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21st Century Attributes and Skills of a Teacher from the Perspective of College Students

von John Mark Asio (Autor) Erin E. Riego de Dios (Autor)

Akademische Arbeit 2018 22 Seiten

Pädagogik - Der Lehrer / Pädagoge

Leseprobe

Table of Contents

Introduction

Methodology

Results and Discussion

Conclusion

Recommendations

References

Abstract

Teaching is an ever evolving field of profession which comprises a magnitude of skills, talent, and dedication. This descriptive study intended to revisit some primary characteristics of a 21st century teacher in the standpoint of 123 conveniently selected college students. The findings of the study were as follows: The respondents answered Agree on the context of professional and personal attributes that a teacher should possess; while in terms of the primary skills exhibited by a teacher, it got an answer of Very Satisfactory. Significant differences were observed in Professional Attributes, Learning and Innovation Skills and Life Career Skills when grouped according to respondent’s profile. Furthermore, there was a low to moderate evidence of relationship that existed between the Attributes of a teacher and skills. This was further confirmed through regression analysis and found out that the attributes of a teacher significantly affects the teaching skills. Based on the findings, practical suggestion on professional and personal improvements of a teacher were discussed and recommended.

Keywords: Attributes, Skills, Perspective of college students, 21st century teacher, teaching

Introduction

In the 21st century curriculum, change always plays a vital role for adopting a newer and better set of teaching strategies and principles which will again put teachers into the test of tides in terms of their teaching attributes and skills. A good teacher is more than just an educator. The characteristics that make a teacher good are complex and extensive. (Bullock, 2015)

Education is such a great motivator and at the same time a source of investment. Policy makers are revolutionizing teacher evaluation by attaching greater stakes to student test scores and observation-based teacher effectiveness measures, but relatively little is known about why they often differ so much. (Harris, Ingle, Rutledge, 2014) But naturally, the results of these tests will not decide the future of students, reality will hone their skills and merging with the society will also have a great impact on the holistic development of students. Educating a nation of culturally, ethnically/racially, and linguistically diverse students are one of the many challenges facing teachers and teacher educators, resulting in teachers questioning their ability to improve learning for these groups. (Chu, 2011)

Over the years of teaching practice and innovation, several attempts were used to quantify some important strategies and methodologies in teaching. In the words of Gargani & Strong, (2014) Teacher observations have become a national education phenomenon, mandated by federal policies and promoted by philanthropists. They are crucial components of teacher evaluation systems that often have high stakes for teachers and school systems, but have sparked little innovation. A study also found out that rating instruments, including disposition surveys, clinical practice observation, ratings and portfolio assessment each measure a single underlying dimension rather than the multiple constructs they were designed to measure. (Henry, Thompson, Campbell, Patriarca, Luterbach, Lys & Covington, 2013)

On the other hand, the associations of both positive and negative relationships (teacher-student) with a student’s school engagement were medium to large, whereas associations with a students’ school achievement were small to medium. (Roorda, Koomen, Spilt & Oort, 2011). Furthermore, stronger effects were found in high grades and negative effects of relationships were stronger in primary than in secondary. Accordingly, Loeb, Soland & Fox (2014) exposed that teachers who were effective with English learners also tend to be effective with their non-English learners and vice versa. There was also evidence that some teachers are relatively more effective with English learners than with non-English learners and that this increased efficacy is predicted by a teacher’s fluency in students’ home language and whether he or she possesses a bilingual teaching certificate.

Moreover, emotions experienced by teachers while teaching are relatively unexplored avenues of research (Coleman, 2014). Emotional discomfort was a central theme as the teacher considered the children’s play in relation to the knowledge acquired in the graduate online course or vice versa. (Madrid, Baldwin & Frye, 2013) More specifically, the findings of the study revealed the teacher’s discomfort and the resulting struggle and ambivalence she encountered as new information about the children’s social worlds disrupted her prior beliefs, values, and feelings.

On the other side of the discussion, Baric and Burusic (2014) suggested that teachers with different professional status-related personal attributes are fairly uniform in their views, expectations, and satisfaction. Furthermore, they found it interesting to note about the relationship between school-based Catholic religious education and the parish-based catechesis, where existing relationship represents a weak source of religious education teacher’s satisfaction. For Amatea, Cholewa, Mixon (2012), they investigated a course at a large research university in the Southeastern United States designed to influence the attitudes of pre-service teachers (PSTs) about how they might work with low-income and/or ethnic minority families and found out that their attitudes were less stereotypic, they were more confident about using family-centric involvement practices, and conceptualized student’s problems in less blaming terms.

Local authors also share some important and revealing literature. Based on the study of Magno & Sambrano (2016), it was found out that the teachers practicing learner-centered approaches use their self-efficacy in order to be effective in teaching but it was also found out that being effective does not result in high teaching performance rating. On the other hand, Enanoza & Abao (2014) revealed that teachers generally carried out their roles excellently; likewise, there were significant interrelationships between and among the roles as well as the factors that affect them. The physical, psychological, emotional, and spiritual factors directly affect the successful exercise of their roles. Moreover, Espina (2013) described the ideal teacher as one primarily with the “ability to share relevant knowledge and experiences to clarify the concept.” Also, “expertise in the subject matters taught” was identified as the most prevalent descriptor of the assessed teacher. Likewise, teachers were seen to be effective in instructional delivery and facilitating learning with a premium placed on humane treatment of learners. Lastly, De Guzman, Torres, Uy, Tancioco, Siy & Hernandez (2008) identified clusters of teacher roles that indicate caring behavior that implies acts of teaching become acts of caring depending on how the teachers, the efficient cause of education, perform their ordinary tasks in the context of extraordinariness. Interestingly, the extent to which teachers’ caring behavior is felt and experienced by the students positively shapes their orientations as cared for individuals.

This study focused on the idea of identifying the attributes and skills of a teacher in the viewpoint of college students in the 21st-century curriculum. The paper hopes to provide essential information about teacher’s attributes and skills in the fascinating world of the teaching career. Lastly, to add up to the research world some substantial data that would be very beneficial for future researchers who will endeavor in the same field with more enthusiasm and in-depth analysis.

Methodology

Research Design

This study used the descriptive research method with the questionnaire as the main instrument for gathering data. The study intended to analyze and interpret data that was gathered through the survey and later on describe its characteristics.

Since the study was concerned with the attributes and skills of a teacher as perceived by students in college, the descriptive method, therefore, is the most convenient method to utilize for the investigation.

Respondents

The researcher utilized 123 participants in this study from the different colleges in Olongapo City and Zambales area using a convenience sampling technique. The respondents were bona fide students, currently enrolled and studying within the semester of the academic year 2017-2018, in the different institutions in Olongapo City and Zambales province.

Instrument

A draft questionnaire was made by the researchers. It was then submitted for critiquing to several professors who are practitioners in the field of research for validity and reliability. Their comments were considered in revising and finalizing the construction of the questionnaire. To further test the clarity and validity of the questionnaire, it was first tested among students who were not included as subject participants in the study.

Statistical Treatment

In this study, Regression Analysis, Pearson-R, ANOVA, T-test, frequency count, and weighted mean were utilized. All data and information were gathered in order to be tallied, tabulated, classified, analyzed, and interpreted. The weighted values assigned to the awareness of college students were patterned after Likert Scaling.

Results and Discussion

The following tables represent the overall results of the study and were comprehensively analyzed and interpreted with discussion alongside it.

Table 1. Mean Distribution of Respondents on the Professional Attributes of a Teacher

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Table 1 exhibits the mean distribution of respondents on the professional attributes of a teacher. It can be analyzed that Statement 1 got the highest mean with 3.60 which has a descriptive equivalent of Strongly Agree, while statement 3 got the lowest mean with 3.14 which is equivalent to Agree. To sum it up, the overall mean for the professional attributes of a teacher was pegged at 3.32 with a descriptive rating of Agree. According to Magno & Sembrano (2017), they stipulated in their study that being effective does not result in high teaching performance ratings. This result may partially coincide with the result of the study.

Table 2. Mean Distribution of Respondents on the Personal Attributes of a Teacher

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Table 2 shows the mean distribution of respondents on the personal attributes of a teacher. It can be understood from the table that Statement 1 got the highest mean with 3.69 which has a corresponding descriptive rating of Strongly Agree, while Statement 8 got the lowest with 2.98 which is equivalent to Agree in the descriptive rating scale. Overall, the mean was 3.36 which was interpreted as Agree. However, based on the result of the study of Harris, Ingle & Rutledge (2014), they suggested that the method of evaluation may not only affect which specific teachers are rewarded in the short term, but shape the qualities of teacher and teaching students experience in the long term.

Table 3. Mean Distribution of Respondents on the Skills of a Teacher

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Table 3 displays the mean distribution of respondents on skills of a teacher. It can be examined that in the section of Communication Skills, Statement 1 and Statement 2 got the highest and lowest means with 3.54 and 3.20 and they have a descriptive interpretation of Excellent and Very Satisfactory respectively; while in Learning and Innovation Skills, Statement 2 got the highest mean with 3.37 and Statement 4 got the lowest mean with 3.23, both with a descriptive rating of Very Satisfactory; on Information, Media, and Technology, the highest mean was obtained by Statement 1 and statement 2 got the lowest with 3.29 and 2.80 respectively, both got the same descriptive rate of Very Satisfactory; and lastly, for Life and Career Skills, Statement 2 got the highest mean with 3.45 which was equivalent to Very Satisfactory in the Descriptive Rating Scale and Statement 4 got the lowest mean with 3.11 which was also interpreted as Very Satisfactory in the rating scale. The overall mean score for the skills of a teacher was 3.25, interpreted as Very Satisfactory. This result is supported by the study of Espina (2013) where he related that teachers were seen to be effective in instructional delivery and facilitating learning with premium placed on humane treatment of learners.

Table 4. T-test for Significant Difference on the Professional and Personal Attribute of a Teacher when grouped according to Sex

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Table 4 indicates the T test for significant difference on the professional and personal attributes of a teacher when grouped according to sex. It can be deduced from the table that there exist a significant difference in the professional attributes of a teacher, since t (121, 2 tailed) = -2.355, p < .05. However, on the personal attributes of a teacher there was no significant difference found since t (121, 2 tailed) = -1.522 and p > .05. To sum it up, the male respondents have a different kind of perspective when it comes to professional attributes of a teacher. On the other hand, in terms of personal attributes, both sexes are have the same perspectives. Based on the study of Alhija (2017), there exists a salient difference in the students’ perception of good teaching in terms of gender of which the current study have also observed.

Table 5. T-test for Significant Difference on the Professional and Personal Attribute of a Teacher when grouped according to Type of School

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Table 5 shows the T-test for significant difference of the professional and personal attributes of a teacher when grouped according to the type of school. It can be deducted that Professional Attributes got a t (121, 2 tailed) = -2.244 which corresponds to p <.05 can be considered a significant finding, while Personal Attributes showed no significant difference for it yielded a t (121, 2 tailed) = -0.954 which has a p >.05. To summarize, the professional attributes of a teacher is seen differently when the respondents came from public or private institution. In a study by Baric & Burusic (2014), they revealed an interesting finding between the relationship of school-based Catholic religious education and parish-based catechesis, where it represents a weak source of religious education and teaching satisfaction. Although it has no direct relationship with the result of the study, it has an indirect proof that the type of school can influence the result of the study at hand.

Table 6. T-test for Significant Difference on the Skills of a Teacher when grouped according to Type of School

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Table 6 indicates the T-test for significant difference on the skills of a teacher when grouped according to the type of school. There was a significant difference found in the section of Learning and Innovation Skills with t (121, 2 tailed) = -2.705, p <.05 and Life and Career Skills t (121, 2 tailed) = -3.158, p <.05. On the other hand, Communication Skills got a t (121, 2 tailed) = -1.429, p >.05 and Information, Media and Technology Skills got a t (121, 2 tailed) = -1.701 with p >.05. Both scores did not yield sufficient result to be considered significant. Overall, Learning and Innovation Skills, together with Life and Career Skills provided a different perspective among the respondents of the study which is influenced by the type of institution where they came from. According to Magno & Sembrano (2017), teachers practicing learner-centered approaches use their self-efficacy in order to be effective in teaching, but being effective does not result in high teaching performance rating. However, this idea is in contrast with the current study.

Table 7. ANOVA for Significant Difference on Skills of a Teacher when grouped according to Year Level

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Table 7 shows the ANOVA for significant difference on skills of a teacher when grouped according to year level. It can be seen from the table that Learning and Innovation Skills and Life and Career Skills got significant results since F (3,119) = 6.057, p<.05 and F (3,119) = 4.824, p<.05 respectively. However, there were no significant findings from Communication Skills and Information, Media, and Technology Skills since F (3,119) = 2.647, p>.05 and F (3,119) = 1.554, p>.05 respectively. To generalize, Learning and Innovation Skills and Life and Career Skills provided a different viewpoint among the respondents depending on the year level that they belong to. Onwuegbuzie et al. (2007) analyzed that with respect to the level of students, graduate students revealed a statistically significant result compared to other types of students in their study. The result of the study is indirectly related with the current study’s results.

Table 8. ANOVA for Significant Difference on Attributes of a Teacher when grouped according to Age

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Table 8 shows the Analysis of Variance for significant difference on the Professional and Personal Attributes of a teacher when grouped according to Age. It can be deduced that there exists a significant difference on the Professional Attribute since F (4,118) = 3.219, p<.05, while Personal Attributes got no significant result since F (4,118) = 0.853, p>.05. To simplify, the Professional Attributes considerably made a significant difference among the respondents when they were grouped according to age; thus, maturity comes into perspective. According to Enanoza & Abao (2014), a teacher’s physical, psychological, emotional, and spiritual well-being greatly affects the performance and exercise of his/ her roles which indirectly supports the results of this study.

Table 9. ANOVA for Significant Difference on Skills of a Teacher when grouped according to Age

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Table 9 points out the ANOVA of significant difference on Skills of a teacher when grouped according to Age. It can be analyzed that only Life and Career Skills got a significant findings since F (4,118) = 2.483, p<.05. However, the rest of the Skills got no significant outcomes and got the following values: Communication Skills, F (4,118) = 1.011, p>.05; Learning and Innovations Skills, F (4,118) = 1.774, p>.05; and Information, Media, and Technology Skills, F (4,118) = 0.978, p > .05. The results have some connection with the study of Gu & Day (2013) when they stated that the experience of resilience amongst teacher was perceived as being closely allied to their everyday capacity to sustain their educational purposes and successfully manage the unavoidable uncertainties which are inherent in the practice of being a teacher.

Table 10. Correlation Matrix on the Attributes and Skills

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Table 10 exhibits the results of the correlation analysis. It can be deduced that the four criteria of the Skills of a teacher correlated positively and significantly to the Professional and Personal Attributes of a teacher. This was shown by the obtained coefficients of 0.528, 0.494, 0.369, 0.468, and 0.541 for the Professional Attributes and 0.584, 0.430, 0.359, 0.457, and 0.532 for the Personal Attributes. The findings indicate that in general, the higher the Skills of a teacher, the higher the Professional and Personal Attributes. Conversely, the lower the Skills of a teacher, the lower the Professional and Personal Attributes. This result is somewhat related to the findings of Soine & Lumpe (2014) wherein there was a slight, but significant, correlation between Active Learning in Classroom and teachers’ use of new knowledge and skills, as measured by classroom observation scores.

Table 11. Regression Analysis for factors that Affect Attributes of a Teacher

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Table 11 displays the result of the regression line analysis and it can be claimed that Communication Skills yielded with B coefficient lower than the significance level set at 0.05. This means that Communication Skills is a significant determinant for the Attributes of a Teacher.

In general, the other factors also correlated positively but not to a significant extent. This means that the factors, specifically Information, Media, and Technology Skills and Life and Career Skills also account for the Attributes of a teacher. The result is in agreement with Curwood’s (2014) study which indicated that teachers use language and other semiotic resources to express their own identity as well as to acknowledge, expand on, and counter others’ identity claims.

Conclusion

Most of the respondents answered “Agree” on the Professional and Personal Attributes of a teacher while they responded “Very Satisfactory” on the Skills of a teacher.

There were significant differences found in Professional Attributes, Learning and Innovation Skills, Life and Career Skills when grouped according to Sex, Type of School, Year Level, and Age.

In terms of relationship, there was a low to moderate correlation between Attributes and Skills of a teacher. This is supported by the regression analysis, and Communication Skills is a significant determinant of the Attributes of a teacher while both Professional and Personal Attributes determine the Skills of a teacher.

Recommendations

Based on the results of the research conducted and the conclusions made thru the gathered data, the researcher recommends that:

1) Teachers, instructors, and faculty should also exhibit visibility and cooperation with the stakeholders.
2) School administrators should also initiate and participate in community extension programs which will provide exposure for the school staff especially the teachers.
3) Annual psychological and emotional check-up for teaching personnel and necessary stress debriefing after year-end teaching.
4) Equip the teachers with the necessary information, media, and technology through workshops and trainings to keep up with the pace of the generation.
5) Provide teachers options to improve their status of living, opportunities for better life, and accommodations after retirement.
6) Continuous updates and upgrades in the teaching skills and personality development of teachers.
7) Conduct future researches of this type of study.

References

Alhija, F. N. A., (2017). Teaching in higher education: Good teaching through students’ lens. Studies in Educational Evaluation, 54, 4-12.

Amatea, E.S., Cholewa, B., Mixon, K.A., (2012). Influencing preservice teachers’ attitudes about working with low-income and/ or ethnic minority families. Urban Education, 47 (4), 801-834.

Baric, D., & Burusic, J., (2014). Quality of religious education in Croatia assessed from teachers’ perspective. British Journal of Religious Education, 1-29.

Bullock, M., (2015). What makes a good teacher? Exploring student and teacher beliefs on good teaching. Rising Tide, 7 (1) 1-30.

Coleman, L. J., (2014). “Being a teacher”: Emotions and optimal experiences while teaching gifted children. Journal for the Education of the Gifted, 37 (1) 5669.

Chu, S. Y., (2011). Teacher efficacy beliefs toward serving culturally and linguistically diverse students in special education: Implications of a pilot study. Education and Urban Society, 45 (3), 385- 410.

Curwood, J. S., (2014). Between continuity and change: identities and narratives within teacher professional development. Teaching Education, 25 (2), 156- 183.

Enanoza, F.L., & Anao, E. L., (2014). Roles and performance expectancies of a global teacher. European Scientific Journal, 10 (1), 356-373.

Espina, M. R., (2013). Instrument development: Defining the ideals and assessed college teacher. GSE Journal Education, 110-124.

Gargani, J., & Strong, M., (2014). Can we identify a successful teacher better, faster and cheaper? Evidence for innovating teacher observation systems. Journal of Teacher Education, 65 (5), 389-401.

Gu, Q. & Day C., (2013). Challenges to teacher resilience: conditions count. British Educational Research Journal, 39 (1), 22-44.

Harris, D. N., Ingle, W.K., & Rutledge, S. A., (2014). How teacher evaluation methods matter for accountability: A comparative analysis of teacher effectiveness ratings by principals and teacher value-added measures. American Educational Research Journal, 52 (1), 73-112.

Henry, G. T., Thompson, C. L., Campbell, S. L., Patriarca, L. A., Luterbach, K.J., Lys, D. B., & Covington, V. M., (2013). The predictive validity of measures of teacher candidate programs and performance: Toward and evidence-based approach to teacher preparation. Journal of Teacher Education, 64 (5), 439-453.

Loeb, S., Soland, J., & Fox, L., (2014). Is a good teacher a good teacher for all? Comparing value-added of teachers with their English learners and non-English learners. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 36 (4), 457- 475.

Madrid, S., Baldwin, N., & Frye, E., (2013). “Professional feeling”: One early child educator’s emotional discomfort as a teacher and learner. Journal of Early Childhood Research, 11 (3), 274-291.

Magno, C., & Sambrano, J., (2016). The role of teacher efficacy and characteristics on teaching effectiveness, performance and use of learner-centered practices. The Asia Pacific Education Research, 16 (1), 73-90.

Onwuegbuzie, A.J., Witcher, A.E., Collins, K.M.T., Filer, J.D., Wiedmaier,C.D., & Moore, C.W., (2007). Students’ perceptions of characteristics of effective college teachers: A validity study of a teaching evaluation form using a mixed-method analysis. American Educational Research Journal, 44 (1), 113-160.

Roorda, D. L., Koomen, H. M. D., Spilt, J. L., & Oort, F. J., (2011). The influence of affective teacher –student relationships on students’ school engagement and achievement: A meta-analytic approach. Review of Educational Research, 81 (4), 493-529.

Sautelle, E., Bowles, T., Hattie, J., & Arifin, D. N. (2015). Personality, resilience, self-regulation and cognitive ability relevant to teacher selection. Australian Journal of Teacher Education, 40 (4).

Soine, K.M., & Lumpe, A., (2014). Measuring characteristics of teacher professional development. Teacher Development, 18 (3), 303-333.

Details

Seiten
22
Jahr
2018
ISBN (Buch)
9783668967908
Sprache
Englisch
Katalognummer
v488809
Note
Passed
Schlagworte
21st Century Attributes and Skills Perspective of College Students Higher Education Institution Teacher's Attributes and Skills Descriptive Method College Students

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Titel: 21st Century Attributes and Skills of a Teacher from the Perspective of College Students