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National Policy on Immunization in Nigeria

A short Overview

Einsendeaufgabe 2019 8 Seiten

Politik - Internationale Politik - Thema: Sonstiges

Leseprobe

Inhalt

Introduction

National immunization policy

Goals of Vaccination policies

Compulsory vaccination

National policy on Immunization in Nigeria

Factors Affecting Routine Immunization in Nigeria

Conclusion

Reference

Introduction

Vaccination policy refers to the health policy a government adopts in relation to vaccination. Vaccination policies are built with the purpose of eradicating disease from, or creating a herd immunity for the population the government aims to protect. Vaccinations are voluntary in some countries and mandatory in others, with mandatory vaccination policies sparking opposition. Some governments pay for all or part of the costs of vaccinations in a national vaccination schedule. Cost-benefit analyses of vaccinations have shown that there is an economic incentive to implement vaccination policies as vaccinations can save a significant number of lives and costs.

National immunization policy

A national immunization program (NIP) is the organizational component of Ministries of Health charged with preventing disease, disability, and death from vaccine-preventable diseases in children and adults. A NIP is a government program that operates within the framework of overall health policy. The national immunization program is used interchangeably with the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) that originally focused on preventing vaccine- preventable diseases in children. All countries have a national immunization program to protect the population against vaccine-preventable diseases.

Goals of Vaccination policies

Vaccination policies aim to produce immunity to preventable diseases. Besides individual protection from getting ill, some vaccination policies also aim to provide the community as a whole with herd immunity. Herd immunity refers to the idea that the pathogen will have trouble spreading when a significant part of the population has immunity against it. This protects those unable to get the vaccine due to medical conditions, such as immune disorders. However, in order for herd immunity to be effective in a population, a majority of those that are vaccine-eligible must be vaccinated (Hendrix, 2016). Vaccine-preventable diseases remain a common cause of childhood mortality with an estimated three million deaths each year (Obasi, 2018). Each year, vaccination prevents between two and three million deaths worldwide, across all age groups, from diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis and measles (UNICEF, 2014).

Compulsory vaccination

At various times governments and other institutions have established policies requiring vaccination, with the aim of reducing the risk of disease. For example, an 1853 law required universal vaccination against smallpox in England and Wales, with fines levied on people who did not comply. In the United States, the Supreme Court ruled in Jacobson v. Massachusetts (1905) that states have the authority to require vaccination against smallpox during a smallpox epidemic (Mariner, 2005). All 50 U.S states require that children be vaccinated in order to attend public school; although 47 states provide exemptions based on religious or philosophical beliefs. A few other countries also follow this practice. Compulsory vaccination greatly reduces infection rates for associated diseases. These policies stirred resistance from a variety of groups, collectively called anti-vaccinationists, who objected on ethical, political, medical safety, religious, and other grounds. Other reasons including that socioeconomic disparities and being an ethnic minority can prevent reasonable access to vaccinations. Common objections included the argument that governments should not infringe on an individual's freedom to make medical decisions for themselves or their children, or claims that proposed vaccinations were dangerous. Many modern vaccination policies allow exemptions for people with compromised immune systems, allergies to vaccination components, or strongly held objections. It has also been argued that for vaccination to effectively prevent disease, there must not only be available vaccines and a population willing to immunize, but also sufficient ability to decline vaccination on grounds of personal belief. In 1904 in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, following an urban renewal program that displaced many poor, a government program of mandatory smallpox vaccination triggered the Vaccine Revolt, several days of rioting with considerable property damage and a number of deaths (Meade, 2009). Compulsory vaccination is a difficult policy issue, requiring authorities to balance public health with individual liberty. An ethical dilemma emerges when health care providers attempt to persuade vaccine-hesitant families towards receiving vaccinations as this persuasion may lead to violating their autonomy. Investigation of different types of vaccination policy finds strong evidence that standing orders and allowing healthcare workers without prescription authority (such as nurses) to administer vaccines in defined circumstances increases vaccination rates, and sufficient evidence that requiring vaccinations before attending child care and school also does so. However, there is insufficient evidence to assess effectiveness of requiring vaccinations as a condition for hospital and other healthcare jobs. Many countries, including Canada, Germany, Japan, and the United States have specific requirements for reporting vaccine-related adverse effects, while other countries including Australia, France, and the United Kingdom include vaccines under their general requirements for reporting injuries associated with medical treatments. A number of countries have both compulsory vaccination and national programs for the compensation of injuries alleged to have been caused by a vaccination (Abramson, 2019). Vaccination is unique among de facto mandatory requirements in the modern era, requiring individuals to accept the injection of a medicine or medicinal agent into their bodies, and it has provoked a spirited opposition. This opposition began with the first vaccinations, has not ceased, and probably never will. From this realization arises a difficult issue: how should the mainstream medical authorities approach the anti-vaccination movement? A passive reaction could be construed as endangering the health of society, whereas a heavy-handed approach can threaten the values of individual liberty and freedom of expression that we cherish.

National policy on Immunization in Nigeria

At the end of 2011, Nigeria was estimated to have a population of 167 million (NPC, 2009). The Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI), introduced in 1978 with the aim of providing routine immunization to children less than the age of two years, recorded initial but intermittent successes. The optimum level was recorded by the early 1990s with the country achieving a universal childhood immunization coverage of 81.5%. But since that period of success, Nigeria has witnessed gradual but consistent reduction in immunization coverage. By 1996, the national data showed less than 30% coverage for all antigens, and this decreased to 12.9% 2003. This figure which is consistent with the 2003 (Babalola, 2004), national immunization coverage survey figures is among the lowest in the world and explains the poor health status of children in the country. It is the worst in the West African sub region, only better than Sierra Leone. For instance, the polio epidemic in Nigeria is the worst in the African region and constitutes threat to other nations. (Green, 2004). The vision of EPI in Nigeria is to improve the health of Nigerian children by eradicating all the six killer diseases, which are polio, measles, diphtheria, whooping cough, tuberculosis, and yellow fever. In an effort to enhance the effectiveness of the program and to meet the global challenges of immunization, the EPI was restructured and was renamed National Program on Immunization (NPI) in 1997. Following the Federal Government Health Sector Reform, NPI was merged with the National Primary Health Care Development Agency (NPHCDA) in May 2007. The mandate of the NPHCDA is to protect children from vaccine preventable diseases through the provision of vaccines, devices and technical to the subnational levels. An Interagency Coordination Committee (ICC) for Immunization was constituted in July 2004. The ICC is the forum for regular information sharing and networking amongst major stakeholders to ensure synergy and complementarity. The Honorable Minister of Health chairs while NPHCDA is the secretariat. Members include the Honorable Minister of State, the Federal Ministry of Health, and representatives from NPHCDA and development partners The Government of Nigeria and partners have persevered to making sure the program is strengthened. Immunization plus Days were introduced to ensure Polio is eradicated and routine immunization is strengthened. Country Multi-year plans (cMYP) came on board in 2009 to guide better planning. Trainings for service providers and mid-level management (MLM) training were carried out albeit inconclusive. National immunization policy has been revised, cold chain expanded and new vaccines introduced. Furthermore the need to put the program on the front burner of the socio-political agenda of government necessitated the convening of the national vaccine summit in April 2012 and the recent launching of the saving a million lives project which will inject savings from the petroleum subsidy removal into the program.

Factors Affecting Routine Immunization in Nigeria

1. Misperceptions of routine immunization
2. Influence of religion
3. Inadequate cold chain equipment
4. Political problems
5. Rejection of routine immunization
6. Shortage of vaccines and immunization supplies

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Details

Seiten
8
Jahr
2019
ISBN (eBook)
9783346333971
Sprache
Englisch
Katalognummer
v975385
Institution / Hochschule
Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto
Note
Nil
Schlagworte
national policy immunization nigeria overview

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Titel: National Policy on Immunization in Nigeria