Lade Inhalt...

Incidence of hookworm (ancylostoma duodenale). Infection between two primary schools in Yandev community

Akademische Arbeit 2019 9 Seiten

Biologie - Parasitologie


Table of Contents



Materials and Methods

Preparation of Sample

Result and Discussion



The study was conducted in Yandev community to investigate the incidence of Hookworm (Ancylostomiasis) infection between two primary schools, in the study area; AOCAY staff Primary Schools and Root Primary School. Samples were collected randomly between the two primary schools. A total number of (200) two hundred samples were collected, hundred (100) from each schools. After the Analysis the Result shows that out of 100 samples collected from Root Primary Schools 6(6%) were positive and AOCAY staff schools 18(18%) were also positive on the incidence of Ancylostomiasis (Hookworm) infection. A total of 24(12%) were infected. The rate of infection was high in AOCAY Staff primary schools than Root primary School; 18% and 6% respectively as the infection rate. In AOCAY Staff primary school by sex, male were more infected than female; 10(20%) and 8(16%) infection rate. Regarding ages i.e. 10-13 in both male and female (Root primary) were lesser infected than AOCAY primary schools. 3(7.5%) and 9 (22.5%) respectively. This corresponds with the findings made by Huttly, (1990). That improper sanitation and unhealthy can cause the active penetration of this organism into the HOST.

KEY WORD: Hookworm, Ancylostomiasis, Infection, Parasite, Host, Diagnosis


Hookworm is a parasite that belongs to the family ancylostomatidae a part of super family strongyloides. The two major genera that affect man are; Necator and Ancylostoma.

Classification of the Parasites

Kingdom -Animalia

Phylum - Aschelminthes

Class - Nematoda

Order - Strongyloidea

Family – Ancylostomatidae

Genus – Ancylostoma

Species -duodenale.

Source 9:

Ancylostoma duodenale is prevalent in the southern Europe, northern Africa, Indian, China and Southeast Asia, small area of United States, the Caribbean Island, and South Africa. This hookworm is well known in mines because of consistency in temperature and humidity that provide an ideal habitat for egg and juvenile development 6. The distribution and prevalence of Ancylostoma. duodenale and Necator americanus differs from region to region2, Ancylostomiasis is an intestinal parasite of human that causes mild diarrhea and abdominal pain known as ancylostomiasis. It is transmitted to human by active penetration into the skin of its host4. Human can contact this organism via inadequate sanitation; the parasites are ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus. Ancylostomiasis is a condition caused by Ancylostoma. Ancylostoma is also known as Miners Anemia, tunnel disease-detailed by some brick- maker’s anemia and Egyptian chlorosis. Ancylostoma is occurs when hookworms, present in large number produce and iron deficiency anemia by sucking blood of host intestinal walls.2

Ancylostoma duodenale is considered to cause health problem for new birth and pregnant women and person who are malnourished thus causing intellectual cognitive and growth retardation prematurely in susceptive children. Hookworm is the leading cause of maternal and child morbidity 7. About 740 million individuals today have been estimated to be infected with hookworm. The destruction causes decrease in economic productivities8.

The aim of the present work was to determine the degree of infection of hookworm on children within the primary school in Root primary schools and AOCAY staff primary School in Yandev, Gboko in Benue State.

Materials and Methods

Study Population, Sample Collection and Techniques

The study was carried out in Root Primary Schools and AOCAY Staff Primary Schools. Sample collection was by random selection in both primary schools. Total number of sample collected was two hundred (200); One hundred (100) from each school. Collections were made between July –September, 2016. The gender, age and class of children in each school were randomly sampled for Ancylostomiasis. A sample container was given to each pupil to collect his/her stool. A total of sample daily; and twice weekly, bringing net collection sample to be 20. The sample was collected from both males and females. The techniques were done in such a way that containers were shared, faecal sample was collected the next day and taken to the laboratory and smear on grease free glass slide and covered with cover slip. The sex and age of the pupils were considered accordingly.

Preparation of Sample

An applicator stick was used to collect a pinch of stool sample from a batched sample container. A grease free slide was used to analyze the stool sample under the microscope. One (1) drop of normal saline was added on the free grease glass slide and a smear was made on the glass slide. 10g of sodium chloride (Nacl) was weighed and dissolved in 90 ml 0f distilled water in a volumetric flask. 1g of stool sample from the specimen bottle was put into a test tube mixed with physiological saline by dissolving all the particles with an applicator stick. The sample was centrifuged at 200 rmp for 15mm using a manual bench centrifuged with 6pots. The supernatant fluid then decanted and the sediment transferred into a clean glass slip and was observed under x10 and x40 objective lens. Prepared slide was observed and identified according to the procedure outline by1. The glass slide sample was mounted under x10 and x40 objective lens to confirm. Chart was used to aid the view of the sample to identify the ova of the organism Ancylostoma duodenale.

Result and Discussion

The result of the incidence of Ancylostomiasis in Root Primary Schools and AOCAY Staff Primary school are presented in table 1-4.

TABLE 1: Incidence of Ancylostomiasis infection between Root Primary Schools and AOCAY staff schools.

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

TABLE 2: Distribution and percentage of infection rate by sex among children in Root primary school.

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

TABLE 3: Incidence of Ancylostomiasis infection by sex among children in AOCAY Staff primary school.

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

TABLE 4: Incidence of Ancylostomiasis infection by age-group among Root primary school and AOCAY Staff primary school.

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

The results showed that out of 200 pupils examined for Ancylostomiasis infection, 24 (12%) were found infected with A. duodenale in both schools. AOCAY Staff Primary school had higher infection rate than Root primary school with only 12% by difference. The result also shows that 6% was identified in root primary school compare to AOCAY staff primary with 18% rate of infection.

The result obtained from the present study indicated that less than half of the children under 8 year old children were positive for disease of ancylostomiasis, between the two primary school than those above 10 years old. The low rate of infection in root primary school could have been due to better sanitation in that environment compare to the high rate of ancylostomiasis infection in the public AOCAY staff primary school which compromises sanitation. The result of the present study agrees with the earlier report made by 4 and 3 that improper sanitation could cause the inversion or contact of these ova of ancylostomiasis and active penetration of the larvae could affect the individual who play around with soil in the environment.

Base on the result of the study, it may be recommended that proper stool disposal into appropriate places must be followed while personal health and hygiene must be observed to checkmate the disease. Albendazole, Mebendazole among others may also be recommended as a drug of choice to tackle the menace of the incidence of this disease.


[1] Anderson E. (1998): “Hookworm infection” 6th Edition England Pp. 98 – 101. articles for Anderson et al., 1998 links

[2] Jiraanankul - ‎(2011): “Epidemiology of A.duodenale and N americanus hookworm infections in Xiulongkan Village, Hainan province, China. High intensity among middle aged and elderly residences”. J.Parasitol. 87 (4): 739 – 24 Incidence and Risk Factors of Hookworm Infection in a Rural ... by V Jiraanankul - ‎2011

[3] Eric, B. (2018): “The barefoot book” Bare Feet Health Risks: Larva Migrans, MRSA, Fungal Infection.

[4] Huttly S.R (1990): “The impact of inadequate sanitary condition on health in developing country: WHO sta Q 43 (3) 118 – 26 The impact of inadequate sanitary conditions on health in developing ... by SR Huttly - ‎1990 - ‎Cited by 110 - ‎Related articles

World Health Stat Q. 1990;43(3 ): 118-26. The impact of inadequate sanitary conditions on health in developing countries. Huttly SR (1).

[5] Keiser, UT zinger (2008): “Efficacy of current drugs against soil transmitted helminths infection” Systematic review and Meta analysis JAMA 299 (16): 1937 48. Efficacy of current drugs against soil-transmitted helminth infections ...

[6] Monica C. (1999): “District laboratory practice in tropical countries”: John William Cambridge University, Pp 198 – 102 District Laboratory Practice in Tropical Countries - medical laboratory ...

[7] Murray, J.A (2004): “Impact of drainage and sewage on intestinal nematode infection in poor urban area in Salvador; Brazil” Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hygiene. 98 (4): 197 – 204. Neglected Tropical Diseases - Latin America and the Caribbean

[8] WHO (2008): “How does deworming works” <Deworm the Deworming the World - NCBI - NIH

[9]Cruise and John (1994): Pathology and Pathogenesis of Human Viral Disease


incidence infection yandev



Titel: Incidence of hookworm (ancylostoma duodenale). Infection between two primary schools in Yandev community