Lade Inhalt...

NGOs and Gender Based Violence Projects in Public Primary Schools in Ndhiwa Sub-County

Relationship between NGO Initiatives and Gender Based Violence as External Factors

Akademische Arbeit 2019 110 Seiten

Geschlechterstudien / Gender Studies

Leseprobe

TABLE OF CONTENT

II DEDICATION

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

TABLE OF CONTENT

LIST OF TABLES

LIST OF FIGURES

ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS

ABSTRACT

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the study
1.2 Statement of the Problem
1.3 Purpose of the study
1.4 Research objectives
1.5 Research Questions
1.6 Significance of the study
1.7 Basic assumptions
1.8 Limitation of the study
1.9 Delimitation of the study
1.10 Definitions of terms used in the study
1.11 Organization of the study

CHAPTER TWO
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Management of Gender based violence projects in Public Primary Schools
2.2.1 Forms and prevalence of gender based violence in schools
2.2.2 Physical Violence
2.2.3 Emotional violence (Bullying)
2.3 Support group and management of gender based violence projects in public primary schools
2.4 Emotional violence (Bullying)
2.5 Sports Development and Management of Gender Based Violence projects in Public Primary Schools
2.6 External Factors and Management of Gender Based Violence projects in Public Primary Schools
2.7 Theoretical Framework
2.7.1 Performance Failure Theory
2.8 Conceptual Framework
2.9 Summary of Review of Literature

CHAPTER THREE
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Research Design
3.3 Target Population
3.4 Sample Size and Sampling Procedures
3.4.1 Sample size
3.4.2 Sampling Procedure
3.5 Research Instruments
3.5.1 Pilot Testing of instruments
3.5.2 Validity of Instruments
3.5.3 Reliability of Instruments
3.6 Data Collection Procedures
3.7 Data Analysis Techniques
3.8 Ethical Considerations

CHAPTER FOUR
DATA ANALYSIS, PRESENTATION, INTERPRETATION AND DISCUSSIONS
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Questionnaire Return Rate
4.3 Demographic characteristics of Respondents
4.4 Information on Gender based violence in Public Primary School
4.5 Management of Gender Based Violence projects in Public Primary Schools
4.6 Support Groups and Management of Gender Based Violence Projects in Public Primary Schools
4.6.1 Correlation Analysis between Support Group and Management of Gender Based Violence projects in Public Primary Schools
4.6.2 Regression Analysis between Support Group and Management of Gender Based Violence in Public Primary Schools
4.7 Dissemination Comprehensive Sexuality Education through digital platform and Management of Gender Based Violence Cases in Public Primary School
4.7.1 Correlation Analysis Dissemination of Comprehensive Sexuality Education through Digital Platform and Management of Gender Based Violence in Public Primary Schools
4.7.2 Regression Analysis between Dissemination of Comprehensive Sexuality Education through digital platform and Management of Gender Based Violence in Public Primary Schools
4.8 Sport development and Management of Gender Based Violence Cases in Public Primary Schools
4.8.1 Correlation Analysis Sports development and Management of Gender Based Violence in Public Primary Schools
4.8.2 Regression Analysis between Sports Development and Management of Gender Based Violence in Public Primary Schools
4.9 External factors and Management of Gender Based Violence Cases in Public Primary School
4.9.1 Correlation Analysis External Factors and Management of Gender Based Violence in Public Primary Schools
4.9.2 Regression Analysis between Sports Development and Management of Gender Based Violence in Public Primary Schools

CHAPTER FIVE
SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Summary of Findings
5.2.1 Support group influence on management of gender based violence in public primary schools in Ndhiwa Sub County
5.2.2 Influence of Dissemination of Comprehensive Sexuality Education through digital platform and management of gender based violence in public primary schools in Ndhiwa 81 Sub County
5.2.3 Influence of Sports Development on management of gender based violence in Public Primary Schools in Ndhiwa Sub County
5.2.4 Influence of External Factors on management of Gender based violence in Public Primary Schools in Ndhiwa Sub-County
5.3 Conclusions
5.4 Recommendations
5.5 Suggestions for further 83 Research
5.6 Contributions to the body of knowledge

REFERENCES

APPENDICES

APPENDIX I: QUESTIONNAIRE

APPENDIX II: QUESTIONNAIRE NGO

APPENDIX III: RESEARCH PERMIT BY NACOSTI

DEDICATION

I dedicate this Research Project Report to my parents Mr Maurice Opiyo and Mrs. Scholastica Akoth Opiyo and to my siblings Kevin, Valentine, Risper and Celline who encouraged me to work tirelessly to ensure it is accomplished.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I highly acknowledge the invaluable inputs of my supervisor Prof. Raphael Nyonje for his guidance and supervision in the conceptualization and development of this research project report. I also extend my appreciation to the University of Nairobi Kisumu Campus lecturers and staff in the School of Open, Distance and e-learning campus for their valuable criticism and input throughout the study period. And lastly to my friends Lillian Ogola, Vivian Atieno and Fiona Okore thank you for the encouragement and constant affirmation of my ability to work on this project report.

Special mention to Feminist Leadership, Movement Building and Rights Institute - East Africa. Thank you for continuously inviting me to your conferences within the East Africa region and for reaffirming my feminist journey. The conferences provided me with an in-depth knowledge of my area of research and I was able to incorporate a lot of insights from the faculty and the participants. In addition a special thank you goes to my colleagues at Tag International Development, your constant encouragement and logistics support in pursuit of this academic research made it possible to achieve all this and I shall forever be grateful.

This work drew support from many and diffused sources. It is not possible to mention them all by name. To them I unreservedly say thank you. Every idea you brought forth is the reason why this work has reached this far.

LIST OF TABLES

Table 3.1: Target Population Table

Table 4.1: Questionnaire Return Rate

Table 4.2: Demographic Characteristics of Respondents

Table 4.3: Information on Gender Based Violence in Public Primary School

Table 4.4: Descriptive statistics on Management of Gender Based Violence in Public Primary Schools

Table 4.5: Descriptive statistics Support Groups and Management of Gender Based Violence Projects in Public Primary Schools

Table 4.6: Correlation Analysis between Support Group and Management of Gender Based Violence Projects in Public Primary Schools

Table 4.7: Model Summary

Table 4.8: ANOVA

Table 4.9: Coefficients

Table 4.10: Descriptive Statistics between Dissemination of Comprehensive Sexuality Education through digital platform and Management of Gender Based Violence Projects in Public Primary Schools

Table 4.11: Correlation Analysis between Dissemination of Comprehensive Sexuality Education through the digital platform and Management of Gender Based Violence

Table 4.12: Model Summary

Table 4.13: ANOVA

Table 4.14: Coefficients

Table 4.15: Descriptive Statistics between Sports Development and Management of Gender Based Violence in Public Primary Schools

Table 4.16: Correlation Analysis between Sports development and Management of Gender Based Violence in Public Primary Schools

Table 4.17: Model Summary

Table 4.18: ANOVA

Table 4.19: Coefficients

Table 4.20: Descriptive Statistics between External Factors and Management of Gender Based Violence in Public Primary Schools

Table 4.21: Correlation Analysis between External Factors and Management of Gender Based Violence in Public Primary Schools

Table 4.22: Model Summary

Table 4.23: ANOVA

Table 4.24: Coefficients

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure: 2.1 Conceptual Framework

ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS

Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten

ABSTRACT

The prevalent rate of gender violence in Kenya is a major concern. About 36 percent of women who have experienced gender violence, the first experience of violence occurred at age 15-19. Schools are no longer the safe spaces that were considered to be as most of the violence is meted on children while they are either in school or the journey to and from school. It is against this backdrop that many organizations have tailored their programs around school related gender based violence with the key intention of reducing the prevalent rate, encourage school retention and improved academic performance. The purpose of this study is to analyze the influence of NGOs initiatives on management of gender based violence projects in public primary schools in Ndhiwa Sub County. The study is guided by specific objectives namely; to establish the extent to which Support Group influence management of gender based violence, to determine how dissemination of information through digital platform influence management of gender based violence, to examine the level at which sports development influence management of gender based violence and to determine how external factors moderate relationship between NGOs initiative and management of gender based violence in public primary schools in Ndhiwa Sub County. The research is inclined to social learning and performance failure theories. The study adopted descriptive survey research design, collected and analyzed both qualitative and quantitative data. The study's target population was 6000 respondents drawn from twenty public primary schools that have NGOs implementing gender based violence initiative projects. A sample size of 380 respondents was determined using Krejcie & Morgan table of 1970.The respondents were selected using proportionate allocation of the sample to all schools and systematic random sampling techniques. Data collection instruments comprised both self-administered questionnaire with a return rate of 95% and interview schedule for the NGO Project Managers and teachers at the schools. Pilot testing was conducted in Migori town to determine construct and content validity of the research instruments. Descriptive statistics of arithmetic mean, standard deviation and inferential statistics of Pearson's correlation (r)and regression analyses were conducted to determine the relationships between variables which revealed that; there is a statistically significant strong positive correlation between Support Group and management of Gender Based violence in Public Primary Schools(r= 0.934; P< 0.000). There is a statistically significant strong positive correlation between Dissemination of information through digital platform and management of Gender Based violence in Public Primary Schools (r= -0.968; P< 0.000). There is a statistically significant very strong positive correlation between Sports development and management of Gender Based violence in Public Primary Schools (r= 0.986; P< 0.05).There is a statistically significant and very strong positive relationship on how External Factors moderate relationship between NGOs initiative and management of Gender Based violence in Public Primary Schools (r= 0.995; P< 0.000). The study therefore concluded that there has been massive steps initiated by donor funded NGOs to eliminate Gender Based Violence among the adolescents. However the study also seeks to question if Gender Based Violence is homegrown or donor induced menace in the society as the prevalent rate is reducing upon availability of funding to the NGOs, but the menace doesn't seem to end despite the initiatives implemented by donor funded NGOs

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the Study

Gender based violence is one of the most prevalent human rights violations. It knows no social, economic, class or cultural confinement. It occurs in families, schools, workplaces, social structures and communities across the world.

In a recent study conducted in Kenya the results found that 32% of young women aged 18-24 years and 18% of their male counterparts reported experiencing sexual violence before the age of 18. Gender-based violence reduces the bargaining power to negotiate safer sex, stay on treatment or remain in school. From the research findings above it is very evident that women and girls are at the highest risk of gender based violence and the age gap clearly defines that the victims are still in school where some of these violence might be meted on them. Gender violence in and around school has been recognized in recent years as a serious global phenomenon that have been ignored for too long in the school environment. Schools are not always the child-friendly places they are presumed to be (UN, 2006).

School-based violence is not a problem confined to schools but a complex, multifaceted societal issue. Schools are social spaces within which the power relationships, domination and discrimination practices of the community and wider society are reflected. Violence against children in schools is linked to socio-cultural traditions, political agendas, the weaknesses of education systems and community practices.

Gender based violence in schools pose a threat in the achievement of sustainable development goal 4 and 5 which are access to quality education and gender equality respectively, which have been used as the platform to gain international attention on the importance of school retention and achieving a just community which is devoid of gender labels. (Save the Children and Action Aid 2010)

Gender based violence in and around schools take different forms such as bullying, corporal punishment and sexual harassment. Corporal punishment is widely used mainly by adults both in the home and school environment in the guise of instilling discipline , the violence encompasses hitting, punching, shaking, throwing, poisoning, biting, burning or scalding, drowning, whip/cane scars, suffocating or otherwise causing intentional physical harm to a child. Corporal punishment within the family and schools remains socially accepted despite a move by the Kenya government to prohibit this kind of punishment in schools (UNICEF 2010)

Sexual violence is the involvement of a child in sexual activity that he or she does not fully comprehend, is unable to give informed consent , or for which the child is not developmentally prepared and cannot give consent, or that violates the laws or social taboos of society. Child sexual abuse encompasses a wide variety of abusive acts or experiences involving children’s private body parts. It is associated with a broad spectrum of emotional responses, with some children exhibiting great resilience, while others displaying varying levels of distress. (UNICEF 2010)

The Kenyan Government has cited sexual violence as an issue of concern in its various policy and strategic documents; however identification of cases of sexual violence against children has been limited due to lack of data. The number of reported cases of children who are victims remains low due to ignorance, lack of reporting and the secretive nature of the crime. (National Council for Children’s Services, 2013) A 2010 UNICEF report classifies sexual violence as unwanted sex, attempted penetration, unwanted sexual touching and pressured sex, the same report states that the number of girls facing sexual violence is more than double that of boys.

Narrowing down to the purpose of this study, I will focus on Homa bay County in western Kenya. According to the 2009 Kenya Population and Housing Census, the population for Homa Bay County was 963,440 people. This population is projected to rise to over 2,300,000 in 2050. Almost half (48 percent) of the population is below age 15 and is projected to decline to 39 percent in 2030 and to 27 percent in 2050. The county has a very high dependency ratio of 107 which is projected to decline to 71 percent in 2030 and 46 percent in 2050. The population in the working ages (15­64) is projected to increase to 58 percent in 2030 and to 68 percent in 2050. The main economic activity in this county is boda boda (motorbike) business, fishing and trade farming. (National Council for Children’s Services, 2013)

HIV prevalence in Homa Bay is nearly 4.5 times higher than the national prevalence at 26.0%. The county contributed 15.1% and 14.0 % of the total new HIV infections in Kenya among children and adults respectively. (Kenya HIV Estimates 2015). It is also important to note that gender based violence and HIV are intertwined epidemics, if we are to transform either we must address the structural barriers that drive both.

It is against this background that the expended resources on HIV programmes reported by NGOs operating in Homa Bay County, decreased from KES 1.8 Billion in FY 2015/16 to KES 1.7 Billion in the FY 2016/17, representing a 7% decrease. Additionally, the number of NGOs who reported increased from thirteen (13) to seventeen (17) in FY 2015/16 compared to FY 2016/17. The amount reported in HIPORS as having been expended by NGOs in the County, surpassed the County AIDS Strategic Plan (CASP) resource need for the same period by 91% (KES 1.7 Billion vs. 147.3 Million). However despite this new development the report suggests that the resources expended by NGOs in the County are more than the estimated resource needs in the County AIDS Strategic Plan.

Despite of this, the program targets as set out by the County remains unmet. Additionally, there are overlaps in service delivery, with NGOs implementing programs that are primarily delivered through the County infrastructure. Therefore, there is need for coordination of programs to effectively and efficiently align resources appropriately to realize significant progress in County's HIV and AIDS response, which also has a direct impact on the status of gender based violence cases within the county.

1.2 Statement of the problem

Gender-based violence (GBV) is the most extreme expression of unequal gender relations in society and one of the most widespread violations of human rights. While GBV disproportionally affects women and girls, it also affects men and boys. These abuses take place all over the world in homes, schools, work-places and communities (Fergus, 2013)

To break the barriers of violence most children opt to go to school so that they are better informed and break the cycle of poverty in their homes. However it is through the journey to and from school that some of these children experience the worst form of abuse while a bigger percentage experience abuse in school which is supposed to be a safe space for acquiring knowledge and growth.

International Non-Governmental Organizations have been advocating for elimination of gender based violence for decades now and they have even devised different ways to create more awareness such as; 16 days of activism against gender based violence campaign which is commemorated every year from 25th November - 10th December with the key intention of challenging violence against women and girls. But despite all these efforts the cases of GBV has been escalating most especially in Kenya where 40 women were murdered between January 2, 2019 and April 13, 2019.The shocking statistics revel violence among women has been normalized and to break the cycle and get the attention of President Uhuru Kenyatta to declare violence against women a national emergency, Kenyans on Facebook organized a peaceful protest under the theme #TotalShutDownKe on 8th March 2019 which coincided with International Women's Day celebrations to protest against femicide and violence against women.

‘'Even after the TotalShutDownKe protest cases offemicide continue to be on the rise and making headlines in the dailies, for instance; woman 25, stabbed to death by estranged husband in Nyeri. “Nairobi becoming dangerous city for women as femicide continues to rise. ”“NaftaliKinuthia charged with murder of Moi University trainee doctor Ivy Wangechi; denies charge, remanded until May 9 April 2019’’.To affirm the thoughts that gender based violence has been normalized in Kenya, Sheddy Empire a local music label released a controversial song dubbed, Pigwa Shoka, which actually incite men to kill young ladies, the shocking revelations though is the support the artist is getting on Youtube with close to 5000 views just days after its release. One fan on the comment section wrote, “this is pure talent why criticize the great video.” (VOA News 2019)

Quite a number of both local and international non-governmental organizations such as Plan International, Action Aid, Medecines Sans Frontiers, Ndhiwa Community and Empowerment Development Project and British Council through the Comic relief fund have taken the initiative to fight gender based violence among school going children in Ndhiwa but despite the different programs in the area the problem is still prevalent.

1.3 Purpose of the Study

The purpose of the study was to examine the influence of NGOs initiatives on the management of Gender Based Violence projects in Ndhiwa Sub County, Kenya.

1.4 Objectives of the Study

This study was guided by the following objectives:

i. To establish the extent to which support group influence management of gender based violence projects in public primary schools in Ndhiwa Sub County.
ii. To determine how information disseminated through digital platform influence the management of gender based violence projects in public primary schools in Ndhiwa Sub County.
iii. To examine the level at which sports development influence the management of gender based violence projects in public primary schools in Ndhiwa Sub County.
iv. To determine how external factors moderate relationship between NGOs initiative and management of gender based violence projects in public primary schools in Ndhiwa Sub County.

1.5 Research Questions

The research questions this study sought to answer were:

i. To what extent does support groups influence management of gender based violence projects in public primary schools in Ndhiwa Sub County?
ii. Does dissemination of information through digital platform influence gender based violence projects in public primary school in Ndhiwa Sub County?
iii. To what level does sports development influence management of gender based violence projects in public primary schools in Ndhiwa Sub County?
iv. Does external factors moderate relationship between NGOs initiative and management of gender based violence projects in public primary schools?

1.6 Research Hypothesis

The null hypothesis this study sought to answer were:

1. There is no significant relationship between Support Group and Gender Based Violence in Public Primary Schools.
2. There is no significant relationship between dissemination of information through digital platform and gender based violence in Public Primary Schools.
3. There is no significant relationship between Sports Development and Gender Based Violence in Public Primary Schools.
4. External factors does not significantly moderate relationship between NGOs initiatives and Gender Based Violence.

1.7 Significance of the Study

Research has shown that the cycle of violence experienced in an adult must have been triggered or hastened by child hood experience. It has been established that gender based violence leads to long term mental, medical and social economic consequences since the realities were shaped through violence. According to Population Council (2008), there is a correlation between sexual and Gender Based Violence, health, human rights and national development in East, Central and Southern Africa. The findings of this study will contribute immensely to the mitigation discourse and strategic plan around gender based violence most especially in Ndhiwa, an area that has being marred by high rate of violence among a demographic that is too young to make informed choices and therefore depend on care givers who are perceived as role models, but in most instances they are the actual perpetrators of gender based violence.

1.8 Basic assumption of the Study

Gender based violence is a prevalent plight in public primary schools in Ndhiwa sub county.

The NGOs working to address gender based violence in Ndhiwa Sub County have made significant progress.

The respondents will cooperate with the study team hence they will be honest in their response to the research questions.

1.9 Limitation of the Study

Gender based violence is a subject that is still spoken in harsh tones and the survivors are reluctant to come forward due to the stigma and shame associated with it. Despite the numerous awareness campaigns from NGOs and government interventions most survivors prefer not to follow the judicial system and settle the case out of court, therefore proving very difficult to accurately quote the statistics of gender based violence in public primary schools which forms the fundamental basis on the magnitude of the problem.

Gender based violence subject has quite a number of technical terms which is not easily understood by those working outside the field and in this case the primary school pupils who are key respondents, for this reason the research questions were synthesized to fit the pupils understanding in order to get the correct information.

The distance from one school to another that have NGOs projects running in the school were far apart and for this reason I majorly focused on schools that have two or more NGOs implementing the initiatives in the school.

1.10 Delimitation of the Study

Ndhiwa is one of the constituencies in Homabay County with a population of approximately 300,000 people, the main economic activity is agriculture and trade. Over the years Ndhiwa has experienced high prevalent rate of gender based violence which led to school dropout, early pregnancy and HIV infection. Gender based violence is a complex concept with multifaceted approaches focused on the causes and the implications. However previous research have narrowed down to a mature demographic and leaving out children whose current reality could be marred with violence and therefore creating a cycle and belief that violence is normal and carry the idea to adulthood. Though the study was conducted in Ndhiwa Sub County, it was only confined to public primary schools which have NGOs initiatives implemented within the school, thus excluding other public and private primary schools whose mode of addressing gender based violence is independent from donor funded NGOs initiatives.

1.11 Definition of significant terms used in the study

NGO Initiatives - a collection of different programs within a nonprofit organization whose intention is to offer humanitarian response to a problem within a community.

Support Group -A psychosocial of adolescents who are in the same age gap that help each other to psychologically heal and regain balance from gender based violence abuse.

Dissemination of Comprehensive Sexuality Education Information through digital platform - Passing across age appropriate reproductive health right information to the adolescents using electronic medium.

Sports Development - Promotion of sports activities within a community with the key intention of creating awareness and sensitization.

Gender Based Violence Projects - Initiatives that are being implemented by non-governmental organizations in partnership with government bodies in a bid to reduce violence against women and children while incorporating men and boys during the advocacy and implementation phase.

1.12 Organization of the Study

The Study has been organized into five chapters with Chapter one outlining introduction, then background of the study, Statement of the problem, Purpose of the study, objectives of the study, Research questions, Significance of the Study, Basic assumptions of the study, Limitations of the study, Delimitations of the study, Definitions of significant terms used in the study and organization of the study in that order.

Chapter two comprises of; Review of related Literature under which there is introduction, related literature reviewed on dependent variable theme, related literature reviewed on independent variable theme, related literature reviewed on theme from objective one that has both dependent and independent variables, related literature reviewed on theme from objective two that has both dependent and independent variables, related literature reviewed on theme from objective three that has both dependent and independent variables, related literature reviewed on theme from objective four that has both dependent and independent variables. Theoretical framework, Conceptual Framework and Summary of literature all constituted this chapter.

Chapter Three comprises of; introduction, Research design, target population, sample size and Sampling procedures with sub-sections on sample size and sampling procedures, research instruments with sub-sections on pilot testing of the instruments, validity of the instruments and reliability of the instruments, then data collection procedures, data analysis techniques and ethical considerations.

Chapter four comprises of; introduction, questionnaire return rate, demographic attributes of the Respondents, data organization, analysis and presentation under which there will be pre­processing, data coding and storage. Under data analysis, there will be Qualitative data analysis and then quantitative data analysis using both inferential and descriptive statistical techniques. Then data Presentation was done using tables and systematically discussed according to dependent variable theme, theme of objective one, theme of objective two, theme of objective three and theme of objective four.

Chapter five being the last chapter comprises of introduction, Summary of findings, conclusions and recommendations made from the findings of the study, suggestions for further research and contributions to the body of knowledge.

CHAPTER TWO

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

2.1 Introduction

This chapter will review literature from prior research and focus on components of NGOs initiatives on management of gender based violence projects in public primary schools. It further discusses four intervention strategies which are; support group, dissemination of information through digital platform, sports development and external factors. Besides it reviews how the strategies influence the management of gender based violence projects in public primary schools. The section begins by reviewing a broad theoretical literature on gender based violence.

2.2 Concept of Non-Governmental Organizations Initiatives.

In the modern development discourse, NGOs play a significant role in addressing the concerns of the socially and economically weaker sections of the population and they work closely with the disadvantaged to address their concerns. Various mechanisms are used by the NGOs to strengthen them (Kilby 2004). These mechanisms include creating space for the poor to raise their voice, enabling them to access public resources and making them aware of government schemes and programmes. These process adopted by the NGOs make the disadvantaged empowered (Narayan 1999; AusAid 2001). For example, one of the largest NGO in Kenya, Plan International works to empower the rural community especially girls and women who are either at risk or victims of gender based violence. Their action seek to empower the community by providing shelters to the at risk adolescents, sensitize the community on Sexual Reproductive Health Right Issues and work with schools to enhance school attendance and retention.

Gender violence in and around school has been recognized in recent years as a serious global phenomenon. We have ignored for too long what goes on in the school environment. The sad fact is that schools are not always the child-friendly places we expect them to be. Violence can be perpetrated by pupils or teachers in or around the school, or by out of school youth and/or older men who demand sex in exchange for money or gifts. Acts of gender violence are disproportionately directed at girls, but boys and teachers can also be targets. The two year global study on Violence against Children, commissioned by the Secretary General of the United Nations and reported to the General Assembly in 2006, investigated schools as number one center of violence.

In Kenya, one in five women and men who experienced sexual violence before the age of 18 reported that the first incident occurred at school. In the past three years, TSC has deregistered 162 male teachers for sexually harassing their students. Data from the Teachers Service Commission shows that in 2015, some 126 teachers were struck off the teaching roll. Of these, 100 male teachers were kicked out of the profession for sexually harassing their students. Further details shows that in 2016, some 22 teachers were deregistered after evidence showed they sexually abused female students. And last year, TSC announced that some 40 male teachers were blacklisted and degazzetted for sexually abusing students. The stark statistics paint a shocking reality in schools with questions emerging whether students are safe under the people expected to mentor them.

It is from the above statistics that triggered NGOs to make school a safe space for all the adolescents and it is for this reason that many NGOs have initiated different initiatives in close collaboration with the government agencies and the community to make schools child friendly and eliminate all form of gender based violence.

Support groups have been used in mental health for many decades as a means of providing a forum to discuss problems and share experiences and information (Heller et al., 1997). Support groups offered assistance at times when fewer services were available for victims of gender based violence. The move to deinstitutionalize people from psychiatric hospitals into the community, from the 1970s until now, also played a role in the popularity of support groups, whereby families were reimagined as participants in support and recovery rather than the cause of abuse (Heller et al., 1997; MacFarlane, 2004). This concept has been adopted by many NGOs to facilitate healing among survivors of gender based violence.

The 1994 International Conference on Population and Development's (ICPD) Programme of Action, often referred to as the Cairo agenda, explicitly calls on governments to provide sexuality education to promote the well-being of adolescents and specifies key features of such education. It clarifies that such education should take place both in schools and at the community level, be age appropriate, begin as early as possible, and foster mature decision making. ICPD+5 reinforces and further specifies the commitment of governments to provide formal and non-formal SRH information as part of promoting the well-being of adolescents. It is for this reason that NGOs have come up with creative avenues to teach CSE at both the school and community level and one such avenue that has gained momentum in the recent past is through digital platform.

Sport is an international language. Its ability to cross cultures enables sport-related programmes to bridge social and ethnic divides. As sport becomes increasingly part of humanitarian and development work, as well as a part of the corporate social responsibility practices of some private sector actors, interested parties are anxious to explore the potential, as well as the limitations, of sport in their work. NGOs are using sports as a platform to reach out to the community and sensitize them on social issues like reproductive health and gender based violence. Sports has the ability of breaking the community barriers and facilitating a mental shift on stereotypical perception of the community, for instance girls' participation in sports.

2.3 Management of Gender Based Violence in Public Primary Schools.

The ability to estimate the continental and national magnitude of violence against children is limited. This is due to the fact that most of the studies done previously have focused on either adults or special groups and not specifically on children or adolescents thus preventing independent estimates of the magnitude of the problem facing children. Moreover, these studies are done in different countries or different regions of Kenya using different definitions, for example, sexual violence, making it difficult to generalize the findings of a single study to Kenya as a whole or combining the findings of different studies to get an overall national picture. The studies have also ignored the issue of sexual violence against the boy child, or have underrepresented it due to the cultural influences that reduce reporting by males. The studies have therefore only raised awareness of the existence of the problem of violence against children so far (UNICEF, 2010).

2.2.2 Physical Violence

This is violence against a child whereby the victim is directly assaulted. Physical violence may involve hitting, punching, shaking, throwing, poisoning, biting, burning or scalding, drowning, whip/cane scars, suffocating or otherwise causing intentional physical harm to a child. This form of violence is meted on children mainly by adults both in the home and school environment in the guise of instilling discipline. Corporal punishment within the family remains socially accepted and legal in many states in all regions. Globally, less than 20 states have prohibited all forms of corporal punishment, including in the family. This means that just 53 million of the world's 2,187 million children live in countries where the law grants them the same protection as adults from being assaulted. Studies on the prevalence of corporal punishment are relatively low worldwide.

This is an indicator of the low priority given towards the elimination of this form of violence against children. Prevalence figures vary widely between and within states. They vary from less than 10% to almost 100%, although the majority lies towards the upper end of the range and very few give a figure below 40%. Boys are said to be more severely abused physically than girls both at home and at school. For methodological reasons however these figures are not directly comparable, but they nevertheless bring to light the huge numbers of children suffering physical violence at the hands of parents and teachers (UN secretary General's study on violence against children, 2006). Corporal punishment and deliberate humiliation of children in their families and schools has become more visible with time, and it has begun to be recognized as a clear violation of their human rights. (UN secretary General's study on violence against children, 2006).

Corporal punishment has been used as a discipline management procedure in Kenya since the inception of formal education by the colonialists. However caning was banned in 2001 after the Children’s Act took effect in a gazette notice dated March 13, 2001, by the then Education minister, Kalonzo Musyoka. The law also increased the age of a child from 16 to 18 years.

Despite the move by the then Minister to ban canning in school, no alternative form of discipline was suggested thus both the parents and the teachers resulted to canning in secrecy and behind closed doors insisting that corporal punishment is the only way an African child can be disciplined since they the teachers and parents were disciplined using that method and they turned out okay.

Corporal punishment negatively impacts students in many different ways and seriously impacts a child’s physical and social well-being and educational development. Chronic physical symptoms, including digestive illnesses and sleep disorders, have been noted, as well as the actual harmful consequences of the act itself. For instance, if a child is hit and falls to the ground during corporal punishment, then a broken limb could occur. One report cites that the practice of boxing a child’s ear can rupture eardrums and cause hearing loss (UNICEF, 2001). Other physical outcomes include abrasions, bruises, serious cuts, loss of consciousness, or even death (Global Initiative to End All Corporal Punishment of Children, 2008; Simatwa, 2012).

The psychological effects from corporal punishment can be as painful and permanent as the physical effects. The act of corporal punishment, the fear of victimization, and associated humiliation have led to a full range of psychological symptoms, including aggression and destruction, depression, anxiety, and secondary victimization through humiliation and mental harassment (UNICEF, 2001). Other research has found that corporal punishment can seriously and negatively impact the self-esteem of students especially girls and their social skills (MSI, 2008). Low self-esteem and social skills often lead to other life-long problems, including risky behaviors, substance abuse, and delinquency.

When there is a threat of corporal punishment, students often become distracted and cannot concentrate in their classrooms (MSI, 2008). Furthermore, some youth said that the primary reason for their decision to skip school or drop out was because of disrespect and punishment from their teachers (MSI, 2008). One report suggests that 14 percent of students in Nepal said they dropped out of school because they feared a teacher (UNICEF, 2001). Another study found that 39 percent of students in Belize reported that violent behavior, including that from the teacher, was what they liked least about attending school (Global Initiative to End All Corporal Punishment of Children, 2008).

Risk and protective factors associated with corporal punishment:

Overcrowded classrooms, poorly trained teachers, and a lack of knowledge and competence to apply non-violent alternatives are all factors that have contributed to the continued use of corporal punishment around the world (Maphosa and Shumba, 2010; UNICEF, 2001). Non-violent alternatives for corporal punishment include the following: reprimanding, talking to, demoting, and ignoring students; making students perform manual tasks; and sending learners out of the classroom. Additional non-violent alternatives include not marking students' work, enforcing detention or suspension, employing anger management methods, using stress management techniques, referring children to psychologists, and providing guidance and counseling (Maphosa and Shumba, 2010).

Cultural norms and values play important roles in maintaining the practice of corporal punishment against girls and boys in schools; that is, in many cultures it is a common belief that corporal punishment has positive effects on children in schools by maintaining order and reinforcing desirable behaviors (Silbert, 2013). UNICEF (2001) reports that corporal punishment is the result of a combination of social, cultural, and individual factors that work together to perpetuate the behavior.

One researcher in Ghana found that corporal punishment is the direct result of a person's beliefs and values and the norms of society (Agbenyega, 2006). These norms may have been passed down from previous generations who believe that if corporal punishment helped to straighten them out, then it can help their children (Payet and Franchi, 2008). Corporal punishment in South Asian countries also appear to reflect a culture of acceptance of violence committed against children, particularly girls (UNICEF, 2001). The South Asian cultural values of respecting one's elders and maintaining the hierarchy of adults in authority also contributes to the abuse of power by teachers who perpetrate corporal punishment (UNICEF, 2001).

Schools in low socioeconomic areas tend to have a higher prevalence of corporal punishment (Kilimci, 2009). This could be as a result of the perception related to corporal punishment in the low income areas, where corporal punishment is meant to correct the wrong while at the same time harden the individual for life outside school and family. Schools in the affluent communities prefer not to use corporal punishment on the pupils rather they have devised methods such as time out, being grounded and counseling. It is important to note that the two adverse methods of discipline have been encouraged and supported in equal measure thus making it difficult to fully get rid of either.

2.2.1.2 Sexual violence and exploitation

This is the involvement of a child in sexual activity that he or she does not fully comprehend, is unable to give informed consent , or for which the child is not developmentally prepared and cannot give consent, or that violates the laws or social taboos of society. Child sexual abuse encompasses a wide variety of abusive acts or experiences involving children's private body parts. It is associated with a broad spectrum of emotional responses, with some children exhibiting great resilience, while others displaying varying levels of distress.

The Kenyan Government has cited sexual violence as an issue of concern in its various policy and strategic documents; however identification of cases of sexual violence against children has been limited due to lack of data. The number of reported cases of children who are victims remains low due to ignorance, lack of reporting and the secretive nature of the crime. (National Council for Children's Services, 2013).

The different forms include:

Unwanted Sexual touching this entails the child being touched against his/her will in a sexual way but not being forced to have sexual intercourse. This includes acts such as being fondled, pinched, grabbed or touched inappropriately.

Attempted Unwanted sex - Is a situation whereby attempt is made to have a child to have sex unwillingly, but without success. In this case sexual intercourse does not happen.

Physically forced sex whereby a child is physically forced to have sex and sexual intercourse happens to completion.

Pressured sex is a situation whereby a child is prevailed upon to have sex and sexual intercourse happens, but not through physical force.

According to World Health Organization (WHO) report it estimates that 36-62% of all sexual assault victims are aged below 15 years (Ruto S, 2009). 1 in 3 girls worldwide are married before the age of 18, and 1 in 9 before the age of 15. Areas with the highest rates of child marriage are Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia which could majorly be attributed to low economic power together with harmful cultural practices. Health consequences faced by child brides include a 1.8 fold increase after experiencing physical/sexual violence. These child brides are exposed to higher chances of pregnancy-related morbidity and mortality (Veneema T, 2015).

A study done in Africa and Asia by ActionAid also indicates that much violence against girls goes unreported and the scale of the problem has been underestimated. Sexual violence against girls is not limited to a specific age-group; each girl is at risk of being violated. However, in all countries the problem peaks in the adolescent years of between 12-19 years of age (ActionAid, 2014). In a study done on sexual violence against primary school girls in three African countries: Kenya, Ghana and Mozambique, Kenya had the highest cases reported in all types of sexual violence.

In another study done in Kenya on sexual abuse in school age children 60% girls and 55% boys reported having been sexually harassed while 29% boys and 24% girls reported to have been forced into unwanted sex. This finding shows that boys as much as girls are victims of sexual harassment and sexual abuse (Ruto S, 2009). Of the literature reviewed, this is the only study giving data on sexual violence against boys alongside that of girls.

The negative impacts of sexual violence vary. Generally, the negative impacts of sexual violence include health and psychological problems, pregnancy and the risk of HIV, low performance in schools by students, disrupted studies, skipping school or dropping out, the devaluing of female achievement and leadership, and economic and social costs (Leach et al., 2014). In some communities, informal community fines and forced marriage were common responses to sexual violence cases resulting in pregnancy; however, in poor communities, justice may be viewed in economic terms rather than justice terms, with an emphasis on the perpetrator accepting some form of financial responsibility for his action (Parkes et al., 2013).

Some of the identified negative impacts from sexual harassment, specifically sexual labeling, include ostracizing girls, depression and other psychological consequences (Rahimi and Liston, 2011). When teachers fail to recognize such sexual labeling as an act of violence and accept this as part of the normal school experience, the options for girls to report, be supported, and receive guidance on how to handle the behavior are limited and the behavior is further perpetuated.

In Kenya, it was noted that sexual violence limits the ability of girls and young women to achieve their educational potential, reduces opportunities to enhance family health by disempowering women's access to services, and limits their social and economic development (Garcia-Moreno et al., 2011). Other negative impacts of sexual violence include the increased risk for disease, reduced interest in school, and psychological trauma (Abuya et al., 2012). Some of the negative impacts of sexual violence include diminished academic performance; skipping or dropping out of school; sexually transmitted infections, including HIV/AIDS; early pregnancy and unsafe abortions; early marriage; and increased risk of committing suicide.

The clash between the traditional and the modern world of girls has been described as a significant risk for sexual violence (Bekele et al., 2011). For example, in many African countries, girls are continuing their education at the age when they traditionally were likely to be married. Subsequently, the girls are vulnerable to sexual violence because they do not have the traditional protection of a man that comes along with marriage.

Long distances between home and school, poverty and early sexual debut are other risk factors found to increase the likelihood of sexual violence.

Engagement with multiple sexual partners, frequent viewing of pornography, and frequent substance use are other risk factors for perpetrating sexual violence and sexual harassment. Self­esteem proved to be an interesting construct with regard to sexual violence. Girls with low self­esteem appeared to be more vulnerable to sexual harassment and coercion; however, girls with high self-esteem were at risk for sexual violence due to a desire by boys to “put girls in their place.”

Policies and laws against sexual violence have the potential to reduce the cases of sexual violence, but in many countries these policies and laws look very good on paper while the implementation process is still very poor.

Life skills education, despite the move by the government to have life skills taught in schools, most teachers use this time to finalize on examinable syllabus thus the pupils end up lacking basic skills to protect them from sexual violence.

A code of conduct for teachers and enforcing sanctions for teachers found of perpetrating sexual violence needs to be enhanced.

Strong parent-school relationships with clear communication about how to report violence, and build dialogue in communities about gender roles and violence serve to diminish sexual violence.

On the same note parents ought to play an active role in the lives of their children and fulfill their responsibilities other than shifting the burden to the teachers in school.

2.2.3 Emotional violence (Bullying)

Emotional abuse is the persistent emotional ill treatment of a child so as to cause severe and adverse effects on a child's emotional development. It may involve: conveying to children that they are worthless or unloved; that they are inadequate or valued only insofar as they meet the needs of another person; age or developmentally inappropriate expectations being imposed on children; causing children frequently to feel frightened; or the exploitation or corruption of children. Some level of emotional abuse is involved in all types of ill-treatment of a child, though it may also occur alone (Association of International Schools in Africa, 2014). Insults, name-calling, isolation, rejection, threats, emotional indifference, and belittling are some forms of violence that can be detrimental to a child's psychological development and well-being. This is made even worse if it comes from a respected adult such as a parent or a teacher (UN secretary General's study on violence against children, 2006).

Data on this form of violence is hard to come by as few in-depth studies into children's experiences have been conducted. However, some insight can be drawn from studies on prevalence of corporal punishment. The most common effect of physical punishment on children was emotional distress, upset and hurt. Children developed low self-worth and suicidal thoughts. They also report feeling sad, bad, ashamed, upset, hurt inside, useless and embarrassed (UN secretary General's study on violence against children, 2006).

Emotional or the psychological violence is the worst form of abuse as the results cannot be physically touched and therefore some children may be suffering from emotional abuse which may go unnoticed and carried to adult life with greater consequences.

In a South African study 20 percent of students reported skipping class because of fear of bullying (Ncontsa & Shumba, 2013). This finding was especially true among girls who were victims of psychological bullying. When students do attend school, bullying appears to have a significant effect on their schooling. Bullying disrupts the classroom, making it difficult for students to concentrate on academics (Ncontsa & Shumba, 2013).

Children who are victims of bullying are also more likely to experience emotional and mental health problems (Nansel et al., 2004). The most common mental health issues that have been associated with bullying are depression and thoughts of suicide (Kim et al., 2005; Ncontsa and Shumba, 2013). A cross-cultural study by Fleming and Jacobsen (2009) found that more than 30 percent of bullied students reported feelings of sadness and more than 20 percent had thoughts of suicide. Psychological problems appear to be worse for sexual minorities who are bullied more than for other students (Toomey et al., 2013). Children who are the victims of non-sexual, school- related violence are also much more likely to participate in risky behaviors, including using drugs, smoking cigarettes, drinking alcohol, and having sex (Fleming and Jacobsen, 2009).

Lastly, physical symptoms have been associated with the experience of bullying. Across countries, Nansel and colleagues (2004) found that both victims and perpetrators of bullying experienced health problems at a higher rate than those who were not involved in bullying. Other studies also confirmed these effects, with health problems differentially worse for girls than for boys (Gruber and Fineran, 2008; Yen et al., 2013). Health problems such as headaches, stomachaches, and having trouble sleeping are common (Gruber and Fineran, 2008). In one study, more than 70 percent of bullied students reported having insomnia (Fleming and Jacobsen, 2009).

Cultural norms are one factor repeatedly mentioned in the literature often in the form of understanding the culture within which bullying and non-sexual violence occurs. School climate, including teachers’ attitudes and beliefs and cultural norms, plays a key role in enabling bullying (Olweus, 1994).The different ways in which bullying is viewed will drive to a large degree the basis for participants’ responses on study questionnaires. That is to say that a child may or may not report bullying depending on whether bullying is viewed as negative or taboo in his or her culture (Due et al., 2005). The acceptance of bullying may result in higher levels of reporting bullying experiences. There could also be purposeful false reporting as a way to hurt the reputation of another student.

Community and neighborhood contexts can be risk factors for SRGBV under the broad-based area of cultural norms. The hypothesis regarding a community violence spillover suggests that the negative events occurring in communities spill over into schools, thereby influencing the school climate (Ncontsa and Shumba, 2013). In support of this hypothesis, studies have found a correlation between homicide and crime rates in communities and the rates of non-sexual, school- related violence (Stelko-Pereira and de Albuquerque Williams, 2013). Areas with political unrest and associated violence are also more likely to have higher rates of violence in schools (Mansour and Karam, 2012). In addition research shows that home is the first school for a child and therefore the negative traits being encouraged at home are easily carried to school since that is the present reality of the child and therefore discouraging these traits in most cases becomes a challenge as it is from home that these traits have been normalized and accepted.

School climate and school norms either explicitly or implicitly support non-sexual violence (Olweus, 1994). For example, when schools fail to appropriately respond to reports of bullying and fail to discipline perpetrators of bullying, this perpetuates the problem (Parkes and Heslop, 2011). Some schools may recognize bullying as inappropriate behavior, but leave it to children to “work it out,” which can result in retaliation and further perpetuation of the problem (Olweus, 1994). In many countries, teachers, not just other students, are the perpetrators of bullying and psychological and physical intimidation. When a teacher or school official bullies and intimidates students, this not only sanctions the behavior, but makes it nearly impossible for the children to report victimization to anyone in authority (Bisika et al., 2009; Parkes and Heslop, 2011). Bullying is widely experienced by new pupils in the school through old pupils who like to mark territory and pass across the message that they are in charge and therefore everyone should conform to their rules and failure to which learning will be impossible.

Classroom defenders are people who “stick up” for the victim of bullying and are more likely to be girls than boys, according to one study in the United States (Crapanzano et al., 2011). Findings from Crapanzano and colleagues (2011) suggest that the more defenders there are in a classroom, the less overall bullying occurs. In agreement with this, Yarnell and colleagues (2014) found that the social norms of girls either for or against bullying impact the attitudes of boys and girls, whereas social norms among boys do not. Girls tend to be each other's keeper most especially in an environment where boys are, while boys have the perception of everyone for himself as they should be ready for what awaits them out in the world away from the protection of school and family.

Family appears to be an important factor in helping female victims of bullying. Kim (2006) found that parental support appeared to relate strongly to whether a child had a tendency to be a bully or a victim. Parents are also important factors in determining whether children choose to report non­sexual, gender-based violence (Oliver et al., 2009; Parkes and Heslop, 2011). A home that encourage open communication channel and a balance between parenthood and friendship among the children tend to experience low cases of bullying since the child knows they can always talk with the parents when bullied while at the same time they understand that bullying is out right wrong and should not be tolerated.

2.4 Support Group and Management of Gender Based Violence Projects in Public Primary Schools.

Violence against women and girls is rooted in gender-based discrimination and social norms and gender stereotypes that perpetuate such violence. Given the devastating effect violence has on women, efforts have mainly focused on responses and services for survivors. However, the best way to end violence against women and girls is to prevent it from happening in the first place by addressing its root and structural causes.

The need to support survivors of gender-related violence is increasingly being perceived as important in relief and development programmes. This situation has transpired partly as a result of increased awareness of gender-related violence amongst development practitioners, and partly because of changes in thinking about development over the last two decades. Such changes have emphasized the emancipation of women as the key to sustainable development, and, as a corollary, the importance of formulating practical strategies to address the barriers that impede women's participation in the development process. Despite such understandings, and despite the importance currently being accorded to mental health in humanitarian work (Costa e Silva 1998), there remains a lack of information within the gender and development literature on practical strategies for dealing with the impacts of gender-related violence. The strategies which are put forward do not generally focus on gender relations, and tend to rely too heavily on aid and development models addressing psychology, rather than on social development models which address suffering (Summerfield 1996).

Despite the numerous setbacks on the survivors of gender based violence to fully recover and regain their confidence and trust in the community, some NGOs have started initiatives that bring together the survivors of abuse in a common safe space and they are able to identify with each other's pain and suffering but most importantly they are able to gain medical aid and legal justice.

Beyond medical and psychological care, survivors of sexual violence may need and wish for economic and legal support. Because victims of sexual violence are often rejected by their families and communities and are unable to work as they used to before the assault, economic support is essential in the rehabilitation process. It should allow them to meet essential needs such as food, household items, and should facilitate their socio-economic reintegration, livelihood strategies and economic empowerment.

Beyond immediate survival, the idea is that economic support should bolster self-esteem, facilitate the healing process and increase self-sufficiency in particular when victims are rejected by their relatives. However, there are no published studies examining which types of short-term and medium-term economic support have achieved meaningful impacts for survivors (Spangaro et al 2013) Financial independence still plays a key impact on the recovery process of the victims and it is a key determinant if they will move away from the abusers. In most instances women have cited lack of financial muscle as the number one reason as to why they still continue to stay in abusive relationships as they do not have the means to cater for the children need outside of the abusive relationship.

There are limited psychosocial groups that target young adults to regain confidence and help them navigate the nightmare of abuse, however those in existence are through NGOs partnership with government institutions like The Children’s Office that offer group support.

2.4 Dissemination of Comprehensive Sexuality Education and Management of Gender based violence projects in Public Primary Schools.

A 2012 report by Intel Corporation and Dahlberg Global Development Advisers found that women in low and middle-income countries are up to 37% less likely to own a mobile phone than men. Furthermore, compared with men in these countries, 25% fewer women use the internet. Projects such as GSMA Foundation’s Women are working to bridge this gap by encouraging the mobile technology industry to serve resource poor women and to promote solutions to women’s barriers to usage, but there is still a long way to go with a reported 300 million women missing out on the benefits of mobile phone access.

Adoption of these new technologies in addressing gender-based violence specifically is uneven. Despite having the highest rates of violence against women in the world, and faster mobile growth than any other region, the deployment of these technologies in Africa is underdeveloped. Exceptions include South Africa and Egypt, where mobile and internet-based apps, such as HarassMap in Egypt, have surged in the wake of rampant sexual harassment and assaults. Additionally, many of the interventions rely on access to the internet or are designed for smartphones, which are not necessarily widespread.

For example, there are now a whole raft of safety applications, such as FightBack, bSafe and StreetSafe, that incorporate functions such as panic buttons and alerts to notify friends and emergency services when someone is being attacked or abused, but most of these are currently only available on smartphones. The low smarssstphone penetration in low and middle-income countries, at 22% globally, 19% in India (2013), and only 4% (2012) in sub-Saharan Africa, limits their availability and use considerably. Similarly, it seems that many mobile apps are not being developed with the end user in mind; the technology may not be user-friendly (for instance, using SMS messaging for a primarily illiterate audience) or the content and mode of delivery do not address users' experience or realities (Burns 2013)

Bringing the reality closer home to sub Saharan Africa, well according to The Mobile Economy Sub Saharan Africa Report 2018, for many consumers in the region the mobile phone is not just a communication device but also the primary channel to get online, as well as a vital tool to access various life-enhancing services. Mobile adoption in the region has grown rapidly in recent years: overall subscriber penetration reached 44% in 2017, up from just 25% at the start of this decade. Access to mobile connectivity is vital to empowering consumers and driving economic growth. The technology enhances access to many essential services, including education, health and utilities.

Interesting research shows that Kenya is leading the continent in terms of smartphone penetration and internet usage the phone is key to most transactions and activities. Kenya has a 91% penetration of mobile subscriptions compared to Africa's 80%. Globally, Kenya has the highest share of internet usage from mobile phones as compared to desktops. Internet access through the mobile phone in the country recently hit 83%, overtaking Nigeria. Jumia Kenya, an online shop in Kenya, reported 70% of their traffic coming from mobile phones while 50% of payments done through the mobile also. With a population of about 51.58 million, a total of 43.3 million Kenyans have access to the internet in the country even though Google only identifies 13 million active internet users in Kenya. High data prices have contributed hugely to these statistics as Kenya's data prices have been higher than prices in neighboring countries for the past five years. Affordable smartphones and declining mobile data plans have been factors that have driven growth in mobile subscriptions.

Social media penetration has also contributed to high smartphone use as 8.3 million Kenyans are active on social media. Kenyan users spend close to 3 hours a day on social media, with the most used platforms identified as Whatsapp (74%), Facebook (70%) and Twitter (50%), based on users own claimed activity.

The above data gives an indication that Kenya is on the right path of bridging the digital divide and most of the citizens can easily access information through the smart phones, however as much as mobile connectivity is spreading quickly it is not spreading equally among the Kenya demographic. For instance affordability, literacy and digital skills are some of the barriers that needs to be addressed to decrease mobile penetration gap among the different demographic.

With the escalating cases of Gender Based Violence in Kenya, one would expect that since we have access to information and open channels of communication at our disposal then social issues like GBV should be a thing of the past, however interesting findings reveal that Kenya is among the top four countries in Africa with many tech hubs whose aim is to address and tackle social issues.

Innovative mobile apps on gender based violence is not very common in Kenya however some NGOs through partnership with tech hubs have tried to come up with apps that would make reporting and access to information much easier and available however the main hindrance has been the user must have a smart phone and be connected to data or else no information will be conveyed. Despite these setbacks Ndhiwa Community Empowerment and Development Project, a community based organization in Homabay County initiated a project dubbed itek whose aim is to equalize access to knowledge and information through a new developed technology, keepod. Keepod which is a live USB cable with pre-loaded information on subject of choice has been able to change the digital divide narrative in Ndhiwa since it led to the building of a computer centre using old recycled computers which is open to the community. It is through this platform that the organization through partnership with other NGOs in the region like Action Aid and Plan International have used to create more awareness about school related gender based violence and targeting the boda boda operators who are the major perpetrators.

2.5 Sports Development and Management of Gender Based Violence projects in Public Primary Schools.

Sport is a powerful, simple, and universal means to stimulate real change among survivors of GBV in conflict and post-conflict areas. Sport programmes are universally applicable because they are based mainly on supportive, non-competitive elements and can consist of modules adapted according to the particular needs of the participants. Sport is an international language. “Its ability to cross cultures enables sport-related programmes to bridge social and ethnic divides.” Sport tackles the development of participants on numerous levels: physical, cognitive, emotional, and social. It is a low-cost, high-impact tool for development. Well-designed sport programmes offer a safe and neutral environment (Cwik, 2008).

In most instances sports help the survivors of GBV to control emotions and share power, space and ideas with others, learn to manage exclusion and dominance, express unacceptable feelings in acceptable ways and most importantly cope with emotional traumas and instability. To the community sports strengthens the community togetherness and generates dialogue, unites the coaches, parents, community leaders and team members to focus on a common goal.

In many countries, it has been recognized that sport can be a force to amplify women's voices and tear down gender barriers and discrimination. Women in sport defy the misperception that they are weak or incapable. Every time they clear a hurdle or kick a ball, demonstrating not only physical strength, but also leadership and strategic thinking, they take a step towards gender equality (UN Women, 2016). Women like Derartu Tulu from Ethiopia is the first African female athlete to win an Olympic title, Nawal El Moutawakel was the first Moroccan, Arab, African, and Muslim woman to win an Olympic gold medal in the 400m hurdles event at the 1984 Los Angeles Olympic Games, this happened to be the first time that the race became a part of the program of the Olympic games. Closer home Tecla Sang is the first female athlete to win all - Africa games gold medal in athletics as well as earning Kenya a second medal in commonwealth games Women are far more visible in sports today than at any previous point in history. The Olympics of the modern era started as an all-male event, with women making gradual inroads to compete in different disciplines. As such, women competed for the first time at the 1900 Games in Paris. Of a total of 997 athletes, 22 women competed in five sports: tennis, sailing, croquet, equestrianism and golf. Incredibly enough, women were only allowed to run the marathon in the Olympics in 1988. Also, with the addition of women's boxing to the Olympic programme, the 2012 Games in London were the first in which women competed in all the sports featured.

Interesting to note that since 1991, any new sport seeking to join the Olympic programme must have women's competitions. Yet even at mega events, women still face challenges. At the last FIFA Women's World Cup in 2015, women were required to play on artificial turf, which is often regarded as more physically punishing than natural grass. It is impossible to imagine a men's world cup on this type of surface. (UN Women, 2016)

[...]

Details

Seiten
110
Jahr
2019
ISBN (eBook)
9783346237873
ISBN (Buch)
9783346237880
Sprache
Englisch
Katalognummer
v903573
Institution / Hochschule
University of Nairobi – ODEL Campus
Note
Schlagworte
Gender Based Violence; NGOs initiatives

Autor

Zurück

Titel: NGOs and Gender Based Violence Projects in Public Primary Schools in Ndhiwa Sub-County