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A Critical Discourse Analysis Employed by Donald Trump Tweets Addressing the Mexico's Crisis

Akademische Arbeit 2021 28 Seiten

Politik - Internationale Politik - Region: USA



This current study investigate the ethnicity of the tweets written by Donald Trump on his official Twitter account concerning the Mexico crisis. The aims of this paper to investigate the ethnicity of Donald Trump Tweets addressing the Mexico crisis . The descriptive qualitative design utilized to analyse the data . The 50 tweets selected in this study analyses in terms of the ideology by utilising the evaluation form designed based on the conceptual framework of Critical Discourse Analysis theory Van Dijk’s . The duration of collecting the data from 4th February 2017 until 20th July 2019. Meanwhile , the theory utilized is Teun A. van Dijk’s critical discourse analysis . The data of the study takes from Donald Trump official account realdonaldtrump@. The results of the study demonstrate that the ideology of attacking Middle East countries and Islam has inflicted a lot of interests from many parties as this issue is considered sensitive and always been a target of racism among Americans.

Keywords: CDA, Twitter, Mexico crisis, Donald Trump, Van Dijk’s theory, ethnecity


Communication is constantly occurring in society. In the case of public correspondence. Sharing knowledge in addition to exchanging personal and global news depends upon the existence of the World Wide Web. Different kinds of knowledge and interaction advantages were offered and produced by this world electronic web that makes it easy for humans globally to contact without taking into consideration the time and human-made borders between the countries of the world through linked networks using formal interaction measures. Internet can take various shapes like searching engines, social media, or cyberspace. One of the most easily used and common kinds of Internet is social media which is used for various purposes. The fundamental reason behind creating social media, as appears in its name, is its social function, which was established by computer designers who after a while turned to be so rich, to get a tremendous amount of money and to enter the business world from a wide door. Talking about the services social media provides, it is worthy to mention, on one hand, the space of freedom it gave. Anyone can write and post whatever they think, watch or face on Facebook or Twitter if these posts are not harmful to people. On the other hand, social media can be described as a double-edged sword because evil people can use it to spread hatred, negativity, and dangerous ideology. It can be used for hurting people bullying and targeting racism and radicalism. Moreover, impolite Tweets are high to be seen and shared on Twitter. It is because Twitter becomes one of the social media, which aims to express and write our feelings and thoughts to the public freely where no one controls and limits the freedom of expression in using it (Anton, 2013; alakrash et al. 2020; Alakrash &Bustan 2020; Elaf & Hussien 2020; Bustan & Alakrash 2020).

2. ethncity

ethenicity is the aspect that has been analyzed in this study to look at the reasoning of intertextuality and the meaning behind Trump’s Tweets. Marx considered that ideology was nothing but “false ideas” produced by the dominant class to maintain the status of the subjected working class. Dijk considers that ideologies are “the fundamental beliefs of a group and its members” (2003). They play an important role in shaping group members’ interpretations of events and accordingly, give ground for social practices. By carrying out activities inspired by an ideology, a sense of self-awareness is developed by those who share the same beliefs. Ideology helps to draw a line between us and the “other”. This line has been established by Trump through the use of language in his tweets. The term “they/their” as the third person pronoun is the common word used by Trump to differentiate another group that does not belong in his group. In this context, ‘other’ groups are referred to as Middle East countries and the US congress or Democrat.

Politicians have long resorted to anti-immigrant rhetoric to appeal to their bases and reinforce shared conceptions of the American identity, but few have used such brazen, inflammatory, and hyperbolic language as Donald Trump has used. Through his writing in Twitter, it is known that his base has widely embraced his style of “telling it like it is” or in a simple word, “telling the truth” even when that has a double meaning and subsequently meant constructing an image of criminality and threat in association with a population that by and large has not earned the distinction. Based on the previous studies on the effects of increased immigrant concentration on crime rates (McDonald, Hipp, and Gil, 2013; Ousey and Kubrin, 2014; Sampson, 2008) refute the notion that immigrants can fairly be associated with criminality. However, Trump and other politicians still make sweeping statements that directly or metaphorically construct the immigrant as an image of a threat to the United States and its citizens.

The use of language, verbal association, and correspondence have a place with a smaller scale level of the social request. Force, strength, and imbalance between social gatherings are ordinarily terms that have a place with a large scale level of investigation. This implies CDA needs to hypothetically connect the notable 'gap' among micro and macro approach, which is a qualification that is sociologically developed in its right (Alexander et al. 1987; Knorr-Cetina and Cicoural 1981). In everyday interaction and experience the macro and micro level (and intermediary ‘Meso levels’) form one unified whole. For example, a supremacist speech in parliament is a talk at a small scale level of social collaboration in the particular circumstance of a discussion and yet may establish or be a constituent piece of enactment or the generation of bigotry at the macro level.

There are several ways to analyze and bridge these levels, and thus arrive at a unified critical analysis:

a) Member-groups: Language users that engage in discourse as members of (several) social groups, organizations, or institutions, and conversely, groups thus may act ‘by’ their members.
b) Action-process: Social acts of individual thespians which are a constituent part of group actions and social processes, such as legislation, news-making, or the reproduction of racism.
c) Context-social structure: A press conference is an organization of the media institutions in which discursive interaction is similarly part or constitutive of social structure. It is categorized in a local and global context that exercises constraints on communication and are closely similar to each other.
d) Personal and social cognition: language users as social entertainers have both individual and social comprehension: individual recollections, information, and suppositions, just as those common with individuals from the gathering and culture. The two sorts of discernment impact cooperation and talk of individual individuals, though shared 'social portrayals' administer the aggregate activities of a gathering.

Fairclough (1989)builts up a three-dimensional rule for contemplating talk. His point to outline particular types of examination onto each other: an investigation of (spoken or composed) language writings, investigation of talk practice (procedures of content creation, dispersion, and utilization), and investigation of verbose occasions as instances of sociocultural practice. In particular, he join a miniaturized scale, meso and large scale level translations. At the small scale level, the examiner is worried about the content's sentence structure, figurative structure, and certain expository gadgets. The meso-level involved considering the content's creation and utilization, focusing on how power relations are established. At the full-scale level, the expert considers intertextual connections, attempting to comprehend the wide, cultural flows that are affecting the content being examined. As such the technique utilized here includes uncovering the political and ideological contemplations through analyzing how the etymological methods and explicit setting subordinate semantic acknowledge are shown at a smaller scale, meso, and large scale levels.

As for the micro-level, Fairclough (1995a) claims writings can utilize lexical decisions to demonstrate the level of power and co-participation with the crowd. Creators will frequently look to impact us through cases of having control over us. They will utilize explicit, official-sounding terms that help to pass on power. As to this level, the 38 reports of IAEA chief General are examined to represent the methodology through which the lexical highlights of Negation and Repetition were utilized to convey the aims implanted in etymological portrayals. Henceforth the quantity of negative just as rehashed words and sentences by methods for required programming is tallied. Additionally, the report makers' allegorical structure of the writings is examined to represent the proposed fantasies and hallucinations used to direct position. As indicated by Fairclough (1992) CDA is an endeavor to compensate for the absence of improvement of the idea of the connection between language, force, and philosophy, and records for the way toward uncovering those political and ideological ventures. Additionally, Van Dijk (1993) believes that CDA is an endeavor to uncover the social relations of intensity which exist in writings both unequivocally and certainly. A basic way to deal with talk is attempting to find the connections between the content (miniaturized scale level) and the veiled force structures in the public arena (full-scale sociocultural practice level) by methods for rambling practices dependent on which the content was created (Meso level) (Thompson, 2002). At the end of the day, a book, a record of something that is occurring in a bigger social setting copious with a mind-boggling set of intensity relations, is deciphered and prompted by perusers or audience members relying upon the standards, standards, and mental models of the general public they live in. By differentiating and examining the language utilized in these 38 reports an endeavor is made to divulge such rambling techniques of argumentation and influence some of which are unequivocally verbalized and others verifiably. At the large scale level, explore in CDA has been fundamentally worried about the enticing impact of intensity, an origination of intensity related with Gramsci (1971), whose idea of authority portrays the routes through which predominant gatherings in the public arena prevail with regards to convincing subordinate gatherings to acknowledge the previous' own good, political and social qualities, and establishments. Through ethnographic data and breaking down the intertextual relationship of the reports it is talked about how the idea of authority is polished all through these reports.

Previous Studies

The most evident demonstration of obstruction has been noted in concentrates on the Middle East (Hakam, 2009; Mazid, 2008) during the Prophet Muhammad's animation contention in 2006. Jamila Hakam's investigation (2009) of Arab English-language papers utilizes Mills' (1995) idea of 'signs of association' and the relevant semantic worldview of Critical Discourse Analysis to uncover the cognizant choice of reports that signal Muslim/Arab connection. In a more subtle presentation of obstruction, these papers were likewise especially specific in picking articles from European papers 'that can be tempered or accommodated in intertextual ways with Arab and Muslim belief systems' (Hakam, 2009). Hakam's research is significant because it studies the arrangements in the discourse, representing that individuals do intentionally oppose recognizable philosophies and will do as such through media and door keeping. A one-sided and negative depiction of the 'other' and control of explicit assessment of occasions are likewise found in Mazid's (2008) similar work on political animation strips created by the West and the Middle East. His investigation takes a gander at both the visual anThe literary with semi on-semantic highlights utilizing practical language structure. The discoveries reflect how one-sided revealing and accentuation on the 'negative other' are the standards in papers in the Middle East, driving Mazid to reason that the animation contention 'exemplifies the battle for command over talk in that the discussion isn't unmistakably about something besides the degree and cutoff points of the opportunity of articulation. According to Evre and Parlak's (2008) investigation of Turkish papers' inclusion of Muslims' response to Denmark's distributed personifications of the Prophet Muhammad, uncovers that 'beneficial things' are credited to Islam and 'awful things' toward the West. The analysts call it 'the media tip top's impression of the West at a particular second' (2008). The examination additionally shows how the papers depicted Muslims as casualties and taught the perusers to oppose the West (utilizing financial blacklist). The examination presumes that the papers' one-sided revealing guaranteed that Turkey is developed as an 'incomparable subject' (2008) and a pioneer of other Islamic nations as a result of its one of a kind situation of being Islamic and having Western qualities. Diversion and joke are likewise seen as instruments used to speak to the 'next' in a basic and interdisciplinary investigation on social segregation of the British and the Brazilians by Caldas-Coulthard (2003) entitled 'Culturally diverse Representation of 'Otherness'. The investigation utilizes a multidisciplinary approach, consolidating the strategy for naming, corpus etymology, and evaluation hypothesis as methodological instruments to look at how the British press and the Brazilian press expound on one another 'from two altogether different points of the views through content and pictures.Caldas-Coulthard utilizes the term 'recontextualizing' to signify 'one composes or talks about any social practice' (Caldas Coulthard, 2003) outside their training that may bring about review each other in 'various and forceful manners' (2003).



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Titel: A Critical Discourse Analysis Employed by Donald Trump Tweets Addressing the Mexico's Crisis