individual, teams and organisational performance, aligning performance to the strategic objectives of the organisation, harmonising employees to work towards the attainment of the organisational vision and missions, developing mechanisms that will help the organisation to resolve conflicts that will arise as a result of PMS processes as well as making provisions for performance rewards for high achievers to motivate them. Therefore, Performance Management is a crucial method that can help to take the organisation from where it is now to where it wants to be.

2.2 Performance management

Before this study engages in a detailed discussion of PM, it is vital to gain an understanding of PM. PM is conceptualised by Nel, et al. (2011) as a process in which the working environment of the organisation is designed in such a way that employees are free to make decisions with regards to their performance areas as well setting their goals. Nel, et al. (2011) further explain that performance is a system that has to work together in order to achieve performance. Nel et, al. (2011) further added that the process begins when the staff member’s individual Key Performance Area (KPI) is identified until when the staff member delivers the expected performance. However, this process does not end, it goes on and on until such a time that the employee leaves the organisation. This process is made up of the following components:

- Strategic objectives communication;
- Development of individual objectives in line with organisational goals;
- Continuous performance reviews of both individual and group performance;
- Timely identification and reporting of obstacles and setbacks;
- The development of remedies to mitigate and control obstacles and setbacks;
- Creation of employee’s coaching and mentoring initiatives; and
- On-going individual and group performance reviews and the re-examination of organisational processes and resources (Nel, et al. 2011, p. 75).

Du Toit, Knipe, Van Niekerk, Vaan der Walt and Doyle (2002) defined PM as a logical process in which a public institution involves its employees in enhancement of the organisation’s efficiency and effectiveness in order to achieve the organisational goals and improve service delivery. PM that concentrates on the future places a major emphasis on the following:

- Setting the organisational key accountabilities;
- Setting standards and measures to be achieved and assigning priorities and time scales; and
- Agreeing to future objectives and goals in each of these key accountability areas (Du Toit, Knipe, Van Niekerk, Vaan der Walt & Doyle, 2002, p. 35)

In addition, Armstrong (2009) regards PMS as a tool used in an organisation to increase productivity level. Armstrong (2009) further explains that PMS is concerned with aligning the objectives of employees to those of the organisation and encouraging employees to uphold the core objectives of the corporate; such as defining the expectations and agreement of duties, responsibilities and accountabilities (expected to do), behaviours (expected to be) and skills (expected to have), giving opportunities for employees to identify their own objectives and goals as well as developing their skills and competencies. Furthermore, Armstrong (2009) point out that PMS involves developing the following elements:

“An organizational vision, a statement of what the organization aspires to be within a specific timeframe; a mission statement, a statement defining the organisation reason for existence; goals, these are the outcomes the organization intends to achieve; objectives, these are the short term and specific goals of the organization; key performance indicators or key results areas, these are yardsticks by which the organization can evaluate the achievement of its goals and objectives; annual operational plan, these set out the years objectives indicating who is responsible for what and the start and finish dates for each activity; and individual performance plan, cascading the department or team objectives, the supervisor and individual agree on: key performance of the job, the tasks and activities required to achieve the desired results, performance targets, standards and measures” (p.44).

2.3 PMS origin

The notion of “Performance Management” was initially used by Beer and Ruh in 1976 at Corning Glass Works in the United States of America during the implementation of their PMS entitled “Employee growth through PM” (Armstrong and Baron, 1998). However, a PM historical background has gone as far back as the Chinese dynasties and Biblical days of the 221–206 BC. Performance evaluation is discussed in the Bible in Exodus 35 in roughly 1350 BC where Israelis were ordered to build the Tabernacle and to dedicate six days of the week by the Lord. The quest for PM and quality can also be found in about 2500 BC when the pyramids were being constructed by historic Egyptians (Brudan, 2009). Historical accounts also reveal that PMS was used by the Chinese to manage their dynasties between 206 BC and 220 AD. The Chinese are reported to have used PMS to hire and promote those who aided the emperor to conduct inspections (Armstrong and Baron, 1998). The above PMS analysis reveals that PMS has been in existence for many years.

According to Alwadaei (2010), PM was extensively used in the 1980s and 1990s by governmental organisations in order to adapt to universal pressures and to enhance public sector performance. According to Alwadaei (2010), PMS was firstly adopted in developing countries as part of the World Bank and International Monetary Fund programmes which aimed to stabilise the economies of these countries. These programmes were introduced in some countries in Africa as well as in foreign affairs ministries of Latin America and Asian countries.

Uniquely, in the late 1980s, countries such as the United Kingdom pioneered PMS in their home affairs while France, New Zealand and Australia also later followed suit (Alwadaei, 2010). The USA followed suit in 1993 where congress endorsed the Government Performance and Results Act (GPRA), whose main aim was to enhance American people’s confidence.

The PMS adoption by the USA congress came as result of a broader recognition of the deficiencies on business and public institution’s financial and non-financial efficiency (Haldeman, 1993). However, in the African public sector, the PMS concept is somehow new. Most African countries that achieved independence in the 1980s adopted PMS in order to rehabilitate their economy that was affected by the war. In Namibia, according to Commonwealth Secretariat (2010), PMS was introduced shortly after independence in 1990. The aim of the PMS was to enhance productivity and effective service delivery in the public service (Commonwealth Secretariat, 2010).

Worldwide, there are few success stories of countries that implemented their PMS successfully. Notable examples are counties such as the United Kingdom, New Zealand, and the United States of America. In Africa, PMS was implemented in some SADC countries such as Namibia, South Africa and Botswana (Commonwealth Secretariat, 2010).

2.4 Performance management within managementtheories

Performance management is a broad subject that is made up of many interrelated subjects informed by various collections of corresponding theories and multi disciplines (Brudan, 2010; Holloway, 2009). Some of these disciplines are operations management, strategic management, organisational behaviour, social psychology and sociology. In the context of PM, social psychology is the main foundation of PMS. As the name suggests, social psychology deals with how individuals relates with others, either at their working environment, in their respective community and other groups where they might find themselves (Brudan, 2010). In the context of PMS, there are various PMS theories that support social psychology. These include expectancy theory that was introduced by Vroomin (1964), procedural justice theory by Thibaut and Walker (1975), two-factor motivation theory written by Herzberg in 1959, the goal-setting theory by Latham and Locke (1979), equity theory that was written by Adam in 1963, self-efficacy theory initiated by Bandura in 1982 and reinforcement theory written by Hull in 1951(Armstromg, 2009). Some of these theories identified above relate to motivation and they are explained below:

2.4.1 Procedural justice theory

This theory deals with how the organisation solves disputes and conflicts as they arise in the organisation (George and Jones, 1999). According to George and Jones (1999) this theory advocates for fairness when managing organisational disputes and staff grievances. Procedural justice theory believes that employees will be motivated to work hard and achieve their utmost goals when they see fairness in the organisation (George and Jones, 1999). Employees tend to work hard if they believe that their performance will be truly recognised. However, if the employees see that their efforts are not recognised because their supervisors do not like them or maybe there is partiality in the organisation, they are likely to back off. This will not only affect their respective divisions but will affect the performance of the entire organisation. Therefore, procedural justice theory aims at identifying factors that are causing employees to perceive organisational procedures as biased and determine how those perceptions affect the performance of the organisation (George and Jones, 1999).

2.4.2 Goal setting theory

Edwin Locke introduced the goal setting theory in 1968. This theory puts stress on the authoritative relationship between performance and goals. In addition, the goal setting theory advocates for organisations to set realistic targets for their employees and to motivate them to work hard and attain the common goals of the organisation (Obasan and Sotunde, 2011). They further add that assigned goals affect the performance of the employees as unrealistic goals or goals that are not attainable tend to frustrate employees and diminish their work morals (O’Neil and Drillings, 1994). Goal setting theory is considered as a theory that has a greater impact on staff motivation. A realistic goal affects effort, choice, and persistence (O’Neil and Drillings, 1994). This theory observes the following sentiments:

- High and specific performance targets result in higher performance compared to easy goals;
- The higher the employee’s commitment in meeting his/her targets, the advanced the employee’s performance;
- Factors such as such as goal-setting, development of personal goals in line with institutional goals, communication and leadership, training and personal development, monitoring, reviews and performance feedback, change management and reward for extraordinary performance lead to high motivation and subsequently high performance (Borgogni and Petitta, 2007).

2.4.3 Equity theory

Equity theory that was introduced by Adams (1965) is grounded on the idea that employees are motivated by the fair treatment of everyone in the organisation. According to Lane, Irving, Messe and Lawrence (1971), equity theory believes that employees’ output decreases should employees perceive unfair treatment from their supervisors. They added that the more employees perceive justice in their respective divisions, the higher the output, however, the reverse is also true. Adams (1965) believes that the lack of fairness in the organisation demotivates staff members and as a result performance will also go down.

2.4.4 Expectancy motivation theory

While Maslow and Herzberg’s theory concentrates on the fulfilment of employee’s needs to be motivated to work hard, expectancy theory puts a distinction between improved performance as a result of motivation and the output that results from motivation (Harder, 1991). According to Harder (1991), expectancy theory believes that each employee’s performance is subject to the individual employee’s personality, working experience, acquired skills and knowledge as well the staff member’s ability to carry out a certain task. According to Vroom (1964), the effort that staff members are putting in a certain activity determines the level of output. Therefore, this theory believes that the following factors affect the output of an individual employee:

- Right quantity and quality of the resources available;
- Skills and experience possessed by the employee; and
- Management support (Vroom, 1964).

Bandura (1977) identified the relationship between expectancy motivation theories and other motivational theory such as equity theory of motivation. While equity believes that employees are likely to compare their own performance with their colleagues as well as the treatment from their supervisors, any variation will result in decreased performance from the disadvantaged staff member. Expectancy theory on the other hand believes that employees will only produce more if they have the right skills and experience, have the necessary resources to perform as well as their leadership support (Bandura, 1977). According to Harder (1991), these two theories found consensus in the area of management/supervisor support, and should the supervisor fail to give their subordinates the necessary support either by not providing the necessary required resources or by not giving the subordinates a fair treatment, performance will go down.

2.5 Legal guidelines for the performance management systems

Bohlander and Snell (2010) identified the following legal guideline requirements:

- Organisations must ensure that performance evaluation ratings are in line with the job description of the staff member. Only areas that are relevant for attainable of organisational goals should be evaluated;
- Supervisors must at all times provide clear and written performance expectations to the employee before the actual evaluation takes place;
- Supervisors must solve conflicts that might arise as a result of performance evaluations. These problems must not be carried over to the next performance cycle:
- Supervisors must be trained to use the assessment form properly. They should also be trained on how to apply the appraisal standards when making judgments:
- Performance outcomes must be discussed openly with staff members and appropriate remedies must be applied to boost the staff members’ performance:
- The organisation must develop clear procedures for appealing should employees be dissatisfied with their supervisors’ performance evaluation. Figure 1 bellow illustrates a typical conceptual frame work:

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Figure 1: Conceptual framework of performance management

Source: Briscoe and Claus (2008)

Legal guidelines require performance evaluators to document all evaluations pertaining to each individual employee’s performance together with all the interventions such as training, coaching and skills development initiatives given to the staff members to enhance the staff member’s performance. This evidence is crucial if a staff member takes legal action against the organisation as a result of poor performance rating (Bohlander and Snell 2010).

2.6 Framework supporting the implementation of PMSin Namibia

The process of PMS in Namibia begins with strategic planning at OMAs level. Each organisation develops its annual plan in line with the country Medium Term Plan(s) (MTPs), strategic documents such as Vision 2030, National Development Plan(s) (NDPs), and Medium Term Plan(s) (MTPs) (OPM, 2005). The organisation’s high level document must be cascaded to each directorate’s level and all units within the organisation until the level of each individual staff member. Supervisors and their subordinates then enter into a performance agreement that both parties have to sign at the beginning of each performance circle. The PMS framework requires OMAs to put in place their organisational processes including clear and realistic goals as well as clear reporting structures. Channels for performance feedbacks must also be incorporated into the PMS system (OPM, 2005). Figure 2 below illustrates the conceptual framework adopted by the Namibian public service.

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Figure 2: PMS framework adopted by the Namibian public service

Source: OPM (2005)

The strategic plan should therefore be reviewed annually and broken down to each directorate level until each individual staff member’s level. Table 1 below illustrates typical annual plan stages:

Table 1: Stages of annual plan

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Source: OPM (2005)

2.7 The performance cycle

Figure 3 below portrays a typical organisational PMS cycle. Every organisation begins the performance management cycle by setting objectives of the organisation. These are short-term goals built from the organisation’s vision. Consequently, they should be aligned to the objective of the individual in order to achieve high levels of performance (Aguinis, 2009). Furthermore, the organisation should have a performance measurement system in order to easily measure organisational performance based on established objectives and goals. Such measurement system supports the organisation in evaluating its performance (Aguinis, 2009). Individual employees are evaluated with the appraisal system and feedback on the progress made in order to determine the employee’s rewards (i.e. promotion and salary increase). After an evaluation of the employee’s performance, inconsistencies are identified and fixed through objectives amendment and the performance cycle carries on (Bohlander and Snell, 2010).

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Figure: 3 the performance cycle

Source: Aguinis (2009)

The PMS objective is to improve quality service delivery to all the inhabitants in the country (Aguinis, 2009). Armstrong (2009) defines PMS as a strategic approach aimed at enhancing the productivity of staff members in an effective and efficient way. Armstrong (2009) further explains that PMS give emphasis to the incorporation of organisational goals with every individual staff member’s goals in the organisation with the aim of attaining the organisational common goals. From the definition above, it is clear that PMS is not a once of event but it is a continuous process that requires commitment and a buy in from every individual in the organisation.

2.8 Constraints on the implementation of the PMS

According to Burs (2002), PMS implementation failure in most organisations can be due to the bureaucratic structures of organisations. In addition, most of the governmental organisations implement PMS only to comply with statutory requirements. Furthermore, some employees perceive PMS as a system intended on revealing faults, inadequacies, and poor performance. Subsequently, supervisors are regularly unenthusiastic to participate in the PMS process due its confrontational in nature (Burs, 2002). In addition, Armstrong (2009) is of the opinion that the implementation of PMS is problematic because of its sophistication, ubiquity and intricacy in personnel attempting to evaluate the performance of another. Lim, Ito and Sandberg (2014) stated that “someone’s performance is assessed by someone else’s perception”.

A study on the PMS implementation conducted by the Institute of Personnel Management (2009) identified major challenges in the successful implementation of PMS. These challenges include the following:

- Lack of line managers’ ownership of the system;
- The perception that PM is the human resources management directorate’s baby;
- Lack of a feedback loop; and
- Pay performance that has failed to motivate employees (p. 25).

Bourne, Franco and Wilkers (2003) developed categories of critical factors influencing the successful PM implementation as presented in Table 2 below:

Table 2: Critical factors influencing the successful implementation of PMS

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Source: Bourne, Franco and Wilkers (2003).

According to Bourne, Franco and Wilkers (2003), PMS cannot be understood fully using a narrow exploration perspective that only concentrates on the particular process of designing and/or implementing the system. They recommend for a “contextualised approach” that comprises of the contextual factors identification and their influence or being influenced by the system. In addition, challenges of expatriate PM also need to be well-thought-out in PMS implementation. Public sector managers appear to be paying little attention to the PMS’ successful implementation process.

2.9 Factors influencing the success of PMS implementation

Globally, local governments are under pressure to transform, modernize, and become responsible to their communities. Most nations achieved this by introducing PMS. Though the effective implementation of these systems requires change management, the success of this change rests in different features. Following are a number of factors which influence the success of PMS implementation.

2.9.1. Change management factors

Reynolds (2004) states that the only constant factor in life and business is change which can be large or small, planned or unplanned, rapid or slow, controllable or not. Reynolds (2004) further explains that change in an organisation can be as a result of internal forces such as new technology, new strategies, organisational business process reengineering, employee attitude and behaviours, and external forces such as political and legal technological environment, economic environmental conditions, social conditions, and competitive environments of the organisation.

Moreover, Armstrong and Baron (1998) explain that PMS implementation is a crucial organisational development intervention that requires adjustments in the organisational activities and practices as well as the commitment of everyone in the organisation. According to Kotter (2007), change requires a sense of urgency as well as a common vision. Kotter (2007) further adds that the organisation implementing change must keep on beating drums for change so that employees will not revert back to their old ways of doing things.

Moreover, Armstrong (2001) points out that the organisational change process must be driven by the top leadership and resistance to change must be managed proactively. Armstrong (2001) explains further that change leaders must openly communicate change to everyone in the organisation. Armstrong (2001) further maintains that most of the change initiatives fail because of lack of communication in the organisation and that if employee’s at all organisational levels are informed, they are likely to take ownership of the system and work towards achieving the organisational goals.

Burnes (2003) notes that most of the change initiatives end in failure across all sectors of the economy because of poor communication in the organisation that ends up in poor performance. However, Kotter (2007) is of the opinion that change fails because staff members who are supposed to benefit from the system resist it. This has a negative impact on the performance of the organisation. Kotter (2007) advises organisations intending to introduce a new project in the organisation to make sure that the organisation is united and has a common vision. Change must also get communicated to everyone so that employees own it. Only then after the organisation is ready is when the project implementation should commence.

2.9.2 Strategic plan alignment with the organisational processes

Commonwealth Secretariat (1996) and Johnson and Scholes (1997) both found consensus in defining the strategic plan as a strategic high level process that maps the organisational direction by defining what the organisation wants to achieve, how to achieve their objectives and when. On the other hand, Bryson (2004) defines a strategic plan as a critical decision aiming at taking the organisation from where it is now to where it intends to be. Bryson (2004) further adds that for the annual plan to be effective, it must be developed in line with organisational processes and done in such a way that it links together the vision of the organisation with all departmental goals in the organisation and all the systems of the organisation.

According to Thompson and Strickland (1998), PM implementation involves knowing the desirable organisational conditions. This involves managers creating a favourable working environment for everyone in the organisation to work in harmony. Thompson and Strickland (1998) further added that strategic planning is more than just developing a sophisticated plan. Organisations that fail to align their strategic plans to departmental and individual objectives fail to attain their intendent goals because lack of alignment creates a gap between the organisational processes and the strategic plan. Burs (2002) supports Thompson and Strickland (1998) that lack of strategic plan alignment with the organisational processes creates a break down between the organisational policies, internal support systems, the reward structure, the organisation's skills, competencies and culture of the organisation.

Dessler (1998) adds that the leadership quality will eventually determine whether the strategy will succeed or fail. In addition, Thompson and Stickland (1998) observe that strategy implementation requires matching the structure of the organisation to the strategy. This involves restructuring organisational processes, the establishment of teams and groups as well as cross functional work groups.

2.9.3 Leadership and organisational culture

Organisational culture dictates how the organisation carries out its functions. The organisational culture is made up of organisational norms and beliefs, rituals and its values (Armstrong and Baron 1998). Organisational culture unites employees towards the attainment of common goals. According to Thompson and Stickland (1998) the biggest challenge when PMS is introduced is to alternate the existing organisational culture that will not support the Performance Management Implementation. Therefore, an understanding of the organisational culture will enable one to identify the best way to implement the strategy that is well fit and supported by the organisational culture (Blunt and Jones, 1992). Blunt and Jones (1992) further explain that managing organisational culture involves influencing behaviour, beliefs and attitudes. Leaders have a role to play in fostering a good working culture in the organisation. When PMS is introduced, employees need to be educated on why change is essential and how it will benefit them in order to change their mind sets towards performance oriented thinking (Armstrong and Baron 1998).

According to Armstrong (2015), top managers play a critical role in the implementation of PMS by setting performance targets, leading by example and fostering a good organisational culture. Armstrong (2015) adds that leaders are responsible for developing policies and procedures which guarantee high performance in the organisation. Leaders are also responsible for persuading and educating staff members on why PMS is needed in the organisation and why everyone’s involvement will enable the organisation to grow.

According to Blunt and Jones (1992), leaders are responsible for fostering top performing organisational culture by:

- Developing and communicating the long term and short term strategic objectives of the organisation;
- Engaging all employees of the organisation in annual plan formulation, developing each employee’s Key Performance Area, formulating and signing performance agreements, facilitating the staff evaluation processes as well as ensuring that the set objectives are in line with the strategic objectives of the organisation;
- Ensuring that employees are informed on the organisation’s progress towards the attainment of its strategic goals and developing collective actions to enhance organisational performance; and
- Uniting all employees towards the organisation’s shared vision and ensuring continues performance improvements.

2.9.4 Training and creating a learning organisation

According to Armstrong (2009), training is a crucial element in any organisation as it improves employee’s skills and boosts their confidence. Each organisation learns through their staff members that is why the significance of training in organisations should never be underestimated. Arygis and Schön (1977) define organizational learning as a process of identifying and correction of errors through training and staff development initiatives.

Senge (1990) defines a learning organisation as any organisation that invests in their staff development. According to Senge (1990) learning does not only take place in classrooms as employees can learn from each other in work related teams, they can also learn through their supervisor’s coaching and they can also learn through trainings. Senge (1990) emphasises the importance of fostering a learning organisation through his five key learning areas or themes which he called “The Five Disciplines” namely; shared vision, system thinking, team learning, personal mystery and mental models (Senge, 1990). The five disciplines operate as vital dimensions essential to build a learning organisation. In the aggregate, team learning, mental models and personal mastery contribute to the learning culture creation in an organisation (Fenwick, 1996).

Robbins (1996) has advised organisations to train their employees in areas that need improvement; therefore, an organisation must identify each staff member’s needs based on his/her performance evaluations. The organisation must also from time to time collect performance data to enable the organisation to send its staff members to right trainings. Armstrong (2009) recommends organisations to develop staff development and training mechanisms to help the employees to understand PMS tools, how to set their realistic and SMART goals while abiding to the regulatory framework adopted by the organisation. Armstrong (2009) further adds that managers and supervisors must also receive training on how to evaluate staff member’s performance, how to give their subordinates the necessary support and how to lead by example and facilitate PMS activities. Detailed employees training will give the organisation an assurance that employees are acquainted with the right skills and are familiar with all PMS requirements as set by the organisation (Armstrong, 2009).

Continues employee’s training enhances and stimulates the understanding of the organizational values and internal processes. Empowered employees are always hands-on with their work activities and they are more likely to offer hands-on solutions compared to untrained employees (Burs, 2002). Robbins (1996), states that employees who are continuously trained and mentored are more likely to stay in the organization and even take up leadership positions compared to those that are not trained.

2.9.5 Rewarding good performance

According to Dessler (1998), the effective implementation of employee benefit packages serves the organisation from staff turnover, helps to enhance the sustainable competitive advantages and helps the organisation to build commitments and loyalty. Robbins, Odendaal, and Roodt (2003) indicate that like any other employees, public servants need to be recognised for their achievements and efforts in order to maintain their innovation and motivation. According to Robbins (1996), organisations that reward their employees for exceptional performance enhance their employee’s morale and encourage others to work hard.

Employees that are rewarded for good performance tend to be happy and put more effort to help the organisation to meet its objects. Motivated employees are likely to stay in an organisation that values their existence and the effort they put. Odendaal and Roodt (2003) request employers to exercise fairness when they are giving performance rewards as any partiality in the performance reward system will discourage other employees from working hard. Odendaal and Roodt (2003) add that how the organisation evaluates performance will affect employee’s behaviour. Therefore Robbins (1996) cautioned managers against risks or serious challenges to the performance methodology which may be subject to resistance.

2.9.6 Flexibility and simplicity

According to Armstrong and Baron (2002), for PMS to work effectively, it must be flexible and simple. Employees tend to reject complicated systems because of the fear of the unknown. Armstrong and Baron (2002) also advise organisations to design simple systems that will allow organisations to easily meet their objectives. They further add that PMS must be simple in nature to allow all employees to understand it. An uncomplicated system motivates employees to make use of it. Blunt and Jones (1992) request organisations intending to implement PMS to design their processes in a way that allows adjustments and the correction of errors. They have also added that organisational systems and processes must be designed in such a way that they allow improvements. Blunt and Jones (1992) recommend a simple and flexible performance system that will be understood by everyone in the organisation.

2.10 Gap in the literature

There are several studies done in Namibia with an attempt to understand the challenges that are hindering the implementation of PMS in OMAs and RCs. However Most of the studies done in Namibia on performance management systems merely focused on its impact on service delivery. Similarly, there is no evidence of any study conducted in Namibia to identify challenges that are hindering the implementation of PMS in the public sector organisations including the Ministry Urban and Rural Development. Therefore, this study attempted to fill this void in the literature.

2.11 Chapter summary

This chapter concentrated on the literature reviewed by the researcher to validate this study. Crucial information was identified that helped the researcher to reach a conclusion. This chapter also critically examined literature on challenges facing the implementation of PMS in public and private sector organisations. In addition, possible challenges of PMS implementation in the public sector were observed. Finally, the study also identified the knowledge gap that the study intended to fill. The next chapter will discuss research methodology of the study.

CHAPTER III

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1 Introduction

Cohen and Manion (1997) define methodology as a range of approaches employed in educational research to collect information which is a base for inference, interpretation and explanation. It is the heart of the research as it is where the entire research description and interpretation is grounded. Furthermore, it is where the reader finds an understanding on how the research was conducted (Wiersma and Jurs, 2009). This chapter therefore presents the research design, population, sample and sampling procedures, data collection instruments, and ethical considerations for the study.

3.2 Research design

This study used a mixed methods research design. The mixture of qualitative and quantitative methods is recognised as mixed method in research language. According to Armour and MacDonald (2012), the “mixed method is a research method where by the researcher gathers and analyses information, mixes the results, and draws interpretations using both qualitative and quantitative methods in one study”. This method helped the researcher to integrate both qualitative and quantitative findings, methods and procedures in a sole research with the aim of having a full knowledge of the phenomena under study (Creswell and Clark, 2011). Creswell and Clark (2011) further explain that this approach is not only essential when gathering and analysing both qualitative and quantitative data, but it too encompasses the usage of both approaches equally so that the outcome of study is bigger than both qualitative and quantitative research.

3.3 Population

According to Cooper and Schindler (2014), a target population in research refers to the “entirety of all elements under study that a scholar aims to observe, evaluate or scrutinize” (p. 338). The population of the study can also be defined as a subject group with common features that can deliver data that support the researcher to attain the research objectives (Mugenda and Mugenda, 2003). Mugenda and Mugenda (2003) further clarified that the population of interest covers the entire mass of people or group of substances pursued by the researcher in order to generalize the conclusion of the research. Therefore the targeted population of this study comprises of 272 Ministry of Urban and Rural Development staff members at the head office in Windhoek.

3.4 Sampling technique

This study used a stratified random sampling technique to divide the population into three categories or stratus namely: senior management (directors and deputy directors), middle management (chiefs and supervisors) and non-managerial employees (all employees that do not fit in previous categories). Stratified random sampling is defined by Cooper and Schindler (2012) as “a probability sampling technique that contains features from mutual exclusive categories within the population” (p. 139). The respondents were selected by means of a purposive sampling technique. In this technique, subjects for the study are arbitrarily chosen on the basis of their exceptional characteristics, their experiences, perception, or attitudes (Cooper and Schindler, 2012). The targeted respondents therefore, were the directors, deputy directors, supervisors and staff members in the Ministry of Urban and Rural Development. These respondents were chosen on the basis of their involvement and expertise gained in the execution and implementation of PMS in the ministry.

3.5 Sample size

The population of the study comprises of 272 Ministry of Urban and Rural Development employees working at the head office in Windhoek. According to Cooper and Schindler (2003), a sample size that is bigger than 10% is considered adequate for research purposes. This study therefore, engaged 20% of the total number of employees in the ministry. The selected sample size for this study was therefore made up 54 individuals, which is considered valid and in agreement with the recommendation of Cooper and Schindler (2003). Table 3 below indicates how the sample was selected.

Table 3: Sample distribution table

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Source: Primary data (2018)

3.6 Research instruments

Bryman and Bell (2007) define research instruments as the tools and mechanisms developed to gather data on a subject of interest under study. The instrument used by the researcher to collect data is a self-administered questionnaire which Cooper and Schindler (2003) define as tools that help in the collection of information concerning the subject of the research. For the respondents to answer questions in their own words on the basis of their experiences, the researcher constructed open ended questions as well as close-ended questions to enable respondents to concentrate on specified alternatives and also to answer questions on their own words. For the purpose of the study, the researcher divided the questionnaire into three sections; the first section (Section A) contains demographic questions, Section B consisting of Likert-type five point scale questions and Section C containing general questions patterning to the research subject.

Questionnaires have an advantage over other methods because they are steady, consistent and retain uniformity. Furthermore, they are also considered useful because of the potential anonymity of the respondents which will result in an honesty response and it allows respondents to complete questionnaires at their own time and speed (Babbie, 2010). Babbie (2010) further states that questionnaires are much more efficient because of the less time they require; they are inexpensive and allow data collection from a larger sample.

This study also used semi-structured interviews to obtain a comprehensive and in-depth understanding on factors hindering the implementation of PMS in the ministry. The interviews were held with the head of divisions, the Ministerial Implementation commit (MIT) members, the Learning and Development officer and supervisors who are directly involved in the PMS implementation processes.

3.7 Data collection procedures

Prior to the actual data gathering processes, the researcher conducted a pre-test data collection with ten Ministry of Urban and Rural Development staff members to establish the reliability of the questionnaire. The pre-testing of the questionnaires consisted of questions the researcher intended to use in the main study. The purpose of the pilot study of data collection was to inspect the practicability of the methodology that the researcher intended to use in a large scale. Pre-test data collection allows amendments and the ratification of problems arising in the tools so that during the data collection period, the instrument can be relied upon to collect data that is valid and reliable (Mugenda and Mugenda, 2003). Based on the outcomes of the pilot testing, no momentous deviations were discovered, thus no major changes were made to the original questionnaires.

Self-administered questionnaires were then distributed to collect quantitative data from senior managers, middle managers and non-managerial employees in the ministry. The respondent’s questionnaires were hand delivered by the researcher. Qualitative primary information was obtained by means of interviews as well as through questionnaires. Interviews provided information that could not be attained through questionnaires and secondary information review. An introductory letter was acquired from the Midlands State University - AMADI, thereafter, the researcher obtained a clearance letter from the MURD where the study was conducted. The researcher then went ahead and distributed questionnaires to the targeted participants. The respondents were given five days to attend to the questionnaires.

The researcher further held interviews with staff members that were purposively selected based on their experience and their key roles in the PMS implementation process in the Ministry. This method gave the researcher an opportunity to pose follow up questions for the interviewees to elaborate more on certain subjects of interest. Secondary data information was obtained from the organisation which mostly related to the official documents, legislation and reports on performance indicators. Publicly available materials were obtained from various sources such as departmental archives and official websites. These included the strategic plan of the organisation, annual reports, internal newsletters, operational planning documents, and a training documentation. Special attention was given to long-term programmes and documents associated with activities and initiatives that were conducted as actions to embark on a PMS. These materials were used to compare and measure the trustworthiness of the respondent’s views and statements that were articulated in interviews and questionnaires.

3.8 Data presentation and analysis procedures

Preceding the data collection process, all data collected via questionnaires were coded and cleaned. Data analysis was done using Statistic Package for the Social Science (SPSS) in which the mean and standard of deviation were computed. Correlation between variables was also tested to determine whether the relationship between two variables is linear. Questionnaires, interview outcomes and information obtained through the reviewing of documents were compared for correspondence and integrated.

3.9 Ethical considerations

The researcher obtained permission to conduct this study from the Permanent Secretary of MURD. The respondents who participated in this study were completely informed about the consent forms which defined their rights. In order for this study to be effective, the views and opinions articulated during the data collection process were kept confidential in the sense that no statements were attributed to the individuals. In addition, feelings, opinions and perceptions that are expressed during the process of the study were merged into one report and as such the report reveals the general opinions, feelings, perceptions. Moreover, data gathered during this study will be stowed in a highly secure lockable drawer in the office of the researcher for which she is the only one with access to it. In addition, the research protected the information stowed in her computer with a password. When this data reaches the end of its practical value, this is anticipated to be one year after this dissertation publication, information stored on the researcher’s computer will be cleared with a software intended to eliminate information stored in a storage device. The researchers will also keep record avowing to what information was destroyed how and when. Lastly the researcher circumvented plagiarism of information by acknowledgement all the sources used in this study.

3.10 Chapter summary

Chapter three presents the methodology used to gather and present information collected in this study. This study used the mixed method research design in which interviews and questionnaires were used to collect data of this study. For the purpose of the study, a population of 272 MURD employees were used to gain an in-depth understanding on what is causing PMS implementation failure. The research then used the stratified sampling technique to divide the population into three categories in which the first category was for senior management, second was for the middle management while the last one was for non-managerial staff members. This study further employed purposive sampling to draw the targeted population within their respective stratum. The researcher used SPSS to analyse quantitative data gathered though the questionnaire. The researcher also observed research ethical requirements when gathering, analysing, presenting and storing information pertaining to this study. The next chapter presents the findings and discussions of the study.

CHAPTER IV

DATA PRESENTATION AND DISCUSSION

4.1 Introduction

This chapter presents and discusses data and findings collected in this study. Information will be presented in two parts; firstly the chapter will present qualitative data collected through interviews and questionnaires. After the qualitative presentation, the researcher then presents quantitative data collected through questionnaires. The researcher employs statistical measurements such as Mean, Pearson’s correlation and standard deviations in order to give meaning to the gathered data. The main objective of this dissertation is to identify factors that are deterring the PMS implementation in the ministry and to identify ways in which the ministry can mitigate these challenges which in turn will hopefully lead to the successful implementation of PMS in the ministry.

4.2 Qualitative findings and analysis

The researcher conducted a qualitative study through open-ended semi-structured interviews as well as from unstructured questions collected through questionnaires in order to validate quantitative data collected via questionnaires. As specified earlier in chapter iii, the researcher conducted interviews in order to get an in-depth understanding on the challenges affecting the PMS implementation in the ministry as well as to identify strategies needed for overcoming the implementation challenges.

4.2.1 Qualitative data collected through interviews

Four interviewees identified by a unique code [RESP1- RESP4] were probed about different aspects relating to the implementation of PMS in the ministry such as perceived employees performance, different factors and variables with respect of evaluating employee’s performance as well as recommendations for changes that might improve PMS implementation in MURD.

i. Interviewees profile

Table 4: Profiles of interviewed respondents

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Source: Primary data (2018)

ii. Interviewee’s roles in PMS implementation

In order for the researcher to determine questions to pose to the interviewees, respondents were requested to explain briefly the roles they are playing in the PMS implementation process in the Ministry, as well as their experiences in dealing with staff quarterly reviews in their respective departments. Interviewee’s answers helped the researcher to further ask about the feelings of the respondents, their perceptions, behaviours and values towards the implementation of PMS. In particular, interviewees responded as follows:

“I am the head of the internal Audit division; I am responsible for crafting my divisional annual plan in line with the overall objectives of the organisation as well as ensuring that my subordinates sign performance agreements at the beginning of each Performance cycle. I also conduct one on one Performance review with my staff members each quarter. In short I have two duties in as far as PMS is concerned, namely, to spearhead the PMS in my department as well as the entire MURD and to implement it fully in the Ministry.” (RESP1).

“I am a PMS coordinator in the Ministry; I am responsible for establishing and/or reviewing where the MURD is, in terms of its organizational structure and chain of command in order to align to its functional activities. I am also there to ensure the engagement or participation of all individuals and departments. I previously also took part in the previous system that was substituted by the current PMS.” (RESP3).

“I am responsible for compiling PMS reports both for the Ministry and Regional Councils. I am also responsible for identifying staff member’s personal development plans as well as identifying their training needs and send them for trainings if there’s a budget. In addition I am also responsible for reporting progress to senior staff members and the Permanent Secretary.” (RESP4).

“I am the Chair Person of the Ministerial Implementation Team (MIT). This is a team initially intended to serve as the custodian of the PMS implementation processes of the Ministry. This team is responsible for identifying processes and strategies to ensure a functional and effective organizational structure and chain of command that will include wider stakeholder consultations and participation, as well as ensure structural (organogram) options for all departments. I have been a chair person for two consecutive years now”. (RESP3).

iii. What is your attitude towards the Performance Management System?

This question was asked to measure the participant’s attitudes towards PMS. The researcher obtained two contrasting responses from the participants. Two research participants showed positive attitudes towards the PMS, while the other two did not like the PMS in its current form of implementation. In each case, respondents provided reasons why they liked or disliked the PMS. Research participants who liked the PMS included the following comments:

“I like the PMS because it gives supervisors and employees a direction of where the institution wants to be, how it intends to get there, who is responsible for what, who is accountable for what, when and to who” (RESP3).

“Although PMS has its own limitations, I like the system because it helps all employees to put more effort in their work towards the achievement of organisational goals” (RESP1).

Participants who had negative attitudes towards the PMS articulated their dissatisfaction of the system as follows:

“I am unfortunately not in favour of that system because if your direct supervisor does not like you or is not in your favour, you will never be recommended for promotion or for training/workshop; he/she will always rate you low. Staff members are also not trained on PMS since we were given refresher training, we were never trained again, and new staff members who just recently joined the Public Service also have no clue of the purpose of PMS which made it difficult for them to perform. The other thing I don’t like about PMS is that supervisors do not put more effort on PMS implementation; they only impose PMS on their subordinates when there is need to report to OPM and relax after the reporting period. Finally due to the fact that there is no consequence for non-achievers everyone is relaxed in this Ministry.” (RESP2).

“I do not like the system because supervisors set goals that are unrealistic and difficult to attain at the end of the day. Even though some employees are doing their work properly and meet their targets, everyone scores the same in the PMS review, which is demoralising to committed staff members. There is also no provision for reward to compensate high achievers; as a result staff members are not motivated to work hard.” (RESP4).

iv. If you are to be mandated to change things or some PMS practices, what would you change? Please explain your suggestions.

This question was asked in order to probe interviewee’s recommendations or suggestions in order to ensure better PMS implementation in the ministry. In response to this question, interviewees provided several suggestions that the Ministry of Urban and Rural Development could consider in order to implement PMS successfully. Findings are presented in Table 6 below:

Table 5: Respondents’ feelings and sentiments on what they want the ministry to change in regard to PMS implementation process

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Source: Primary data (2018)

Results presented in Table 6 above show that interviewees of this study believe that for the PMS to be implemented successfully in the Namibian public service, specifically in the Ministry of Urban and Rural Development the following seven (7) interlinked categories of factors must be incorporated in the implementation processes and procedures. These factor are: goal-setting; aligning personal performance targets with organisational objectives; effective communication and leadership; training and personal development; monitoring; reviews and performance feedback; change management strategies and pay-for-performance compensation.

4.2.2 Qualitative data collected via questionnaires

1) In your opinion, what are the main weaknesses of the PMS in MURD?

This question was asked to identify the factors that are constraining the effective implementation of PMS in the ministry. The following factors were identified by the respondents as the main weaknesses of PMS in the Ministry. In table 6 below, the researcher maps respondents’ answers into categories of issues.

Table 6: Respondents’ opinions of the main weaknesses of the PMS in MURD

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Source: Primary data (2018)

2) Implementation of PMS in the ministry

To the question regarding the “Current or past interventions in the Ministry stimulated by the implementation of PMS in the Ministry”, all the respondents said NO. This implies that MURD is not investing in the learning and development of its employees. This is opposing Burnes (2009) who proffers that once the organisations adopt PMS and attains its desired state, the organisation must reinforce the strategy so that employees will not revert back to the old way of doing things. This is comparable to the 3rd stage of Lewin’s (1940) institutional change management model referred to as “refreezing” and this is also similar to what was advocated by Kotter in his 8th requirement on how to foster change in an organisation. The organisation can only achieve change successfully if it keeps on reminding its employees through trainings and capacity development seminars to why change is vital and how it can help the organisation to attain its objectives (Kotter, 2007)

3) Responses on what MURD can do to make the PMS implementation more operational

Respondents were asked to give their suggestions on what the MURD can do to make the PMS implementation more operational. The following recommendations were given as presented in Table 7 below:

Table 7: Respondents’ recommendations on how to implement PMS successful

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Source: Primary data (2018)

4.2.3 Qualitative data key summaries

Findings of the qualitative section support the four main PM underpinning theories. These theories are procedural justice, equity, expectancy and goal-setting, as these theories relate to the aspect of individual motivation of employees, which turns out to enhance the successful implementation of PMS and ultimately its effectiveness. Equity theory demands a rational balance between staff members’ contribution (input, skills, acceptance, enthusiasms and the productivity of the staff members (salary, rewards and recognition). This theory advocates for a fair balance which in turn strengthens the employee relationships with inclusive results being attained. Expectancy theory suggests that employees will conduct themselves in certain ways because they are motivated to choose certain behaviour over the other due to their expected end results. On the other hand, procedural justice theory advocates for fairness in procedures used/ to be used in making decisions concerning the distribution of rewards. Finally, goal setting theory focuses on establishing SMART objectives. In a nutshell, findings on this section support the literature reviewed in this study. Lussier and Hendon (2012) advise that in order to facilitate an understanding of knowledge and awareness of the PMS, the organisations must develop precise performance measures, train assessors and use various ratters in order to decrease the challenges associated with the implementation of the PMS.

4.3 Quantitative findings and analysis

4.3.1 Response rate

The study’s response rate is defined by Bryman and Bell (2007) as a percentage of respondents who took part in the study. The table below shows the rate for staff members that participated in the study.

Table 8: Response rate

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Source: Primary data (2018)

Table 8 above shows the response rate for both returned questionnaires and conducted interviews. A total of fifty two (52) self-administered questionnaires were distributed to the respondents by the researcher as follows: Four (4) questionnaires were given to the directors and deputy directors; sixteen (16) questionnaires were given to the chiefs and supervisors, while thirty four (34) questionnaires were distributed to all employees below the supervisory level. Out of the fifty two (52) questionnaires distributed, 92% of the questionnaires were returned, whereas 8% could not be collected as depicted in table 8 above. In addition, among the returned questionnaires, three (3) were collected from the top management, which denotes a 75% response rate; fifteen (15) questionnaires were collected from the middle management group (chiefs and supervisors), which represents a response rate of 94%; while thirty (30) were from non-managerial employees, which translates into 88% response as indicated in table 8 above. Concurrently, the researcher scheduled five (5) interviews; however, only four (4) interviews materialized, representing an 80% response rate. The response rate of this study is in agreement with Saunders (2006) who states that for the research to be valid; at least 30% response must be achieved.

4.3.2 Demographic details of respondents

The first section of the questionnaire (Section A) gathered information based on the respondents’ demographic variables. A total of 48 respondents took part in the study and responded to questions concerning their gender, age, academic qualifications, length of service and positions they hold in the ministry. The demographic details of the participants revealed that 26 participants (54%) were male, whereas 22 participants (46%) were female. This is in line with MURD’s gender profile in which the population of males in the ministry is higher than the female population (Murd,2017).

The study also revealed that 10% of the respondents were aged between 20-30 years, 42% were aged between 31-40 years, and 29% were aged between 41-50 years, while 19% were above 50 years. Accordingly, most respondents were aged between 31 and 40 years old, resembling a young work force in the ministry. Furthermore, as illustrated by table 9 below, the majority of the respondents were in possession of higher level academic qualifications. To be precise, 33% are bachelor’s degree holders, 23% hold masters degrees, 19% posses Post Graduate Diploma/Honours degree, 17% are diploma holders, 6% have Higher Education Certificate, while 2% have at least a secondary school certificate. This is in line with the MURD report (2017) which indicates that 68% of MURD staff members hold at least bachelor’s degree and above. This denotes that the institution understands the importance of PMS in the organisation as well as the demands of research, thereby making them able to give valid answers.

This study also attempted to establish the respondents’ length of service in the ministry. The findings exposed that 33% of the respondents served the ministry for a period of 10 years and above, 29% served for a period between 5 and 9 years, whilst 25% of the respondents have served the ministry for a period between 3 and 4 years. Only 13% served the ministry for a period of 0-2 years. The results show that the majority of respondents have been in the ministry since the implementation of the PMS, and this denotes the possible familiarity of staff members with the PMS as the majority of them have been there since the initial implementation of the system. Table 9 below also indicates that 63% of the respondents were at non-managerial level, 31% were at middle managerial level, while 6% are at top management level. These findings exhibit the involvement of all staff members at all levels in the PMS implementation in the ministry.

Table 9: Demographic details of respondents of the study

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

n=48

Source: Primary data (2018)

4.4 Performance management system implementation

The researcher presented a wide range of questions focusing on goal settings, staff development, motivation, feedback, and other vital aspects of PMS implementation such as information sharing, leadership, change management and conflict resolution in the questionnaire. Respondents were requested to indicate if they strongly disagree, disagree, neutral, agree, or strongly agree with a number of statements. Results are presented below.

4.4.1 Summary of Likert scales responses

Table 10: Likert scale s responses

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[PMS = Performance management system, M= mean, SDV=Standard Deviation; 1=Strongly Disagree; 2=Disagree; 3=Neutral; 4=Agree; 5=Strongly Agree

Source: Primary data (2018)

Each item’s mean in the questionnaire ranges between 1.98 (statement 12) and 4.42 (statement 4). This portrays that the majority of the responses lie between ‘strongly disagree’ and ‘agree’ with various items that were posed to them in the questionnaires. The mean constructed from the Likert scale statement indicates the influence that this factor has on the implementation of PMS in the ministry; whereas the standard deviation of 1 shows that responses areconcentrated around the mean. Table 11 also indicates that the majority of respondents were ‘neutral’ with most of the items laid out in the questionnaire. This indicates the biasness of the central tendency whereby staff members avoided selecting harsh answers (Nicholls, 2010; Pradeep, 2010). Neutral responses might have been caused by the respondents’ uncertainty on the subject matter under study.

4.5 Descriptive statistics of factors in the questionnaire

This study presented the mean, Standard Deviations (SDV) and Pearson’s correlations of all the interrelated factors as presented in table 10 above. A small SDV points out that the data points are surrounding the mean whilst the SDV that is high symbolises the spread of data points over the broader collection of values. Pearson’s correlations determine the degree of association between various variables. A high correlation symbolises a strong correlation while a feeble or little one indicates that variables/factors are not related.

a) Goal-setting

Table 11 below shows the average mean of 3.34 with a little SDV and a moderate correlation.

Table 11: Descriptive statistics of goal-setting

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N=48 and ** Correlation is significant at 0.01 level (2-tailed)

Source: Primary data (2018)

b) Development of personal goals in line with the institutional goals

Table 12 below shows the means, SDVs and correlations of the factors related to the development of personal goals in line with institutional goals. The average mean is 3.3 with the average SDV of 1 and a modest positive linear correlation.

Table 12: Descriptive statistics of development of personal goals in line with institutional goals

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N=48 and ** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).

Source: Primary data (2018)

c) Communication and leadership

Table 13 below presents the M, SDV and Pearson’s correlations of statements related to communication and leadership. On average, there is an M = 3.47 with a SDV = 1.15 and a low to high negative correlation.

Table 13: Descriptive statistics of communication and leadership

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N=48

Source: Primary data (2018)

d) Training and personal development

Table 14 below presents the M, SDV and Pearson’s correlations of factors related to staff training and personal development. As indicated below there is on average M=3.39, SDV= 1.55 and a very low correlation.

Table 14: Descriptive statistics of training and personal development

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N=48

Source: Primary data (2018)

e) Monitoring, reviews and performance feedback

Table 15 below presents the descriptive statistics of items related to monitoring, reviews and performance feedback. On average the M = is 3.04, SDV in the range of 1 and a correlation that is moderate.

Table 15: Descriptive statistics of monitoring, reviews and performance feedback

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N=48 and ** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).

* Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed).

Source: Primary data (2018)

f) Change management

Table 16 below depicts the descriptive statistics of items associated with organisational change management strategies. The table shows that on average M = 3.04, SDV = 1.39, which is in the range of 1 and a moderate correlation.

Table 16: Descriptive statistics of change management

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N=4

Source: Primary data (2018)

g) Reward for extraordinary performance

The table below illustrates the descriptive statistics of items related to rewards for extraordinary performance. On average the M = 2.09, SDV = 1.07 with a correlation that is moderate.

Table 17: Descriptive statistics for extraordinary performance

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N=48 and ** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).

Source: Primary data (2018)

4.5.1 Quantitative data key summaries

Table 18: Mean ranking score of PMS factors

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Source: Primary data (2018)

Table 18 above is an illustration of the mean related to each of the seven factors that were identified from the study as the ones hindering the PMS implementation in the ministry. The average mean for each of the seven factors that measured challenges of PMS implementation indicated that the average mean scores range between disagree and neutral. Communication and Leadership (mean=3.47) was ranked highest, followed by Training and Personal development (mean=3.39), goal-setting (mean=3.34), development of personal goals in line with institutional goals (mean=3.3), change management (mean=3.2), monitoring, reviews and performance feedback (mean=3.04) with reward for extra ordinary performance (mean=2.09) last on the list. Findings from Table 18 above indicate that amongst the tested factors, communication and leadership have the highest effect on PMS implementation while reward for extraordinary performance has the minimum impact.

4.6 Chapter summary

Chapter four presented and analysed findings collected through interviews as well as data collected through questionnaires. This study revealed that the following factors, namely; goal-setting, development of personal goals in line with institutional goals, communication and leadership, training and personal development, monitoring, reviews and performance feedback, change management as well as reward for extraordinary performance are hindering the implementation of PMS in the ministry. The next chapter presents the summary of the study, conclusions and recommendations of the study. Finally, other possible research directions are recommended. The following chapter presents the study summary, conclusion and recommendations

CHAPTER V

SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1 Introduction

Chapter five summarises the research findings presented in the previous chapter. The chapter also presents the overall conclusions of the study as well as giving recommendations based on the findings of what the MURD should do to successfully implement its PMS. Finally the areas for further research are identified.

5.2 Summary

This study entitled “Challenges in the implementation of the Performance Management System in the Ministry of Urban and Rural Development” aimed at identifying factors that are hampering the implementation of PMS in the MURD, as well as coming up with the best strategies to overcome these implementation challenges. The study was prompted by the OPM’s report that indicated that the MURD is one of the ministries that to date not yet fully implemented its PMS. Therefore, this study is set to benefit the Ministry of Urban and Rural Development management, staff members as well as future researchers. In this study, the researcher used both the qualitative and quantitative research methods to gain a detailed understanding of the subject investigated. The researcher used the stratified sampling technique to divide the population into three stratums of senior management, middle management and non-managerial employees. The purposive sampling technique was then used to pick the sample of 52 employees from their respective stratums which was considered valid and in agreement with the recommendations of Cooper and Schindler (2003). After the sample was identified, a pilot test was conducted to examine the validity and reliability of the research instruments in order to remove ambiguities. The research instruments comprised of the interviews and questionnaires. The researcher then obtained an authorisation from the Permanent Secretary to gather data from the ministry. In addition, 52 questionnaires were then hand delivered to the top management, middle management and non-managerial staff members based on their involvement on the daily execution of PMS activities in the ministry. However, only 48 questionnaires were returned.

The researcher also scheduled 5 interviews with head of divisions, PMS coordinators as well as with the learning and development officer; however, only 4 interviews materialised. The researcher personally administered and collected the questionnaires. During the process of this study, the researcher faced some encounters which caused limitations such as; time constraints, 4 questionnaires were not returned as the researcher could not get hold of the respondents and one divisional head was not able to make time for interviews due of other obligations. Regardless of these limitations, the study was successfully completed. Findings and observation were made and the following conclusions were drawn.

5.3 Conclusions

For the purpose of this study, the researcher summed up the findings of the study as presented in Table 19 below. This study has concluded that PMS theories, such as goal-setting theories, procedural justice, equity and expectancy can be directly associated with the findings of this study. These PMS theories critically relate to employees’ motivation, which is a pre-requisite for an effective Performance Management System. The findings of this study revealed that for PMS to be implemented successfully, it must satisfy the following aspects such as (i) realistic goal-setting (ii) development of personal goals in line with institutional goals; (iii) having good communication and leadership; (iv) providing appropriate trainings and personal development strategies; (v) deciding an appropriate monitoring, reviews and performance feedback approaches; (vi) introducing change management mechanisms, and (vii) developing performance related reward initiatives for extraordinary performance. In light of these findings, the researcher concluded that the identified factors hindering the implementation of PMS in the ministry are more of cultural and structural in nature, therefore the ministry can overcome these challenges.

Table 19: Summary of research findings

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

Source: Primary data (2018)

5.4 Recommendations

The researcher recommends interventions intending to address the gaps identified during the course of the study as outlined below;

- The study recommends for all staff involvement in performance planning processes in their respective divisions. The aim is to prevent potential conflict between supervisors and staff as well as heightening the divisional ownership and synergy during the implementation process;
- The PMS framework as a guiding principle must be communicated to all staff members in the organisation;
- Management must ensure that performance agreements are signed by all staff members, and that quarterly assessments as well as annual organisational assessments are carried out, and scores should be used to measure and determine if the organisation has reached its performance objectives;
- MURD should make adequate budgetary provisions for PMS activities to ensure effective implementation of its annual plans;
- MURD must ensure that all staff members at all levels in the organisation receive training on PMS related matters as per their personal development plans specified in their performance agreements within their respective directorates and divisions;
- MURD must always set clear and achievable targets, define desired performance, and evaluate results. The aim is to monitor the implementation of the Performance Management System;
- MURD Management should consider introducing performance rewards to enhance motivation and performance for effective service delivery.

5.5 Recommendations for future research

The boundaries of this study was only limited to the Ministry of Urban Rural Development, leaving out Agencies, Offices and other Ministries where the same problem might be prevailing. The researcher therefore challenges future researchers to investigate further on what is hindering the PMS implementation in the rest of the OMAs and 14 regional councils in the country in order to validate the findings of this study as well as to help Namibia achieve its 100% PMS implementation rate in the public service.

5.6 Chapter summary

The researcher anticipated that this study has closed some gaps in the literature, mainly by identifying some factors and providing insights on the perspective of employees of the ministry on possible PMS challenges. This study used a mixture of the qualitative and qualitative approach. These approaches were designed to answer the research questions. This study revealed that it is vital for the whole PMS to be reviewed so that factors such as goal-setting, development of personal goals in line with institutional goals, communication and leadership, training and personal development, monitoring, reviews and performance feedback, change management and reward for extraordinary performance be incorporated and strictly enforced in the Namibian public Service. Such change requires top management interventions as well as a change of mind-sets towards results oriented thinking. Given the existence of some limitations, the researcher recommends future researchers to build on this study and study further on what is causing the PMS implementation failure in the rest of the government Offices, Ministries and Agencies, as well as in 14 Regional Councils across the country.

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APPENDICIES

Appendix A

MIDLANDS STATE UNIVERSITY; FACULTY OF COMMERCE

RESEARCH QUESTIONNAIRE

Questionnaire No:

Re: Academic Research Questionnaire

Dear Sir/ Madam

I am Litetukeni N. Shilongo, a Master of Commerce in Strategic Management and Corporate Governance student at Midlands State University of Zimbabwe. You have been purposively selected to participate in this research project due to your experience, involvement and key role in the implementation of a performance management system in the Ministry of Urban and Rural Development. This study investigates “Challenges in the implementation of the Performance Management System in the Ministry of Urban and Rural Development”. This research is purely for academic purposes, hence responses will be treated confidential and individual anonymity will be safeguarded. I would be grateful if you could assist me by completing the following research questionnaire.

Please sign below if you agree to participate in this study. Kindly note that, participating in this study is voluntary and you can withdraw from it any time should you wish to do so.

I agree to participate in the study.

Signature Date

Thank you

INSTRUCTIONS: PLEASE TICK (√) OR CROSS (X) IN AN APPROPRIATE BOX TO SELECT YOUR ANSWER.

SECTION A: DEMOGRAPHIC INFORMATION

1. Gender

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2. Age

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3. Academic qualification

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4. Length of Service in the Ministry

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5. What is your position?

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SECTION B: IMPLEMENTATION OF PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

To what extent do you agree with the following statements concerning the implementation of performance management System in the Ministry? Please indicate if you Strongly Disagree, Disagree, Neutral, Agree, or Strongly Agree by ticking (√) or crossing (X) in the appropriate column. The remarks column is for you to enter any comments/evidence in support of the answer should you deem it necessary.

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SECTION C: CHALLENGES AND STRENGTHS OF PMS IMPLEMENTATION

7. What do you think are the key strengths of the performance management implementation?

8. In your opinion, what are the main weaknesses of the PMS in MURD?

9. Are there any current or past improvement initiatives in your organisation that have been influenced or encouraged by the PMS implementation?

10. In your view what do you think should be done to make the implementation of the PMS more effective?

*****Thank you for participating in this study*****

Details

Seiten
99
Jahr
2018
ISBN (Buch)
9783668933385
Sprache
Englisch
Katalognummer
v464300
Institution / Hochschule
Midlands State University
Note
Schlagworte
challenges implementation performance management system ministry urban rural development namibia

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Titel: Challenges in the Implementation of the Performance Management System in the Ministry of Urban and Rural Development in Namibia