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Discarded desiccant silica gel. Agent in prolonging the shelf life of lakatan banana

Forschungsarbeit 2019 19 Seiten

Chemie - Lebensmittelchemie

Leseprobe

Table of Contents

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION

METHODOLOGY

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

CONCLUSIONS

RECOMMENDATIONS

REFERENCE LISTS

DEFINITION OF TERMS

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

ABSTRACT

Shelf life extension is the holy grail for the fruit and vegetable industry. A huge amount of food is wasted as it goes off before it is eaten. Extension of shelf life of fruits and vegetables has several advantages it improves the quality , taste and texture of the food , it reduces food waste and associated . The objective of this study is to determine if the discarded desiccant silica gel can be potential agent in prolonging the shelf life of lakatan banana (Musa acuminata). Specifically , the study seeks to answer the following questions :1. In which set up will the lakatan banana will prolong its shelf life? 2. Is there a significant difference in the lakatan banana (Musa acuminata) in 2 set-ups after 7 days in terms of the following : pulp to peel ratio, Peel color and Total soluble solid ( sugar content ).Set up A , which is the conventional and set up B treated with 10 grams discarded desiccant silica gel was placed inside the paper bags , replicated thrice and experiment was laid out in completely randomized design the lakatan banana (Musa acuminata) stored up to 7 days. In terms of the pulp to peel ratio , set up A which is the conventional has an average ratio of 1.65 , compared to the set up B which treated with discarded desiccant silica gel that has an average ratio of 1.57. In terms of the peel color of banana, in set up A which is the conventional , the data shows most evident changes in peel color from and some of the banana turns to black which shows that the banana is overripe and in the decaying process compared to set up B which shows the peel color are good. In terms of total soluble solid (sugar content) set up B which is treated with 10 grams silica gel has the highest average of total soluble solids (sugar content) of 17.37 % compared to set up A which is the conventional with 15 % , this means that bananas in set up A produces so much ethylene and sugar which lead the banana to overripe and decay while in set up B, with the help of silica gel the flavor and sweetness of the banana was preserve, because the shelf life of the banana was prolong . Statistical results shows that there is significant difference between set up A and set up B in terms of their pulp to peel ratio, peel color and total soluble solids (sugar content). The Results revealed that highest shelf life of lakatan banana (Musa acuminata) was observed in set up B which treated with 10 grams of discarded desiccant silica gel compared to the shelf life of lakatan banana (Musa acuminata) in set up A conventional during the 7 days storage. It means that discarded desiccant silica gel has the potential in prolonging the shelf life of lakatan banana (Musa acuminata).

INTRODUCTION

Is there any way on how to prolong the shelf life of fruits after they ripen, harvested and deliver them in market place which took them days to reach its destination and to avoid great loss to the vendors?. A major concern with ripened fruit is that it does not last very long before it begins to spoil. The loss of firmness and the production of sugars associated with ripening can also make the fruit susceptible to bacteria and spoilage. Over-softening of fruit is a major cause of spoilage during transportation, particularly for tropical fruits, such as mangoes and bananas. Spoilage can be reduced by rapid transportation of fresh fruits, or by slowing down fruit ripening. Shelf life extension is the holy gail for the fruits and vegetables industry. A huge amount of food is wasted as it goes off before it is eaten. If we can add a few more days to the shelf life , we could reduce the amount of food waste and significantly reduce cost. Fruit and vegetable processors can also reduce costs by extending shelf life. At the moment , they have to pick their crops quickly and ship them by the fastest route possible. This is expensive and labour intensive usage better. Postharvest treatments are used to minimize the loss of fresh produce as well as to maintain the quality, thereby increase the shelf life. Chemical treatments include usage of hydrogen peroxide, chlorine-based solutions, peroxyacetic acid, organic acids, nitric oxide and Sulphur dioxide to retard browning reactions, inhibit ethylene bio synthesis , reduce respiration rate and water loss and reduce the incidence of post harvest diseases. But these methods or treatments are too expensive or our farmers and may cause harm to our health.

Ethylene is a chemically simple, ubiquitous chemical that has diverse and profound effects on the physiology of plants. Ethylene has so many different effects on plants, is effective in such low concentration , and its effects are so dose-dependent,. Though it has many economically positive effects on plants like induction of flowering in pineapples, de-greening of citrus and ripening of fruits in which it detrimental to the quality and longevity of many horticultural products but there has long been interest in removing ethylene from the horticultural environment and in supressing its effects. The increase in ethylene triggers an increase in the fruit’s metabolism and causes the changes to the fruit that occur during ripening. Removing or absorbing the ethylene may slow the ripening process and may extend the shelf life of fruits. Using ethylene absorbent agent is a method use for slowing down ripening. And also to prolong the shelf life of fruits. A number of catalytic oxidizers have been combined with absorbents to remove ethylene from air. Examples include potassium dichromate , KMnO₄ ,iodine pentoxide, and silver nitrate, each respectively on silica gel (Eastwell et al, 1978). In other words , silica gel can be use as an agent in absorbing the ethylene in fruits.

Thus, discarded desiccant silica gel in sachets were used in lakatan banana (Musa acuminata) which is considered to be one of many agent in absorbing ethylene. Silica gel is an amorphous and porous form of silicon dioxide (silica), consisting of an irregular tridimensional framework of alternating silicon and oxygen atoms with nanometer-scale voids and pores. Silica gel is often described as “absorbing” moisture , which may be appropriate when the gel’s microscopic structure is ignored, as in silica gel packs or other products. Silica gel , also referred to as silica aerogel or hydrated silica, is listed by the DFA in the United States ( GRAS ) , meaning it can be added to food products or fruits and vegetables.

The following are some studies conducted in proving that silica gel can be an agent in absorbing ethylene. In the study of S. Jayarajan et al , 2018 entitled “Impact of Ethylene absorbents on Fruits Firmness and Quality of Nectarine (Prunus persica var. nectarina) Fruits during storage at super market conditions” they found out that various ethylene absorbents sachets such as the silica gel is very effective in controlling the Physiological Loss in Weight (PLW), firmness and significantly influenced the anthocyanin content. Hence , in package use of ethylene absorbents, especially KMnO₄ sachets, can be recommended to enhance the shelf life of nectarine up to 12 days under supermarket condition without compromising the quality attribute.

Another study conducted by D. Bhattacharjee et al, 2017 entitled “Influence of Ethylene Absorbents on Shelf Life of Bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.) Fruits during Storage” their study found that removal of ethylene with absorbent such Silica gel-permanganate is beneficial for preserving postharvest quality of bitter gourd fruits. The effect of ethylene absorbents on the incidence of diseases in bitter gourd fruits revealed that application of silica gel-KmnO₄ mixture recorded no diseases up to 2 days in storage.

The study regarding the utilization of silica gel as an agent in prolonging the shelf life of lakatan banana (Musa acuminata) is based on study conducted by Suweesha Amarakoon and Senevirathne Navaratne , they were able to studied the effectiveness of silica gel Desiccant in improving the keeping Quality of shelf life of Rice Crackers. In their study entitled “Evaluation of the effectiveness of Silica Gel Desiccant in Improving the keeping quality of Rice Crackers” , they found out that the 5g silica gel in sachet was the best amount to control moisture ingress into 100g rice cracker packet. Variation of pH values and total plate counts of rice crackers did not show any relationship with the silica gel amount used. The 5g silica gel in sachet was able to control the development of FFA in the rice crackers by retarding the hydrolytic rancidity Based on the texture profile analysis , 5g silica gel was able to impart lower hardness in crackers which implies a good crispiness.Therefore , 5g silica gel should be used in the 100g rice cracker packets as the desiccant because it was capable to impart favorable properties on the physical and chemical properties of the product throughout its shelf life.

Therefore, the main purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of discarded desiccant silica gel on prolonging the shelf life of lakatan banana (Musa acuminata).

To test the effectiveness of discarded desiccant silica gel as agent in prolonging the shelf life of lakatan banana (Musa acuminata), three different parameters were used. These parameters are pulp to peel ratio , peel color and total soluble content (sugar content).

The first parameter is the pulp to peel ratio. This parameter used in analyzing the maturity of banana for its physical property. They determined the ratio of pulp and peel of the banana by dividing the weight of the pulp by peel weight. As banana ripens the weight of the peel decreases while the weight of the pulp increases.

The second parameter is the peel color. The use of this different parameter in this study is based on the several studies conducted to evaluate and predict the quality of banana during the ripening stage. The study of Tarpe A.R and Jain R.K of the Department of Food Processing and Technology, A.D Patel Institute of Technology , entitle, “ Study of Advanced Maturity Stages of Banana”. They were able to analyse the physical , chemical and mechanical properties of banana (Musa sp var ‘Robusta’) of the three advanced stages of maturity, stage 5, 6 and 7.

The third parameter is the Total solid content used to determine the ripening of banana. The major soluble solids in fruit juice are sugars. Other soluble materials include organic and amino acids , soluble pectins , etc. soluble solids concentration (SSC%Brix) can be determined in a small samle juice or extract using a hand held refractometer. This instrument measures the refactive index , which indicates how much a light beam is “bent” when it passes through the fruit juice (D. Garner, C.H Crisosto , P. Wiley and G.M Crisosto)

In this study discarded desiccant silica gel in packed were utilized as agent in as Agent in Prolonging the shelf life of Lakatan banana (Musa Acuminata).Specifically the study sought to answer the following questions.

1. In which set up will the lakatan banana will prolong its shelf life.

- Set up A – lakatan banana with peel color # 3 with light green and with light yellow based on the 7-degree standard color chart for banana only.
- Set up B– lakatan banana with peel color # 3 with light green and with light yellow with based on the 7-degree standard color chart for banana with discarded desiccant silica gel.

2. Is there a significant difference in the lakatan banana (Musa acuminata) in 2 set-ups after 7 days in terms of the following :

A. pulp to peel ratio
B. Peel color
C. Total soluble solid ( sugar content )

Hypothesis

Hₒ :

1. The shelf life rate of Lakatan banana (Musa acuminata) will not vary in the two different set ups.
2. The pulp to peel ratio, peel color and total soluble solid (sugar content) of lakatan banana (Musa acuminata) will not vary in the two different set ups after 7 days.

H1 :

1. The shelf life rate of lakatan banana (Musa acuminata) will vary in the two different set-ups.
2. The pulp to peel ratio, peel color and total soluble solids (sugar content) of lakatan banana (Musa acuminata) will vary in the two different set ups after 7 days.

Objectives of the study

1. Determine the potential of discarded desiccant silica gel as agent in prolonging the shelf life of lakatan banana (Musa acuminata).
2. Determine the significant difference between the different set-ups in terms of their : pulp to peel ratio, peel color and total soluble solids of the lakatan banana (Musa acuminata) after 7 days.
3. Identify which set-ups will prolong the shelf life of lakatan banana (Musa acuminata) within 7 days of treatment.

Significance of the study

This investigatory project will be beneficial to the following :

- Vendors

The result of this study is beneficial to our vendors of banana , because the result of this study will give them an idea on to what agent can be use in prolonging the shelf life of banana. As we all know that when ripe fruits like the banana will be transported or delivered to market place sometimes it took the vendors or farmers days to reached the market place , when the ripen banana reached the market sometimes some of the fruits were already decay , damage or overripe resulting to great loss. Therefore , using discarded desiccant Silica gel as agent in prolonging the shelf life of lakatan banana (Musa acuminata) were utilized.

- Consumers

The result of this study is also beneficial to consumers to make safe and informed some safe and cheap method which they can used to prolong or extend the shelf life of fruits in their own home.

- Future Researchers

This study would also benefit future researchers who would study the same or related topic. This could serve as a guide or reference for them, especially for those who would like to study long-term agent in which could help to preserve or prolong shelf life of fruits and vegetables using different agent.

Scope and Delimitations

The main purpose of this study was to test the effectiveness of discarded desiccant silica gel in prolonging the shelf life of lakatan banana (Musa acuminata). The study focuses mainly on the silica gel.

Discarded desiccant Silica gel packed was collected and asked by the researcher together with the adviser to those pupils and teachers who bought shoes. Six paper bags with same sizes were bought from Bazaar.

The investigation utilized lakatan bananas with peel color # 3 with light green and with light yellow based on 7-degree standard color chart for banana, similar sizes with the same number of lakatan per set-up. The application of treatment , extraction of banana extract and qualitative analysis were done in the GT music room of Talon-Talon Central School SPED Center, Talon-Talon , Zamboanga City , Philippines. The quantitative analysis of banana extract was done at the Department of Science and Technology IX ( DOST IX ), Zamboanga City , Philippines.

The researchers made use of the IBM statistics for social science (SPSS) version 2.0 to analyzed the collected data. The study used the paired T-test to determine the statistical significant difference between the set-ups.

METHODOLOGY

A. Research Locale

The study , particularly the application of treatment and extraction of banana extract was conducted in the Gt music room of Talon-Talon Central School SPED Center, Talon-Talon , Zamboanga City, Philippines. The test for total soluble solid was conducted in the Department of Science IX ( DOST IX ) , Zamboanga City, hilippines.

B. Research Design

Complete Randomized Design (CRD) with sub-sampling was used in the study with two (2) set up replicated three (3) times. Three (3) fingers of bananas were used as sub-samples.

C. Materials and Apparatuses

The materials that the researchers used in conducting the experiment were : surgical gloves , lakatan bananas , 15 packs of discarded desiccant silica gel , weighing scale , 6 paper bags, small plastic containers distilled water , tissue ,laboratory masks , laboratory gown and laboratory hair net, blender , measuring cup and husi cloth.

D. Procedure

- Collection and Preparation of Research Sample

Lakatan banana with peel color # 3 with light green and with light yellow based on the 7-degree standard color chart for banana (Musa acuminata) were collected from a single bunch bought from market in this city. Lakatan banana was chosen as the specimen because it is available all year round and has a hardly peeling.

A total of 18 fingers of bananas with similar sizes were used in the entire duration of the study. 6 paper bags of uniformed sizes were used as containers for the different set up with each paper bag containing 3 fingers of bananas.

- Randomization of Treatment and Replicates

A total of 2 set ups , were replicated 3 times and were randomly laid out using CRD with sub-sampling. Each finger of banana fruit was randomly assigned to the different set up using controlled lottery method. This is to ensure that bananas will be randomly distributed to the set-up.

- Application of Treatments

In set-up A 3 fingers of Lakatan banana with peel color # 3 with light green and with light yellow based on the 7-degree standard color chart for banana with similar sizes were placed in the paper bag labelled as R1 , R2 and R3. then the paper bags were covered with paper clips with same sizes and number. Following the conventional way.

In set-up B 3 fingers of Lakatan banana with peel color # 3 with light green and with light yellow based on the 7-degree standard color chart for banana with similar sizes were placed in the paper bag. Afterwards 10 grams (10 packs) of silica gel were placed inside the paper bags labelled as R1 , R2 and R3. then the paper bags were covered with paper clips with same sizes and number.

All the set-ups were replicated 3 times and covered for 7 days.

E. Data Gathering

A. Pulp to peel ratio

Each banana from the different set ups were peeled off. The pulp and peel were weighed separately using weighing scale. The recorded weight of the pulp was divided by the recorded weight of the peel to determine its pulp to peel ratio.

B. Peel color

The 7-degree Standard Color Chart for banana ( SH Pratt and Co. Ltd.) was used as the reference for color measurements , where 1 = full green, 2= green with a trace of yellow, 3= more green than yellow, 4 more yellow than green, 5 = yellow with a trace of green, 6 = all yellow , 7 = all yellow with brown speckles. The banana was considered unripe at stages , and ripe at stages 5-7. (Fig. 9 in appendix shows the SH Pratt and Co. Standard Color Chart for Banana ).

C. Chemical Properties

The banana pulp of each set up was pureed with water using a blender. The pureed was poured in a clean husi clot and was squeezed to separate the pulp and the extract. The extract was poured in a small plastic containers and were brought to the DOST to measure its total soluble solid content as Brix⁰ using a hand-held refractometer.

Proper Waste Disposal

After gathering the data needed, the different set ups were disposed following the proper waste disposal procedure. All biodegradables wastes were disposed in one trash bag, non-biodegradable wastes were disposed in separate trash bag and the recyclable wastes were placed in separate trash bag also.

Statistical Analysis

For each set up, one sample for each replicate was randomly selected and the average values were analysed. Experimental data were analysed using Paired T-Test for Peel color , Pulp to peel ratio and Total Soluble Solids was employed to determine the statistical significant difference between the 2 set ups. The level of significant was at .05. The analysis was performed using the IBM SPSS statistics version 2.0.

E. Research Outline

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RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

A. PULP TO PEEL RATIO

Table 1 : The pulp to peel ratio in the banana fruits after 7 days.

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The table 1 shows the changes in the pulp to peel ratio of the banana fruits under different set ups. The data shows that the bananas under set up A (conventional ) , R1 has the ratio of 1.4, R2 has the ratio of 1.8 and R3 has the ratio of 1.75 with a total average ratio of 1.65. Set up B, R1 has the ratio of 1.75, R2 has the ratio of 1.75 and R3 has the ratio of 1.2 with a total average of 1.57. in other words, set up A ( conventional) has the highest average of pulp to peel ratio which is 1.65 compared to the set up B which is treated with 10 grams discarded desiccant silica gel has the ratio of 1.57.

Table 2: Quantitative analysis of Pulp to peel ratio using Paired T-Test.

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As determined by Paired t-Test in table 2, it shows that there is statistically significant difference between the two set ups in terms of their pulp to peel ratio (P =.001).

Tarpe A.R. and Jain R.K , were able to conclude that as the ripening of banana precede, the pulp to ratio increases. As the banana ripens the weight of the peel decreases while the weight of the pulp increases. This change in ratio could be due to the osmotic transfer of moisture from the peel to the pulp as the sugar content of the pulp increased. Thus , the increased in ratio is coefficient to the ripening of banana. In the study of P.A Borkar et al , 2008 entitled “Effect of ethylene absorbent and different packaging materials on storage life of banana” , the finding was the banana treated with ethylene absorbent were found significantly superior over the rest of the treatment in maintaining low pulp to peel ratio. Because the production of ethylene and sugar is slow , which make the weight of the peel and pulp decreased. The shelf life of banana was extended to 15 days.

The result implies that lakatan banana (Musa acuminata) treated with 10 grams discarded desiccant silica gel decreases the weight of the pulp and peel due to the silica gel absorb the ethylene as the banana ripen.

B. PEEL COLOR

Table 3 : Changes in the peel color of the banana fruits after 7 days.

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The table 3 shows the changes of the peel color of the banana fruits under different set ups. Peel color # 3 light green with light yellow were used in the study. The bananas in set up A ( conventional) , R1 2 fingers of bananas changed to yellow with brown spot and 1 banana turn to black or the bananas is already in the decaying process, R2 all fingers of the banana changed to yellow with brown spot and R3 2 fingers of bananas changed to full yellow and 1 banana turns to black or the banana is already in the decaying process. The bananas in set up B which is treated with 10 grams of discarded desiccant silica gel , R1 all 2 bananas changed to full yellow and 1 banana turns to black or the banana is already in the decaying process , R2 all the fingers of the banana changed to full yellow and R3 all 2 fingers of the banana changed to full yellow and 1 turn to yellow with green at end. In other words, the data shows that set up A (conventional) shows the most evident change in peel color compared to set up B which only shows little evident which means that bananas in set up B the color are still good compared to set up A (conventional) which shows that some of the bananas are already in the process of overripe and some of the bananas are already decaying.

Table 4 : Quantitative analysis of Peel color using Paired T-Test.

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

The result of Paired T-test in table 4 , shows that there is significant difference between the two set ups in terms of their peel color (P =.000).

There are several studies revealed that peel color is an important indicator of the stage of maturity (Mendoza and Aguilera , 2004 ; Soltani et.al 2010 ; Soltani et.al 2011). The change in peel color cause by the breaking down of molecules by the enzyme as the banana ripens , so the green pigment of the chlorophyll is destroyed and replaced by yellow or red pigments (Barry , 2009).

In the study of P. Kumari et. Al 2008 , entitled , “ Effect of ethylene absorbent (KMnO4) with different carrier materials for shelf life of banana CV. Nendran” the finding was the banana treated with ethylene absorbent KMnO4 , Talc ( Magnesium silicate hydroxide , MgᴣSi₄O₁ₒ ) the skin color or peel color appearance of the banana was good. The peel color of the banana shows a little changes compared to those banana without ethylene absorbent.

The banana in set up A (conventional) ,replicate R1 the peel color changes from light green and with light yellow color the banana turns to full yellow with brown or black spot, replicate R2 the peel color changes from light green and with light yellow color the banana turns to full yellow with brown or black spot and replicate R2 the peel color changes from light green and with light yellow color the banana turns to full yellow with brown or black spot. Compared to the banana in set up B which treated with 10 grams of desiccant silica gel , replicate R1 the peel color changes from light green and light yellow the banana turns to full yellow , replicate R2 the peel color changes from light green and with light yellow color the banana turns full yellow , and replicate R3 the peel color changes from light green and with light yellow color the banana turns to full yellow. Some of the banana in set up A R1 2 fingers , R2 2 fingers , R3 1 finger the peel color turns to black after 7 days of storing. While set up B , shows a little changes in peel color or the peel color are good.

The result implies that 10 grams of discarded desiccant silica gel have the potential in preserving or prolonging the peel color of the banana up to 7 days of storing.

C. TOTAL SOLUBLE SOLIDS (SUGAR CONTENT)

Table 5 : The total soluble solid content of the bananas after 7 days.

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In the table 5 shows the total soluble solids of the banana fruits under different set ups. The data shows that the bananas under set up B has the highest average of total soluble solids ( sugar content) which is 17.37% , compared to the set up A with 15%.

Table 6 :Quantitative analysis of Total Soluble Solids (Sugar content) using Paired T-Test.

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

It was determined by Paired T-TEST in table 6 , that there is significant difference between the two set ups in terms of total soluble solids (sugar content) (P =.000).

Total soluble solid content is another quality indicator or parameter used to determine the ripening of banana (Tarpe A.R and Jain R.K). The study conducted by M. Soltani et. Al , entitled “Prediction of Banana Quality During Ripening Stage using Capacittance Sensing System” and the study of Liew , C.Y and Lau entitled , “ Determinantion of quality parameters in Cavendish banana during ripening by NIR spectroscopy “ proves that test for total soluble solids content of banana is a quality parameter to be used in determining the its ripeness. As the banana ripen the sugar content increases. But if there is ethylene absorbent the production of sugar is controlled or the flavor and sweetness were preserve. In the study of R. Kumari et . Al 2017 , entitled “Effect of Packaging with Ethylene Absorbents on Quality of Banana Fruits Cv. Martaman “ the finding was , there is constant increase in Total soluble solids in the untreated banana compared to the banana treated with ethylene absorbent the total soluble solids resulting in less increase.

Banana in set up A (conventional), replicate R1 has a percentage of 15.7 % , Replicate R2 has a percentage of 14.8 % and replicate R3 has a percentage of 14.5 % with an average percentage of 15 %. While banana is set up B treated with 10 grams of discarded desiccant silica gel , replicate R1 has a percentage of 17.4 % , in replicate R2 has a percentage of 17. % % and replicate R3 has a percentage of 17.2 %with an average percentage of 17.37 %. The result implies that bananas in set up A the Total soluble solids or the sugar content is 17.37 % , the bananas produce so much sugar but with the help of Silica gel it control the production of the ethylene in the bananas which make the banana firm and preserve its flavor and sweetness. The bananas in set up A the total soluble solids is 15 % ,the bananas produce also so much sugar but because it produce so much ethylene which makes the banana very soft, overripe and lead the banana to decay. In other words, Silica gel have the potential in controlling the production of ethylene and sugar which , may cause the overripe of the banana and resulting to decay if banana will stored for long period. (Fig. 1 in appendix shows the total Soluble Solids results).

CONCLUSIONS

The study focused on the effectiveness of discarded desiccant silica gel as agent in prolonging the shelf life of lakatan banana (Musa acuminata). Based on the data gathered it shows that set up B treated with 10 grams discarded desiccant silica gel have the potential to prolong the shelf life rate of banana compared to set up A the conventional up to 7 days of storage, in which :

The pulp to peel ratio, the data shows that the bananas under set up A has the highest average pulp to peel ratio which is 1.65 , compared to set up B that has the ratio of 1.57.

The peel color , the bananas in set up A , which is the conventional shows the most evident change in color and some of the peel color are already in the process of decaying compared to set up B that shows a little changes in peel color or the peel color are still good.

In terms of total soluble solid, set up B has the highest percentage of Total Soluble Solids (Sugar content) which is 17.37 % compared to set up B with 15 %.

Statistical results shows that there is significant difference between set up A and set up B in terms of their pulp to peel ratio, peel color and total soluble solids (sugar content).

The results further prove that the discarded desiccant silica gel can be used as agent in prolonging the shelf life of lakatan banana (Musa acuminata). This also indicates that discarded desiccant silica gel can replace the use of hazardous and expensive chemical methods in prolonging and preserving the shelf life of fruits especially the banana.

RECOMMENDATIONS

For further study regarding the use of discarded desiccant silica gel as agent in prolonging the shelf life of lakatan banana (Musa acuminata), the following recommendations are to be considered;

1.Other fruits such as the bitter gourd , strawberry and other species of banana can be used as a specimen aside from lakatan.
2. Additional amount of silica gel can be used to test the effectiveness in prolonging the shelf life of lakatan banana (Musa acuminata).
3. Parameters such as firmness and moisture can also be used in determining the shelf life of banana.
4. It is important to develop or discover new technique , method or agent in prolonging the shelf life of fruits that is cheaper.
5. It is now depending on our vendors of fruits especially banana if they are going to use or adopt the method of using discarded desiccant silica gel in helping them prolonging the shelf life of their fruits to avoid great loss to them.

REFERENCE LISTS

Jayarajan S. and Sharma R.R. “Impact of Ethylene absorbents on Fruits Firmness and Quality of Nectarine (Prunus ersica var. nectarina) Fruits during storage at super market conditions”. New Delhi, India : Madridge Publishers , November 16, 2018.

Bhatatacharjee D. and Dhua R.S , “Influence of Ethylene absorbents on Shelf life of Bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.) Fruits during storage”. Nadia, West Bengal, India : Excellent Publisher, May 10, 2017

Ponce. P, Carbonari G.L.R ,and Lugao. A , “ Active Packaging Using Ethylene Absorber To Extend Shelf-Life”. Rio de Janeiro, RJ , Brazil : INAC Publishing , September 2009.

Salveit. Mikal E , “ Effect of Ethylene on Quality of Fresh Fruits and Vegetables". California City : November 11, 1998.

Borkar P.A , Jadhao S.D , Borkar S.L and Murumkar R.P, “Effect of Ethylene Absorbent and Different Packaging Materials in Storage Life of Banana”. India ; October 2008.

Zomo S.A ,Ismail S.M, Shah Jahan M., Kabir K. and Kabir M.H (December 13, 2014) “Chemical Properties and Shelf life of Banana (Musa sapientum L.) as Influenced by Different Postharvest Treatments”. Dhaka , Bangladesh : A Scientific Journal of Krisi Foundation, December 13, 2014

Digma G.L , “Effect of Different Desiccants on Preserving the Germination Capacity of Yard Long Bean ( Vigna Unguiculata Sesquipedalis) after storage”. San Isidro Sur Luna, Apayao 3813 Philippines :Novelty Journals , December 2016.

Amarakoon S. and Navaratne S. , “Evaluation of the effectiveness of silica gel Desiccant in Improving the keeping quality of rice crackers”. Sri lanka :International Journal of Science and Research, 2015.

Tarpe A.R and Jain R.K study of advanced maturity stages of banana. International Journal of Advanced Engineering Research and Studies. Dept. of Food Processing Technology , A.D Patel Institute of Technology , New VV Nagar , Anand –388 121 Guijarat.

Suseno N. m Savitri E., Sapei L. and Padmawijaya K. , “Improving shelf-life of Cavendish Banana Uisng Chitosan Edible Coating”. Surabaya , Indonesia : ELSEVIER , 2013.

Kumar P. , Singh K.V , Kumari S. Prasad VM. And Jain N., “ Effect of Ethylene Absorbent (KMnO ₄ ) with Different carrier Materials for Shelf Life of Banana CV. Nendran”. India : August 19, 2017 .

Bhattacharjee D. and Dhua R.S , “Ethylene Absorbents Improve the Shelf Life of Pointed Gourd (Trichosanthes dioica Roxb.) Fruits”.Nadia, West Bengal , India : January 25, 2017.

Claud E.J , Calvo BS. “Chemical control of ripening of Lakatan banana”.USM. CA : 1993.

Esguerra EB. , Mendoza DB , Pantastico EB. “Regulation of fruit ripening. Use of Perlite KMnO ₄ insert as an ethylene absorbent”. Philippines :1971.

Scott. K.J .”Effect of the temperature on the storage life of banana held in PE bags with ethylene absorbent”.

DEFINITION OF TERMS

For the purpose of clarifying the terms used in this study, the following operational definitions are given.

A. Discarded desiccant Silica gel refers to the agent which absorb the ethylene content and was used in prolonging the shelf life of lakatan banana.
B. Lakatan banana refers to the sampled used.
C. Ethylene refers to the gas produced by plants, and also known as the “ripening hormone”.
D. Conventional refers to the sample without any agent.
E. Peel color refers to the color of the lakatan banana that is based on the 7-degree standard color chart that the researcher used as sample in the study.
F. Refractometer refers to an instrument used in measuring the sugar content of fruits.
G. Total Soluble Solid refers to the soluble materials found in fruit juices or extract that include sugars , organic and amino acid.
H. Extract refers to the clear juice from banana to be sampled.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

The conduct of this investigatory project will not be possible without the help and effort of the important people whom the researchers will forever be grateful of.

First and foremost, the researchers would like to thank the school principal of Talon-Talon Central School SPED Center, Mr. Ernesto A. Sario for the unending support and for the trust given to the researchers to represent the school.

To teacher Reynante I. Enriquez, the researchers’ adviser for always giving his best guide and support in the research aspects at the same time for the constant motivation to go beyond our limits.

To teachers Analene Duarte and Angelee Ching, for helping and sharing their brilliant ideas and expertise to the researchers. We owe you so much.

To the researchers’ Family, especially to the parents who undyingly supported the researchers in their entire research both emotionally and financially.

To the Science Club, for their unending support financially and for the constant motivation.

And above all, to our Almighty God for the knowledge, strength, unfailing love and endurance to pursue this study.

[...]

Details

Seiten
19
Jahr
2019
Sprache
Deutsch
Katalognummer
v506115
Note
Schlagworte
discarded desiccant silica gel shelf life lakatan banana prolonging Musa acuminata

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Titel: Discarded desiccant silica gel. Agent in prolonging the shelf life of lakatan banana