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The Causes of Aging in Women

von IDSAsr Study (Autor)

Akademische Arbeit 2020 11 Seiten

Geschlechterstudien / Gender Studies

Leseprobe

Abstract

A perfect aging is one which always led to achievement of all possible goal in order to cope up with society such as physically dynamic in work and look. This situation is more crucial in women. To go through a successful aging is a very difficult task. It does not only include a fit body but also a healthy mind with stress handling capabilities. Moreover, in order to take a proper bond of time, one should understand its various aspects. Here, we have tried to concentrate various factors which are responsible for aging in women. Controlling this can minimise the load of aging in women’s life and allows them to understand the relationship of time with their body.

Key words: obesity; successful ageing; Anorexia of Ageing; anorexigenic; Loneliness

INTRODUCTION

The onsets of fang era has not only open doors of social and knowledge freedom but also have altered many keys in our daily life style. If we talk about the third world countries, it’s echo with a list of changes in the feminine civilization. This has given a huge modification to the women’s day to day life habit and hence changes in ageing process, from women to women as per their level of physiological stress and the type of physical activity. This article is an attempt to stitch together various causes of aging in women. It is well known that besides being a normal biological process aging has numerous causes. Many times it has been seen that some people besides having high age do not look older and some with low age seems to be elder. This traitorous situation is induced by many factors and are more dominating in women than in men. Apparently, we are going to discuss with various perspective of aging in women. If we want to describe the most demanding terminology of growing old, it would be “successful aging”. Successful aging can be compared with satisfaction in life or to occupy moral or to be more biological just to survive with good health (Palmore et al., 1979). Clubbing every aspect, we can say that successful aging is all about being an organism with lack of deformities, having a good social environment and a satisfied life with happiness based on the chosen moral.

Nutrient Neglecting: A Component Cause of Aging (Malnutrition)

As per Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) the recommended dietary allowances (RDA) of macronutrient for an average women ranging from 19 to 70 years of age is as follow: Carbohydrate 130 g/day, Protein 46g/day, Fibre 25g/day, 20-35 per cent of Calories from fats and Water content of about 2.7 L/day {Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs), 2004}. Apart of micronutrient intake this requirement is necessary to run the entire metabolic pathway sufficiently. Neglecting this will led to create an imbalance in the normal living hood of women, which tend to generate stress on various metabolic cycle and once they feel deficiency of energy from food they start to consume stores of body. Apparently, because of nutrient utilization, body glycogen is the first preference followed by fat deposition and then to the protein from the muscle and other body parts leading to sickness and body tends to move toward mortality. In the world of corporate the intake of proper content is generally neglected. This creates a starvation stress on the body and women have to suffer from underweight (BMI <=18.5) problem. Moreover, the continuous practicing of this ignorance will lead to destruction of immune system (Fig: 2).

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Fig. 1: Various causes of Ageing in women

Source: Author’s generated

This will lend to make body more approachable toward infectious disease (Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs), 2004) such as high fever. And fever consume high amount of both energy and micronutrient content. Even the Malaria and influenza, is also being evidence due to malnutrition hence, mortality rates directly dependent to the level of malnutrition (Müller, O., Garenne, M., Kouyaté, B., and Becher, 2003).If we consider the women with overweight (BMI>=25) their condition is somewhat similar but it comes with different root. Generally, overweight is more dominating the nation than underweight {(World Health Organization, 2002) (De Onis, M., and Blössner, M., 2000) (Martorell et al., 2000)}. The overweight women are more likely to suffer from the problem of lower metabolism rated leading to deposition of macromolecules primarily, fat in their body which is the reason for obesity in most women. As the fat get deposited the biomechanical movement in body decreases led to create laziness and make body inefficient in working. Bones also get overload and become weaker. Moreover, the deposition of fat in different organ system led to many organ failures {(Ejerblad et al., 2006) (Kenchaiah et al., 2002) (De Jong et al., 2002) (Blaum et al., 2005)}.

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Fig 2: - Malnutrition (undernutrition) cause of immunodeficiency

Source: Author’s generated

There is much evidence that women, who are suffering from Obesity, develop a thought of being ugly (generally in adult women) which cause a mental stress. Moreover, obese person is found to be low productive and the continuous jobless make them to over think leading to generation of depression, hence a way toward mental illness (Atlantis, E., & Baker, M. 2008).

In most of the third world countries, preponderances of overweight in young women occupying in both urban and rural areas which is larger than the underweight women, and this is generally in the nations at the maximum degree of socioeconomic development. And now this epidemic of overweight is spreading all around the globe, and developing countries are facing lots of burden of nutrition and undernutrition (Who, J., & Consultation, F. E., 2003). Hence obesity is a cause of slow sickness, whose ultimate goal is to make body and mind more reachable toward disease and hence provoking premature death.

Hormonal Causes

As the age of life advances, there is fall in content of food intake described as Anorexia of Ageing. Hormones have to play an important character in the pathogenesis of this physiological anorexia of aging. That’s why that older women have more propensity than younger one in comparison to lose weight at the time of illness simply favoured by anorexia of aging only.

The feeling to get satisfied from work is generally much earlier than normal in older women (MacIntosh et al., 2001). This is up lifted by two factors that is, a decline in conformation of the anatomical structure of the stomach with increase in aging, which is prevailed because of dietary intake is not sufficient to secret required release of nitric oxide to provide a feeling of comfort to the smooth muscles of the anatomical structure. Insufficiency in making fund us comfortably relax outcomes in a smaller reservoir, with meal getting into the bodily cavity more quickly. This led to understand by the brain that stomach is full as guided by signals from the antral stretch leading to stoppage to eating. In response to fat, there is a gastrointestinal hormone Cholecystokinin (CCK), which produces duodenum responsible for providing feeling of satisfaction. This secretion is more in older people both basally and in response to fat (MacIntosh et al., 2001) . The increase in CCK is much greater in number or influence due to slower headway in older persons than in younger persons. It was found that CCK is more filling in older one than in younger. Hence, CCK was nominated as a second factor why older persons develop early feeling of fullness in stimulus to a food.

As a matter of fact, the content of adipose (fatty) tissue is higher in women than men (Karastergiouet al., 2012). Adipose cell transmits certain signals which are also a particular cause of regulation of appetite. And leptin (peptide hormone) is the major hormone that is responsible for regulation of appetite (Blundellet al., 2001). Leptin is highly anorexigenic in nature and led to rise in metabolic rate, when secreted in large amount. Hence, they are counted in the list of catabolic hormone. Moreover, cytokine tumour necrosis factor, which is also anorexigenic in nature are also synthesis by adipose cells. Hence, this led to rise in transmission of anorectic signals to the central nervous system in an effort to hold up eating with rise in the mass of fat inside tissue. Nevertheless, when a sufficient amount of fatty tissues deposition takes place, it gives rise to the synthesis of triglycerides that act as a dominating opposition on leptin impression over appetite. Women have lower physiological anorexia of aging as compared to male counterpart. In recent past ghrelin (peptidehormone) was isolated from the anatomical structure of the stomach. An increase in appetite was evidenced and released of growth hormone by Ghrelin having a potential to serves as treatment for anorexia of aging.

Hip fracture is a high risk situation for many elderly women (Garnero et al., 1996) (Hans, D et al., 1996) as it is linked with rise in morbidity and early mortality. It has been frequently known that osteoporosis is termed as a paediatric disease because the content of calcium assimilated at the time of childhood effect prime consideration of bone mineral density in advancing stages of life. Uninterrupted intake of sufficient content of calcium all across life diminished the rate of bone deprivation. Moreover, in women from the onset of elderly demineralization start taking place which make their bone weaker? Proper intake of calcium can minimise it but not stops it as a programmed stage of senescence. Studies in the recent past shows that low bone mineral density (BMD) in the hip is responsible for cardiovascular mortality in elderly women (Tanko et al., 2003).Vitamin D is the only prime hormone responsible for up keeping of bone maintenance fine (Utiger et al., 1998). Vitamin D degree of absorbance decreases in older persons, although they are exposing in sun light under sufficient conditions (Perry III et al., 1999).

The combo uptake of calcium source along with vitamin D supplement evidenced in decrease in count of hip fractures in various nursing home care practices (Chapuyet al., 2002).It has also been detected in some studies that vitamin D may grow muscle strength and continuous practice will reduce chances of hip fractures (Zamboni et al., 2002). Deficiency in the sufficient amount of Estrogen production has been related with bone mineral loss and hip fracture as studied in past (Kamelet al., 2001).

In has also being detected in other studies that administration of estrogen level in elderly women rise up the rate of occurrence of breast cancer, cardiovascular disease and mortality, but astonishingly it reduces the occurrence of hip fractures (Writing Group for the Women's Health Initiative Investigators., 2002). This is why; consumption of estrogen supplement should be confined to diagnostic menopausal women only. While few estrogen receptor regulators, such as raloxifene, reduces the loss of bone and causes suitable effect on cholesterol, then also not causing any stimulation regarding breast cancer (Meneillyet al., 2001).No matter how good the hormone secretion work or how good your bone mineral density is, every hip fracture is caused by falling. And as in older women case due to low vision or due to weakness there is a great chance of falling. Hence, in order to reduce the chance of hip fracture one should need to be focus on its mobility. Growing older led to fall of thyroxine secretion rate, and this situation is being equilibrated by a deceleration in plasma authorization rate, which results in impaired regulation of thyroxine in body. Also led to fall off little amount of triiodothyronine secretion. The amount of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) is unaltered. But it led to occurrence of inchoate hypothyroidism, around 7.1 per cent to 17.6 per cent of older women (Diez et al., 2002). The synthesis of antibodies against thyroid peroxidises rises, with increase in ageing. Therefore, the onset of elderly led to decrease in efficiency of thyroid hormone in handling of activity of various post-receptors biomarkers responsible for thyroid function. The work of TSH reduces in elder to such extent that it led to create diagnosis problem regarding hyperthyroidism more critical. Higher and lower level of secretion relating to thyroid hormone are the two proves of casual shown up of illness in elderly (generally in women).Hypothyroidism in elderly people is general response of autoimmune thyroiditis (Diez et al., 2002).

The symptoms of thyroid illness are generally as the symptoms of non-thyroid disease this make it more complex to detect in older people. Hence, hypothyroidism is detected by using biochemical analysis technique in elderly. Elderly generally have low syndrome or the syndrome of euthyroid sickness. Elderly people generally required less thyroid replacement than do younger persons and this due to the decelerated rate of plasma clearance. Doctors generally can’t recognise this and do redundancy to prescribing the exact thyroxine dose in elderly people.

Financial Causes

It has been observed in the recent expose to various old age home that the number of elderly people generally older women increases more rapidly. This has also created a huge burden on various NGOs. With further conversational and personal talk few reason have come up which describe the tidal movement of elderly toward old age home. At first this old age group count for those people who are non-educated. And in India most of the rural women who never went for education suffers from this kind of tragedy. As a matter of fact, the main population of this people is from the year ranging from 50’s to 70’s (considering Indian population). At this time the literacy rate of India is very bad. Hence the source of income for them was to either get employee as a hard labour or to do farming. As far as their good health has moved them they had taken their life on their own but when they start becoming older they become less productive as a labour and are castrated from the company or become inefficient in carrying out farming job. For serve rest of their life they move toward old age home. Moreover, it has also been evidence that their offspring’s are not willing to take care of them. The cause was as, due to low family income they are being thrown away from family, due to chronic illness which is cumbersome task from family to handle, some of them were thrown after forfeiting their property while some came by their desire, number of people with number of stories. The Indian old age home is in heavy pressure now a day.

Social Causes

Human being is a social creature. We cannot survivor without companionship. In older age when people are retiring from work generally they find people to talk in order to pass time and to share their feeling, generally in women who stay at home are mostly depend on family members in search of chat and time. But in today’s busy life people do not have much time to shear with their elderly family members; hence giving them a feeling of low esteem and ignorance. This either make them either arrogant in nature or make them socially sick. Most old men grab the hold up their friend and survive this age of ignorance but when it comes to women (Indian house wives) they have to tolerate the slaps of silence in this tormenting age of isolations. Apparentfferings of depressive symptom is a high rising state of sickness amongst elderly people, with a selective goal on the wly, most women went into depression Depression or the suell-being leading a life of happiness. Many characteristic examinations have shown that the onset of depressive like symptoms rise up with rise in age (Penninx et al., 1998). Symptoms of depression either act as indicators of psychological well-being but are also detect as significant forecasters of dynamic health and seniority. It has also been observed that increased depressive symptoms are results of daily work of life (Bruce et al., 1994). Statically data shows that depressed elderly person are at high level of mortality (Bruce et al., 1994). It was also being evidence that disorders in relation to depression may be linked with retardation in cognitive functions (Speak et al., 1995).

Loneliness can result in life-threatening health-related outcome. It is one among the three main path that direct toward depression (Green et al., 1992), and a major root of suicide attempts in elderly generally women. Loneliness is all about poor psychological maintenance, dissatisfaction with family and social groups (Hansson et al., 1986-1987).

Sociability has major part in human life as it saves humans from the remote feeling of being psychological suffering and in rise up of well-being. Rise in age, minority biracial or ethnic status, led to corrosion of socioeconomic status and destroy the goodness of social bindings and this all are contributing in lifting up depressive symptom degree (George et al., 1996). Social isolation is a prime causative agent which led to arise problem in functional aspects in older persons. Loss of close people generates a feeling of emptiness and depression. People involve in good life style tends to be found unaffected and become independent from society. Those who lack any relation generally become ignored, depressed and isolated. And the one who are grabbed under weak relation end on generating bad thought about self-characters and loss the hope of a positive changes (Hansson et al., 1994).

Keeping less social contacts and stay alone do not signify the state of loneliness (Mullins et al., 1988). In most of the case it has been seen that elderly people do not want to spend time with family and are fond of visiting neighbour, or someone of their stage of social starvation. Hence, this shows that relationship to the family can be attributed, whereas those with friends are the choice for society of their own type. Further on this signifies the need for a comprehended internal locus of control over social interaction with a motive of relieving loneliness.

Elderly people like the companion of their stage of social starvation (Steptoe et al., 2013) (House., 1994) . Hence, with outset rise in age, it is destiny that play role in the interaction of elderly with one another and it’s difficult to find a friend zone of same mentality. Nevertheless, the one with wealthy enough from body, bills and brain content also have more social “capital, “and this make them dynamic in order to search for a perfect friend zone.

Genetical Causes

As per the Genetic programs in cell females have longer duration of life than males in many species which involves humans too. And this was proven by taking the mitochondrial theory of aging in to consideration. The female’s cell mitochondria are genetically adapted to synthesize significantly low amount of hydrogen peroxide than those from males. Not only this they have larger degree of mitochondrial diminished manganese superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidise and glutathione than males. Moreover, the oxidative damage to mitochondrial DNA is much lesser in female than males because of estrogen content effect on both types of cell. Ovariectomy gets rid of the gender differences and estrogen substitute delivers the ovariectomy effect. The further challenging studies can be performed to seek those molecules which are responsible for merit effects of estradiol, but eliminating its feminizing transformation character. The further studies could be done on Phytoestrogens or phytoestrogen-related molecules in order to explore this aging character (Viña et al., 2003).

It has also been proven that women have more of adipose tissue content than men which mostly carriers fats. As a matter of fact, fats are second major preference in consumption of energy. Nature has program the female body such that it has reserve sources of energy in order to utilise it on critical situation. Moreover, women body has an energy saving efficiency in case to carry out work similar as men. This efficiency must be the evolution in order to serve the women body at the time of pregnancy.

Furthermore, the heart size of average men is larger as compare to an average woman. This tends to lower down the metabolic pathway stress which was generated by heart pumping. Men heart pumping is more active than women which generate high pressure movement off blood leading to fasten metabolic pathway and stress on cell. But this situation is less in case of women. Hence by concerning the wear and tear theory of aging (Jin et al., 2010), more you give stress on system the sooner it will retard.

CONCLUSION

Women’s life went through various level of stress that let their body degeneration and more reachable toward motility, if proper care not taken. This study will help in understanding various aspect of aging in women. Moreover, it describes various perspectives which women generally ignored to maintain good health. Mostly women are unaware of the causes that will degrade their body. And second the improper sources of information which led to fail in practice. Keeping track of this data and its information will clear the topic of concern regarding women aging. This will contribute in a solid portal to seek a wide range of information in order to attain a successful aging. Need of the hour is to disseminate the information on large scale to create awareness among all about the relationship of time with their body and age.

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Details

Seiten
11
Jahr
2020
ISBN (eBook)
9783346212580
Sprache
Englisch
Katalognummer
v910044
Note
Schlagworte
aging causes women

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    IDSAsr Study (Autor)

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Titel: The Causes of Aging in Women