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The Integrated Use of Organic and Inorganic Fertilizers on Production and Soil Fertility in Ethiopia

von Mintesinot D. (Autor)

Seminararbeit 2019 41 Seiten

Geowissenschaften / Geographie - Geologie, Mineralogie, Bodenkunde


Table of contents






2. To Review the Effect of Integrated Use of Organic and Inorganic Fertilizers
2.1. Soil Fertility and Crop Productivity
2.2. Fertilizer
2.2.1. Organic fertilizer Advantages of Organic Fertilizer Organic matter Manure Compost Crop residue Household Waste and Farmyards Disadvantages of Organic Fertilizer
2.3. Inorganic Fertilizer
2.3.1 Advantages of Inorganic Fertilizer
2.3.2 Disadvantages of Inorganic Fertilizer
2.4. The Effect of Integrated Organic and Inorganic Fertilizer on Productivity and Soil Fertility
2.4.1. Integrated Organic and Inorganic Nutrient Management
2.4.2. Effect of Integrated Organic Fertilizer and Inorganic Fertilizer on Soil Fertility
2.4.3. Experimental Results on the Effect of Integrated Organic Fertilizer and Inorganic Fertilizer on Crop Productivity Maize Rice Wheat Tomato Teff




Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten


1. Effect of Mixing Organic and Inorganic Fertilizer on Soil Fertility and Productivity


1. Selected physicochemical properties of the experimental soils before planting maize at Antra Catchment, Northwestern Ethiopia
2. Effects of integrated application of organic and inorganic fertilizers on selected soil physical properties two years after harvesting maize at Antra Catchment, Northwestern Ethiopia
3. Selected soil chemical properties after maize harvest in response to the integrated application of organic and inorganic fertilizers
4. The effect of organic and inorganic fertilizer application on soil chemical properties analyzed for samples after harvest of the crops 2014 and 2015
5. Effect of enriched FYM and inorganic fertilizers on grain yield Agronomic result data of hybrid maize (BH-140) at Chiro, Western Hararghe, Ethiopia from 2008-2010
6. The use of compost and inorganic fertilizer on bread wheat Agronomic result data in the Gumara Maksegnit watershed, North Gondar
7. Effects of integrated nutrient application on wheat yield Agronomic result data


To Review the Integrated Use of Organic and Inorganic Fertilizers on production and Soil Fertility in Ethiopia

Soil fertility decline is a big issue in the Agriculture of Ethiopia . Depletion of soil fertility is the main problem to sustain agricultural production and productivity in many countries. Soils in Ethiopian have low levels of plant nutrients due to its removal by erosion and leaching by high rainfall. One of the major constraints for crop production in the Ethiopia is improper nutrient management. The Organic fertilizer improves physical and biological activities of soil but they have comparatively low in nutrient content, so larger quantity is required for plant growth. However, inorganic fertilizer is usually immediately and fast containing all necessary nutrients that are directly accessible for plants, but continuous use of inorganic fertilizers alone causes soil organic matter: degradation, soil acidity, and environmental pollution. So the integrated nutrient management system is an alternative system for the sustainable and cost-effective management of soil fertility by combined apply of inorganic with organic materials resulting in rising soil fertility and productivity without affecting the environment. In this review the improvement of soil fertility and crops production ( Girma Chala and Gebreyes Gurmu, 2018) Conducted an experiment on Organic and Inorganic Fertilizer Application and its Effect on Yield of Wheat and Soil Chemical Properties of Nitisols the research finding out put at Holetta Agricultural Research Center in 2014 to 2015 these results of soil analysis after harvesting revealed that application of organic fertilizer improved soil pH, OC, total N and available P , the highest wheat grain and biomass yield (6698 kg/ha and 19417 kg/ha respectively) were obtained from the application of 50% VC and 50% N and P followed by full dose of recommended rate N and P from inorganic fertilizer resulting in 6241 kg/ha grain and 18917 kg/ha biomass yields respectively. The objective of this review has assessed the effects of integrated organic and inorganic fertilizers on soil fertility and productivity. The study revealed that the appropriate application of organic with inorganic fertilizers increases productivity without negative effect on yield quality and improves soil fertility than the values obtained by organic or inorganic fertilizers separately.

Keywords: Soil fertility, Organic Fertilizer , Inorganic Fertilize , Integrated Nutrient Management


Soil fertility declining is one of the most significant constraints to increased food production in Ethiopia (Gete et al., 2010). Soil fertility decline has been one of the most challenging and limiting factors for food security in the country (MoARD, 2007). The primary cause of soil fertility decline includes loss of organic matter(OM), macro and micronutrient depletion, soil acidity, topsoil erosion and deterioration of physical soil Properties (IFPRI, 2010). Anthropogenic factors such as inappropriate land use systems, mono-cropping, nutrients mining and inadequate supply of nutrients have aggravated the situation. In order to increase soil fertility in the short run, nutrients have to be added to the soil. This is often done by applying chemical fertilizers. Chemical fertilizers, however, are expensive to purchase and for most small scale farmers this is a problem (Gete et al., 2010). However, to sustain the balance of soil fertility and to ensure agricultural productivity use of organic nutrient source fertilizer and application of amenable inorganic fertilizer is quite essential.

Inorganic fertilizers are considered to be an important source of major elements in crop production. Continuous use of inorganic fertilizer resulted in a deficiency of micronutrients, imbalance in soil physicochemical properties and unsustainable crop production (Jeyathilake et al., 2006). To ensure soil productivity, plants must have an adequate and balanced supply of nutrients that can be realized through integrated nutrient management where both natural and man-made sources of plant nutrients are used (Gruhn et al., 2000). Combining inorganic and organic fertilizers result in greater benefits than either input alone through positive interactions on soil biological, chemical and physical properties (Bekunda et al., 2010). The addition of organic amendments has been shown to maintain soil organic matter content and thereby contribute to enhanced fertilizer use efficiency (Negassa et al., 2005).

Drechsel et al. (2001) reported that the application of recommended mineral fertilizers does not improve the negative nutrient balance due to the higher nutrient removal from the soils. Many types of research recommend integrated soil amendment practices because single application or practices could not reverse the existing problem (Eichler et al., 2007). Integrated nutrient management practices are survival and risk avoidance strategies of farmers. It is crucial to note that greater crop productivity induced by the use of mineral fertilizers does not translate into better soil fertility in the long term when large amounts of carbon and nutrients are removed every season from the fields with the crop harvests residue (Bekunda et al., 2010). Mineral fertilizers and organic amendments (e.g. crop residues, animal manure, and compost) are used to improve soil fertility and maintain agricultural fields in a productive state. Therefore, the use of integrated nutrient management is the very important and best approach to maintain and improve soil fertility (Lander et al., 1998) thereby to increase crop productivity in an efficient and environmentally friendly manner without sacrificing soil productivity of future generations.

The existing cultural and social institution of communities makes labor demanding systems appropriate (Tegene, 1987). Farmers are highly linked to their innovative practices in bringing new and productive farming systems such as creating proper synergy by mixing compost and mineral fertilizer (Harris, 1998). Such as the study by Channappagoudar et al. (2007) and Manyong et al. (2001) compost and animal manure amended with mineral fertilizer gave a higher yield than mineral fertilizer or compost alone.

Soil nutrient status is widely constrained by the limited use of inorganic and organic fertilizers and by nutrient loss mainly due to erosion and leaching (Alimi, T. et al., 2007). Many smallholder farmers do not have access to synthetic fertilizer because of the high price of fertilizers, lack of credit facilities, poor distribution, and other socio-economic factors. Consequently, crop yields are low, in fact decreasing in many areas, and the sustainability of the current farming system is at risk (Liu, X. et al., 2007). Ethiopia is one of the 14 sub-Saharan countries with highest rates of nutrient depletion (Negassa, W et al., 2006). Due to lack of adequate synthetic fertilizer input, the limited return of organic residues and manure, and high biomass removal, erosion, and leaching rates.

Long-term experimental studies show that continuous cultivation using low external inputs decreases soil fertility and crop yields in Ethiopia. A combination of mineral and organic fertilizers is necessary to sustain and improve crop production on depleted soils (Bationo et al., 2006). Chemical fertilizers are also becoming very costly for farmers to apply the full recommended rates. On the other hand, sole application of organic matter is constrained by access to sufficient organic inputs, low nutrient content, high labor demand for preparation and transporting. Thus, the integration of organic and inorganic nutrient sources can improve and sustain crop yields without degrading soil fertility status; however Modern nutrient management strategy has shifted its focus toward the concept of sustainability and eco-friendliness. Therefore, the aim of this review was to assess different study on the effect of integrated use of organic and inorganic Fertilizers on improving soil fertility and increasing crop yield production in Ethiopia.

Objective of Review

- To review the advantage and disadvantage of organic and inorganic fertilizer on productivity and soil fertility as well as on the environment.
- To review the effect of integrating organic and inorganic fertilizer on productivity and soil fertility.

2. To Review the Effect of Integrated Use of Organic and Inorganic Fertilizers

2.1. Soil Fertility and Crop Productivity

Soil fertility and productivity is more than just plant nutrients and can be defined as “the physical, biological, and chemical characteristics of soil, for example, its organic matter content, acidity, texture, depth, and water retention capacity all influence fertility” (Gruhn et al., 2000). It is a combination of several properties of soil (biological, chemical and physical), all of which has its own effect on nutrient dynamics and availability directly or indirectly (Woodfine, 2009). The whole world in general and developing the world in particular, need reliable information and knowledge on soil fertility and agriculture productivity which are the most challenging issue of rural livelihoods. In order to attain sustainable crop production improving crop nutrition through appropriate soil fertility management is highly essential.

Soil productivity in Africa is declining as a result of soil erosion, nutrient and organic matter (OM) depletion (Abreha, 2013). In sub-Saharan Africa, soil fertility depletion is the fundamental cause for declining per capital food production as croplands have a negative nutrient balance, with annual losses ranging from 1.5-7.1 tons ha- (t ha-) of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) mainly due to crop harvest, leaching and low inputs applied to the soil (Adesodun, 2007 and Ahmed, 2002). Declining soil fertility is one of the most significant constraints to increased food production in Ethiopia (Gete et al., 2010). In the Ethiopian cultivated fields, about 42 t ha-of fertile soils have been lost every year (Akamigbo and Asadu, 2001) together with essential plant nutrients mainly due to poor soil management. Soil nutrient availability changes over time. Ethiopian soils indicated that elements like K, S, Ca, Mg and micro-nutrients particularly Cu, Mn, B, Mo, and Zn are becoming depleted and deficiency symptoms are being observed on major crops in different areas of the country (Asgelil et al., 2007). It is necessary to assess the capacity of a soil to supply nutrients in order to supply the remaining amounts of needed plant nutrients

2.2. Fertilizer

2.2.1. Organic fertilizer

Organic fertilizers have the following advantages to improve soil fertility: increasing organic matter in soil which improves the soil structure, creating more air space and water retention within the soil and enhances soil nitrogen content, enhanced nutrient availability, releasing nutrients at a slower and more consistent rate, improves nutrient mobilization and Protect the soil against rain and wind erosion (Akhtar, MJ., et a l., 2009; Lal, R., 2006; Matsumoto, T. and Yamano, T., 2009; Nyalemegbe, K.K et al., 2009 and Han, S.H et al., 2016) Organic fertilizer enhances soil biological activity and the colonization of mycorrhiza. That enhances mutuality association between fungi and higher plants. Organic fertilizer increase root growth due to enhanced soil structure, promoting soil aggregates, enhances cation exchange capacity (Lal, R., 2006). Organic fertilizer acts as a buffering agent against undesirable soil pH fluctuations (Basel, N and Sami, M., 2014) and (Olaniyi, J.O. and Ajibola, A., 2008). Advantages of Organic Fertilizer

Nutrient availability to plants is composed of several processes in the soil-plant system before a nutrient is absorbed or utilized by a plant. These processes include the application of nutrient to soil or nutrient existing in the soil, transport from soil to plant roots, absorption by plant roots, transport to plant tops and finally utilization by the plant in producing economic parts or organs (Fageria, 2009). Addition of OM such as crop residues, composts, and farmyard manure (FYM) to the soil is known to improve the chemical, physical and biological properties, and enhance the availability of nutrients and their uptake by crops (Okalebo et al., 2007). Organic matter and soil organisms play important roles in conserving and improving soil properties that are related to soil resilience (FAO, 2005). Application of soil OM resulted with increasing of soil buffering capacity, nutrient availability and water holding capacity and supply micronutrients which may not be provided by commercial fertilizers (Mughogho, 1992). It is well known that the application of OM amendments to soil increases soil fertility (Rees and Castle, 2002). Organic matter such as compost has many essential roles to play in maintaining soil fertility, source of macro and micronutrients for plant growth and alkaline substances which counteract soil acidification (Johannes, 2000) and Montemurro et al. (2005) also found that P and N supplied with the application of compost or manure resulted in better grain yield.

Organic inputs, including compost, animal manure, crop residues, and green manure, are a good method of enhancing both soil physical, chemical and biological properties and crop performance (Harris, 2002). It also increases the capacity of the soil to buffer changes in pH and cation exchange capacity (CEC) and serves as a reservoir of nutrients such as N, S, P and many minor elements (Schlecht et al., 2006). Soil OM encourages granulation, increases CEC and is responsible for up to 90% adsorbing power of the soils and cations such as Ca2+, Mg2+ and K+ are produced during decomposition (Brady and Weil, 2005). In general, it may be concluded that OM such as application of compost increased soil pH, electrical conductivity (EC), OM, Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, and P while C: N ratio was narrowed in acidic soil. Hence, there was a general increase in nutrient supplying capacity of soils by OM application and OM such as compost application was a good strategy for enhancing fertility status of depleted soils (Sarwar et al., 2010).

However, the composition of OM is strongly dependent on the type of vegetation, kinds of soils, depth of sampling and cultural practices which is the sources of both macro and micronutrients for crop growth (Heluf, 2009). Some of the soil OM decomposes and mineralizes organic S into SO42- form which plants take up by which returning crop residue to the soil adds S to the organic pool (James et al., 1982). Even compared to other sources of OM, the poultry manure is relatively a cheap source of both macronutrients (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S) and micronutrients such as Cu, Fe, Mn and boron (B) and can increase soil C and N content, soil porosity and enhance soil microbial activity(Ghosh et al., 2004). Soil OM contributes substantially to the productivity of the land as it is a source of plant nutrients and it improves the physical conditions of the soil. Low OM contents may lead to severe limitations in plant growth and to the deterioration of cropland. Almost all life in the soil is dependent on OM for nutrients and energy. The labile fraction of soil OM consists of any readily degradable materials from the plant and animal residues, and readily degradable microbial products which are an important reservoir of nutrients because the nutrients are rapidly recycled in the soil ecosystem (Foth, 1990). Organic matter is often the critical soil constituent that is needed to restore adequate conditions for root growth. Although human interventions that change the environmental conditions may have drastic effects on soil OM contents, in many soils, it is one of the major soil attributes that control the sustainability of agricultural systems. Soil OM maintenance is the key issue in low input agricultural systems. Organic matter

Soil organic matter contains approximately 58% organic carbon. Organic matter content in soil has a major influence on the physical and chemical properties of soils. Soil humus is the organic fraction of soil derived from the decayed tissue of plants and animals, and from animal excreta (Teklu, 2005). As it breaks down, it releases nutrients in a form which can be taken up by plants and crops, so it increases the availability of nutrients that affect yield. Organic matter also helps to bind soil particles together that improve the physical properties of the soil making it easier for roots penetration. Tillage becomes easier and the soil becomes well-drained. The binding effect also reduces wind and water erosion and also improves the water holding capacity of the soil (Gurung et al, 1997). The major organic fertilizers used for soil fertility amendment include manure, compost, crop residues, and house waste. Manure

Since time immemorial animal manure is the prime source of the soil fertility management to improve the way for many farmers of Ethiopia. Traditionally, it is used as fertilizer to ameliorate soil fertility depletion in many parts of Africa in general and Ethiopia in particular. For example, the study conducted by Elias (2002) reported that 87 percent of Kindo Koisha (Southern Ethiopia) farmers apply animal manure. This is because applying animal manure has a residual effect in the soil (Elias, 2002). The effect varies based on the amounts applied. However, it is dependent on the availability of livestock and family labor for transporting into their fields (Elias, 2002). But today it is also extensively used as a source of household energy (Assefa, 2005).

Organic manures are all forms of organic soil amendments that originate from both livestock waste and crop residues, with the nutrients in them being mineralized by soil microbes and slowly making them available to plants over a long period of time (Lampkin, 2000). The application of organic manure can contribute to agricultural sustainability (Wells et al., 2000) as a continuous and adequate use of manure with proper management has been shown to have many advantages, which include providing a whole array of nutrients to soils, increasing soil organic matter (Verma et al., 2005), improving water holding capacity and other physical properties of soil like bulk density, penetration resistance and soil aggregation (Wells et al., 2000). Compost

Compost is the final product obtained from the decomposition of the organic matter, wastes from preparing food and gardening, sweeping up leaves, collecting manure, straw and grass clippings, etc. It enhances soil fertility, soil structure, and water storage capacity for two or more years, unlike chemical fertilizer (Fentaw, 2010) the presence of organic matter in the soil is fundamental in maintaining soil fertility and decreasing nutrient losses. Thus, compost is a good organic fertilizer because it contains nutrients as well as organic matter. Organic matter plays a number of important roles in soils, both in their physical structure and as a medium for biological activity. In addition, organic matter makes its greatest contribution to soil productivity. It provides nutrients to the soil, improves its water holding capacity, and helps the soil to maintain good tilt and thereby better aeration for germinating seeds and plant root development (Edwards and Hailu, 2011). Crop residue

Crop residues include the above-ground biomass of plants remaining in the field grains, tubers, and other products have been collected. The crop residues are incorporated into the left as mulch (Elias, 2002). It is a way of directly recycling nutrients into the soil taken by the plants from the soil earlier. It is used for soil protection and soil fertility improvement (Smith and Elliott, 1990). Normally in Ethiopia, crop residues are removed for animal feed (Edwards and Hailu, 2006; Elias, 2002). About 42 percent of farmers in Kindo Koisha apply crop residues for improving their soil fertility While others immediately plow fields to protect roaming of animals due to the free range grazing practices (Elias, 2002) Crop residues protect soil from the direct impacts of rain, wind, and sunlight leading to improved soil structure, reduced soil temperature and evaporation, increased infiltration, and reduced runoff and erosion While some studies suggest that plant roots contribute more carbon to soil than surface residues (Whitbread,2003), crop residue contributes to soil organic matter and nutrient increases, water retention, and microbial and macro invertebrate activity. This effect typically leads to improved plant growth and increased soil productivity and crop yield (NRCS, 2006). Household Waste and Farmyards

Organic wastes from the house commonly are added to soils as sources of plant nutrients and to improve the physical properties of the soil. The common house waste added to the soil is ash (Barbaric, 2006). Disadvantages of Organic Fertilizer

Potentially pathogenic improperly-processed organic fertilizers may contain pathogens that are harmful to humans or plants because organic fertilizers are derived from a substance like animal feces or plant/animal matter contaminated with pathogens (Chen, J.H., 2008 and GTZ, 2009). Limited Nutrient Availability: they are relatively low in nutrient content, so larger volume is needed to supply enough nutrients for plant growth. Hence, large-scale agriculture without use inorganic fertilizers it is difficult (Vanlauwe, B., et al, 2010). Accurate application is tie due to the composition of organic fertilizers highly variable, so that the accurate application of nutrients to match plant production is difficult.

2.3. Inorganic Fertilizer

The addition of chemical fertilizers might be essential because chemical fertilizers can re-establish the soil fertility very quickly and the nutrients are obtainable to the plants as soon as the fertilizers are dissolved in the soil (Matsumoto, T. and Yamano, T., 2009). Inorganic fertilizer increases root residues that mean indirectly increases organic matter (Scholl, L. and Nieuwenhuis, R., 2004). Due to this recently farmers put an emphasis on chemical fertilizer application in order to increase productivity (Basel, N and Sami, M., 2014). Using inorganic Fertilizer is very important to increase crop production and soil fertility improvement.

2.3.1 Advantages of Inorganic Fertilizer

Inorganic fertilizers are good for the rapid growth of plants because the nutrients are already water soluble. Therefore the effect is usually immediately and fast, contains all necessary nutrients that are ready to use. Inorganic fertilizers are quite high in nutrient content and only relatively small amounts are required for productivity. The correct amount of applications of inorganic fertilizer can increase soil organic matter through higher levels of root mass and crop residues (Chen, J.H., 2008, Han, S.H et a l., 2016, GTZ, 2009 and Scholl, L. and Nieuwenhuis, R., 2004).

2.3.2 Disadvantages of Inorganic Fertilizer

Over-application can result in negative effects such as leaching, pollution of water, acidification and reduces the availability of the trace element or alkalization of the soil. Chemical fertilizer enhances the decomposition of soil organic matter, which leads to degradation of soil structure and decrease in soil aggregation results in nutrients are easily lost from soils through fixation, leaching, gas emission and can lead to diminishing fertilizer efficiency (Alimi, T.,2007, Chen, J.H., 2008, GTZ ,(2009), Savci, S. (2012) and Adediran, J.A., et al., 2004). Over treatments of chemical fertilizers can destroy decomposers and other soil organisms, reduce the colonization of plant roots with mycorrhiza and inhibit symbiotic N-fixation by rhizobia due to high N-fertilization (Chen, J.H., 2008, Abedi, T., et al., 2010, GTZ ,(2009)and Gruhn, P., et al., 2000) and also hazardous to the soil environment. This showed that over treatments Chemical fertilizer causes problems not only to the soil health but also to the human health and physical environment.

2.4. The Effect of Integrated Organic and Inorganic Fertilizer on Productivity and Soil Fertility

2.4.1. Integrated Organic and Inorganic Nutrient Management

The use of locally available, nutrient-rich organic sources is an effective means for improving soil fertility and increasing crop yield in view of the escalating cost of inorganic fertilizers and low fertilizer use efficiency of crops (Wassie Haile, 2012). Some of the studies conducted to explore alternate organic nutrient sources and partly substitute inorganic fertilizers by biomass transfer, farmyard manure (FYM), compost and green manure.

2.4.2. Effect of Integrated Organic Fertilizer and Inorganic Fertilizer on Soil Fertility.

Evidence showed that application of FYM alone or in combination with inorganic fertilizers enhances proper nutrition and maintenance of soil fertility (Teklu Erkosa and Hailemariam Teklewold; 2009 and Balesh Tulema, 2005). A study by (Brar, B.S., et al., 2015) showed that integrated use of inorganic fertilizer along with organic fertilizer (100% NPK + FYM) improved soil physical conditions such as CEC and pH resulted in higher maize and wheat yields. According to (Han, S.H et al., 2016) the NPK fertilizer treatment leads to soil acidification, where as organic manure + NPK treatments significantly increased soil pH. Similar type finding was reported by (Walia, M.K., and Dhaliwal, S.S., 2010) that the incorporated nutrient management system results in rising organic carbon content, available nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium increasing from 0.390% to 0.543%, 171.7 to 219.3 kg·ha− and 20.5 to 43.3 kg·ha− respectively. Several studies revealed that the integrated use of inorganic fertilizer with an organic fertilizer like manure significantly (P < 0.05) increases soil organic C content, total N, and the available soil nutrients (Ali, M.E. et al., 2009; Zhao, Z., et al., 2014 and Redda, A. and Kebede, F., 2017) improves the overall soil properties (Mahmood, F., et al., 2017). For sustainable productivity, mixed use of chemical with organic fertilizer has proved to be highly beneficial in terms of balanced nutrient supply (Chen, J.H., (2008), and Ayeni, L.S. and Adetunji, M.T., 2010) significantly higher than yields from sole organic fertilizer application (Efthimiadou, A., et al.,2010). Also, the use of organic fertilizers together with appropriate chemical fertilizers had a higher positive effect on microbial biomass and hence soil health (Elkholy, M.M., et al., 2010 and Abedi, T., et al., 2010).



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    Mintesinot D. (Autor)


Titel: The Integrated Use of Organic and Inorganic Fertilizers on Production and Soil Fertility in Ethiopia